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BY JOHN HAYS HAMMOND, JR. TODAY the ocean does not sepa

strong entrenched foothold upon any rate us from the other conti Jr. Hammond, whose father is a min part of our coast is the factor of the nents, but rather it joins us to ing engineer and publicist of world length of time required for us to con

them, forming a high road for vide experience, is the inrentor of a centrate at that point sufficient men invasion over which troops can move coast defense torpedo controlled by and artillery to arrest the landing opthirty times faster than over land.

wireless energy from the shore, and erations. Our five thousand odd miles of coast a member of the adrisory board to the While this matter would have great line present a great vulnerable stretch t. 8. Yaral Board of Inrentors. importance to the heavy artillery on of territory protected only by the ex

railroad trucks, and on motor drawn istence of a fleet now third among

caterpillar wheels, tho situated away those of the powers. The distance of The operation of the aerial coastal from the fire of the ships, the matter our coast line from the enemy's ter- patrol as planned by me in June, 1915, of the time of arrival would have a ritory should not be measured as the was a system to warn our land forces special significance to those troops meetbreadth of the Atlantic or Pacific, for of the operations made by the enemy ing the enemy at close range with mano nation would attempt operations for the purpose of landing troops. chine guns. It would be necessary for with such extended lines of communica

these troops to choose such protected tion. Hawaii in the Pacific or some of Tomeet suddenly an enemy's landing positions as to be safeguarded from the form the stepping stone of the invasion. essary that we have forces of a specific ing forces, and therefore they would deFrom these points, once secured, the character and of defensive ability to sire to entrench themselves as strongly enemy would approach our shores, counter him. With the first signals from as possible. screening the purpose of his movements an aeroplane warning of landing op To bring these necessary forces to with swift cruisers and scouts and by erations at a given point, preparation the scene of the enemy's landing there sweeping before him our scouting planes could be made to send by railroad to should be a number of points of mowith battle planes accompanying the that point special high angle fire artil- bilization for men and guns, and these fleet.

lery mounted on railroad trucks. This points should be situated at certain inThe purpose of the invader's forces artillery, situated at a predetermined tervals along the coast, so as to be as is not to bombard our coast towns, nor distance from the point of landing, nearly equidistant as possible from the to carry out any useless raiding ex- would deliver great bursts of shrapnel various feasible landing places in their peditions, but it is to meet our fleet over the landing parties of the enemy. zone. Thus, each center of mobilization under such circumstances as are most Supported by this fire and in direct could tell to the minute how rapidly it favorable to him. Thanks to the coast vision of the landing forces, there could concentrate its force at any point. defenses, the important coastal cities should be companies of machine guns Forewarned, as the land forces would are self-protecting and the United that have been carried to the scene of be by the broadly scattered coastal paStates fleet is allowed a complete mo- action, either by armored motor cars or trol, it would be possible for them albility. It would not be long therefore specially constructed motorcycles. Each most always to anticipate the landings before the opposing naval forces met to machine gun is supposed to be the of the enemy, and prevent the landing dispute the mastery of the seas. At this equivalent in firing value of fifty rifles. of any appreciable force. great moment, millions would be voted The effect of landing operations against Certain people have imagined that a in Washington for the construction of shrapnel shot from 12-inch mortars, system of aerial coastal patrol was an new battleships!

and against the deadly fire of en endeavor to suppiant certain functions If we should win, the war would trenched machine guns, would be prac- of the navy. This is not the case, for probably be over; should we lose, the tical annihilation for the landing forces. the navy, using hydroaeroplanes operatwar would have just begun. The frag At this time a general concentration ing from ships, would form the first ments of our beaten fleet would be of the aeroplanes patrolling the coast line of patrols. These patrols would be driven back upon their bases, where could be made at the point of landing. feeling for the enemy in the first stages they would be blockaded and muzzled This concentration would be for the of the invasion. After a definite fleet like the Russians at Port Arthur. Once purpose of overpowering the enemy's action had taken place, the system of the seas

were cleared, the enemy's air craft and thereby prohibiting him coastal patrol would unquestionably transports would put to sea, and it is from knowing the extent of our rein- prove a tremendous factor in the nathen that the great system of an aerial forcements. The chief factor in pro- tional defense. coastal patrol would begin to function. hibiting the enemy from obtaining a New York City

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E. Muller, Jr.
Somewhere off the coast of Francea characteristic sample of our mobilized war forces already in action on the other side

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Underwood & Underwood

JACK At Harvard in Massachusetts, at Dunwoody in Michigan and at Newport News are the big training schools where naval reservists are graduated in a few months with a general knowledge of seamanship and specialized training in some one department of the navy

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The observation balloon isn't quite as exciting to go Pin as an aero. plane but don't imagine that it's easy. When a bali Toon is attached to the fighting mast of a skip it pitches and tosses and SIGYS 80 that it takes an obserrer a long time to get accustomed to the motion—eren tho he may be a good sailor. The men belosc are operating

of the big range finders which are rery important factors in good marksmanship. That distances on the water are very deceptite and strong sunlight often very dazzling are facts that should add just a bit to our admiration for the nary-if it needs to be added to. And good gunnery isn't the only good thing about the United States Navy!

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That target might have been the wriwipe of a nuly marine and when yn are thosting at submarinos Juurt


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