The Greening of World Trade: A Report to EPA
National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (U.S.). Trade and Environment Committee
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of the Administrator, 1993 - 240 страница
A report to EPA from the Trade and Environment Committee of the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology.
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action adopted agreement allow Amendment apply areas Article authority CFCs Committee Community concerns conservation consideration containers contracting parties Convention costs Council Court decisions developing countries differences discussion dispute settlement domestic economic effect environmental policy environmental protection environmental standards established European example exceptions Executive existing export foreign free trade GATT global governments Group harmonization impact implementation important increased industrializing countries industry Institute international agreements international environmental international trade interpretation issues legislation limited measures Montreal Protocol multilateral natural resources necessary negotiations objectives obligations organizations ozone panel participation pollution potential practice principle problems procedures proposed Protocol provisions question reduce regulations relating representatives requirements resolution restrictions result risk rules scientific significant soft drinks species standards subsidies substances supra note sustainable Tariffs trade agreements trade and environment treaty United World
Страница 133 - Subject to the requirement that such measures are not applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between countries where the same conditions prevail, or a disguised restriction on international trade...
Страница 88 - Agreement shall be construed to prevent the adoption or enforcement by any contracting party of measures... (b) necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health... (g) relating to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources if such measures are made effective in conjunction with restrictions on domestic production or consumption ..." 7 The text of Article 2 SPS Agreement states in relevant part: 1.
Страница 173 - Treaty has not provided the necessary powers, the Council shall, acting unanimously on a proposal from the Commission and after consulting the European Parliament, take the appropriate measures".
Страница 165 - The provisions of Articles 28 and 29 shall not preclude prohibitions or restrictions on imports, exports or goods in transit justified on grounds of public morality, public policy or public security; the protection of health and life of humans, animals or plants; the protection of national treasures possessing artistic, historic or archaeological value; or the protection of industrial and commercial property. Such prohibitions or restrictions shall not, however, constitute a means of arbitrary discrimination...
Страница 173 - Community policy on the environment shall aim at a high level of protection taking into account the diversity of situations in the various regions of the Community. It shall be based on the precautionary principle and on the principles that preventive action should be taken, that environmental damage should as a priority be rectified at source and that the polluter should pay.
Страница 15 - Competitiveness is the degree to which a nation can, under free and fair market conditions, produce goods and services that meet the test of international markets while simultaneously maintaining or expanding the real incomes of its citizens.
Страница 173 - The Community shall take action relating to the environment to the extent to which the objectives referred to in paragraph I can be attained better at Community level than at the level of the individual Member States.
Страница 201 - Particularly relevant for environmental protection have been: • subsection (b) which provides an exception for measures necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health, and • subsection (g) which provides an exception for measures relating to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources if such measures are made effective in conjunction with restrictions on domestic production or consumption.
Страница 87 - Differing national environmental policies, for example with regard to the tolerable amount of pollution and to quality and emission standards, are justified by a variety of factors including among other things different pollution assimilative capacities of the environment in its present state, different social objectives and priorities attached to environmental protection and different degrees of industrialization and population density.