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tion. Butif Mr. English means, that the original nny signifies not this kind of destruction, but some other kind, he is plainly in an errour. The parallelism of the passage requires us to render it, the corruption of the grave. "Thou wilt not leave my soul in Hades, [ws the place of the departed,] nor suffer thy holy one to see corruption." What sort of destruction is that, which is experienced in the place of the departed? Doubtless the corruption of the grave. This is confirmed by the use of the same word лn in other places.-"They draw near unto the gates of death-he sent his word, and delivered them from their destructions."*-Again,-"therefore," says Daniel, "I was left alone, and saw this great vision, and there remained no strength in me, for my comeliness was turned in me, into corruption, and I retained no strength." It is plain that in the first of these passages the destruction intended is that which is found within the gates of death; and in the second, that Daniel com-, pares the prostration of his faculties and strength, in consequence of the vision, to the effect of dissolution. Nay, so preeminent is the corruption of the grave among the significations of the original word nnw, that it has come to mean sometimes simply a pit or grave, as in Prov. xxviii. 10.

The second mistake, which Mr. English charges upon the apostle, is the quoting of the † Daniel x. 8:

• Pslm cvii. 18-20.


psalm "thy holy one," in the singular, instead of thy holy ones," or saints, in the plural. It is a mild term to say, that this charge is a piece of intolerable dogmatism. True it is indeed, that our present printed Hebrew Bibles read "thy holy ones," in the_plural,* and this is all that authorizes Mr. English's assertion. While he conceals from his reader, that two hundred and sixty manuscripts of the Old Testament, collated by Kennicott and de Rossi, many of them the most ancient extant, forty-two printed editions of the scriptures, together with five editions of the Babylonian Talmud, in two several citations, the Midrash Tehillim, Jalkuth Simeoni, and other Jewish books, the Septuagint, the Chaldee paraphrast, the Syriack, the Vulgate, and the Arabick versions all read with St. Peter,THY HOLY ONE,in the singular number. Moreover, in our present printed copies the text is pointed in the singular number, that is, a sheva precedes the jod, and many manuscript and printed copies, and that of Van der Hooght among them, have a marginal note, that the jod, (in which the plurality consists,) is redundant; and "very many," says De Rossi, "have a keri,or marginal reading of, in the singular." This eminent collator of manuscripts closes his list of some distinguished criticks with these words, "all these authors

* See upon this text Kennicott's Dissert. Gen. § xvii. and xxxv. and De Rossi Var. Lect. Vet. Test. tom. iv. in loc.

I have added the Arabick to the versions, upon the authority of Eichhorn Einleitung ins. A. T. Th. p. 512.

Vid. Grotium in loc.

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rightly rejecting the masoretick reading, adhere to the defective [that is, the omission of the ] singular form, which so many copies, manuscript and printed, demand, and which the context itself, referring to one person, the Messiah, requires.”* Michaelis, in speaking of the reading of a manuscript collated by Lichtenstein, which is on" thy holy one," declares it a new confirmation of this reading, now almost incontestible;† and in another place decides, that "this important reading is now so well established, that it may be considered certain.”‡


I cannot reconcile to my sense of honourand fairness the absolute omission of facts like these-especially while charging a mistake of the scriptures on a most solemn occasion, to men like Peter and Paul.

The next application of prophecy, to which Mr. English objects, is that by Peter, Acts iv.. 25, who quotes the words of the second psalm "Why did the heathen rage, and the people imagine vain things? The kings of the earth stood up, and the rulers were gathered together, against the Lord and his Messiah." To these words Peter, in a most rational and intelligent manner subjoins: "for of a truth against thy holy child Jesus, whom thou hast anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with

* "Qui omnes auctores, recte repudiatâ masorethicâ lectione, defectivæ et singulari adhærent quam tot codices et editiones confirmant, contextusque ipse requirit, ubi de uno, Messia, agitur." Var. Lect. Vet. Test. iv. p. 10.

† Michaelis Oriental. und exeg. Bib. t. xi. p. 69. Ibid. t. i. p. 179.

the Gentiles and the people of Israel were gathered together." To this application Mr. English objects, 1. that the "nations," as it is in the original, ❝did not assemble to crucify Jesus, as this was done by a few soldiers." But the apostle does not say they assembled to crucify' him; their joint opposition was not limited to this single act; they were gathered together against him. And it is certainly true that Jesus was an object of the united persecution of the nation of the Jews, by means of their bigotted priests and furious multitudes, and of the nation of the Romans, by means of their tributary sovereign Herod, and their proconsul Pilate. 2. It is objected, "that the kings of the earth had no hand in the crucifixion; they knew nothing about it." But it certainly was done by the agent of the Roman emperor, the sovereign of the earth, and Mr. English knows better than I whether it be not a maxim of the law, "qui facit per alium facit per se." 3. It is objected that "they who were concerned did by no means form 'vain designs,' since they effected their cruel purpose." But their design was not simply to cut off Jesus, but to crush his doctrine; and Mr. English will therefore own upon reconsideration, that their design was vain. They did not crush his doctrine. And lastly, it is objected, that "from that time to the present God has not set Jesus, as his king, upon the holy of Sion, (as the psalm imports,) nor given him the

*Acts iv. 25, 26, 27.

nations for his inheritance, nor the uttermost parts of the earth for his possession." But the psalm no more imports in its sixth verse, that the long expected Messiah was to be a temporal king in Jerusalem, than it imports in its fourth-"He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh, the Lord shall have them in derision,"that God hath literally a seat in the clouds, in a bodily form, subject to external affections and contemptuous passions. It is also most certain that God has given the heathen to his Son for an inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for his possession. And rapidly too. Theodoret, in the year 420, could say, "the apostles while on earth visited the various nations, the Romans, the Spaniards, the Gauls. All people received their labours, not only the Romans, with the powers tributary to them, but the Persians, the Scythians, the Massagetæ, the Sauromatæ, the Indians, the Ethiopians, in a word, the utmost limits of the civilized world."* Chrysostom, at the beginning of the same century could say, "it is beyond mere hu man power to compass such a vast region in so short a time, and to engage to such truths by such means, men of all characters, brought up in such bad habits, and filled with such perversity; but he [Christ] was able to liberate from these evils the whole race of men, not only the Romans, but the Persians, and

• Theodor. adv. Græc. Serm. viii. Opp. t. iv. p. 592.

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