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SAM'S war aims, and being “really and truly” an American expert, having once visited America as assistant to Dr. Dernburg three years ago, knows American opinion and sentiments which he announces in an interesting letter, wherein the terror of the Germans of every class, respecting American possible employment of economic retaliation and its effects are forcibly presented. The Professor writes:
“The question now is whether President Wilson has become a convert to force, and whether he and his people are pursuing a policy of conquest. Or is he still trying to reach his old aims by new means ? For, if he is going to throw a million American warriors upon the battle-field, he must accept the principle that the sword is mightier than the mind—and this at a time when the idea of a peace by agreement is rising in all parts of the world.
“It is not probable that Professor Wilson will complete this departure from his principles if he finds a way out. If he is aiming at the overthrow of Germany, that doesn't necessarily mean that this overthrow must be produced at a given moment by the participation of an American army of a million—if he thinks that he has other serviceable weapons at his disposal, such as the blockade of the neutrals and the future world-trade blockade.
“If Wilson is right in thinking that by cutting off the supplies of commodities from overseas the future recovery of Germany can be made impossible, he need not renounce his pacifist past in spite of his participation in the war. For he could thus cancel the Germany victory on all the battle-fields. He could even cancel by this means the smashing of England, if England were to be smashed. We are consequently faced by a political problem which can not be solved by arms.”
Uncle Sam Vindicated.
No, UNCLE SAM will do nothing of the kind. And yet UNCLE SAM is actually and intends to be a WORLD POWER for the good of the world. The war-aim and peace-aim, and object and disposition and sentiment and ambition—solely, purely, benignantly—are enveloped and expressed in the following 1m Otto S :
GOVERNMENT BY THE CONSENT OF THE GOVERNED or Self-Determination.
PROTECTION OF THE WEAK AGAINST THE ENCROACH OF THE STRONG.
Elucidating these democratic principles and pronouncing their application and enforcement, President Wilson said:
“The peace of the world depends upon the just settlement of each of the several problems which I advocated in my recent address to the Congress. “I, of course, do not mean that the peace of the world depends upon the acceptance of any particular set of suggestions as to the way in which those problems are to be dealth with.” And, speaking of durable peace, the President says: “It cannot be pieced together out of individual understandings between powerful States. All the parties of this war must join in the settlement of every issue anywhere involved in it; because what we are seeking is a peace that we can all unite to guarantee and maintain, and every item of it must be submitted to the common judgment, whether it be right and fair, an act of justice rather than a bargain between sovereigns. “Our whole strength will be put into this war of emancipation —emancipation from the threats and attempted mastery of selfish groups of autocratic rulers, whatever the difficulties and present partial delays. “We are indomitable in our power of independent action and can in no circumstances consent to live in a world governed by intrigue and force. We believe that our own desire for a new international order where reason and justice and the common interests of mankind shall prevail is the desire of enlightened men everywhere. “Without that new order the world itself will be without peace and human life will lack tolerable conditions of existence and development. * * * I have spoken thus only that the whole world may know the true spirit of America, that men everywhere may know that our passion for justice and self-government is no mere passion of words, but a passion which, once set in action, must be satisfied.”
“I am not going to spill a drop of Swedish blood on these Norwegians. It is better to have a friendly neighbor than to have a dissatisfied and quarrelsome partner.”
The Democracy of the North.
UNCLE SAM is neither too big nor too proud to recognize and to extend the hand of fellowship to a small republic, the democracy of Scandinavia.
The three countries, Sweden, Norway and Denmark, are situated in a corner of the world, as it were; hidden from view by the large and prominent kingdoms, hence the world at large does not notice what is going on in this more obscure corner.
In the settlement of the Napoleon I conquests and failures in Europe, Sweden and Norway were united into a Kingdom under the Swedish Crown Prince Charles Johan Bonaparte, adopting for his reign the name of Charles XIV. The Norwegians were never quite satisfied to be under a Swedish king, though they had their own constitution and legislature, exactly as the states have in the United States of America. The king had veto power, but the legislature or “Storthing” could pass enactments over the king's Veto.
Dissolution of the Scandinavian Union.
The union was established in 1818 and dissolved in 1905. The Norwegians seceded and the Storthing declared the election of a king for Norway, resulting in the election of a Danish prince.
The remarkable thing about this is the circumstance that no coercion was even attempted by Oscar the II, the Swedish king. Sweden has more than twice the population of Norway, could therefore have good prospects to subdue the rebellious neighbor and make him behave himself, but not so the noble godly King Oscar. When someone suggested coercion, King Oscar answered: “No, my friend, I would not spill a drop of Swedish blood on these Norwegians. It is better to have a contented neighbor than a quarrelsome, dissatisfied partner.”
This is the result of true Christianity, applied in actual practice. And it is a great satisfaction to record the circumstance that the royal family of Sweden has been and is religious, not only outwardly but at heart, participating in missionary and charitable work.
The pressure of the world war has had its effect also in this corner of the world. The three Scandinavian countries endeavored to maintain neutrality, but were severely pressed by both ‘the Entente and the Central powers, both in matters of exchange of commodities and in direct participation. All three felt a need of some kind of an understanding for mutual protection.
Consulting his ministers, the Swedish King Gustavus V invited King Christian of Denmark to meet in the Norwegian Capital, Christiania, for a conference, November 28, 1917, which was accepted. And that date will appear in Scandinavian history and in the world history as a day of commemoration. For if the Swedish King, Gustavus, had invited the other two kings, Christian and