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in the complete defeat of the Russian troops, with enormous losses. A retreat back into Russia followed, after which the initiative remained with the Germans, who presently began an invasion of Russia from Posen.
POLAND INVADED Meantime the Germans and Austrians sought a diversion of the war at the two wings by means of a vigorous attack in the center. Hindenburg moved against Warsaw from the northwest, while an Austrian army moved toward the same city from the southwest. The Russian resistance was feeble, and by mid-October the Germans were within a short distance of Warsaw. This emergency compelled the Russians to withdraw troops from the Galician campaign to protect their center; which they did effectively. Within a week the Germans began to be driven back and before the end of the month they were cleared out of Poland. The Russians followed up their advantage, crossing the frontier into Posen on November 8th, and a week later resuming the Galician drive and advancing to within twenty miles of Cracow.
Then the see-saw was repeated. Hindenburg struck furiously at Poland again, and again penetrated to the neighborhood of Warsaw. This compelled a withdrawal of Russians from Galicia and suspension of operations toward Cracow. The Germans were again driven back from Warsaw, and at the end of the year there was a renewal of the Russian aggressive all along the front. A third time, in February Hindenburg took the aggressive, this time at the Russian right, and succeeded in driving the Russians out of East Prussia. But the Russian center held firm, and at the left an important invasion of Hungary seemed imminent.
Then the tide turned. The Russian army had exhausted its supplies of ammunition, and further supplies were not forthcoming. There is reason to believe that plenty of munitions were at hand, but were purposely withheld from the troops through the machinations of German intriguers in Russia. At any rate, the Russians were left without ammunition, to meet the onset of a furious German offensive.
The German army under Von Mackensen set out from Cracow on April 29, 1915, with an amplitude and completeness of equipment as notable as was the Russian lack thereof. The advance was bewilderingly rapid. On May 6th Tarnow and Gorlice were taken, on June 3d the great fortress of Przemysl was reoccupied, and Lemberg was entered on June 22d. For fifty-two days the Germans advanced at the average rate of four miles a day. The
was that they were moving against practically unarmed men. The Russian cannons were chiefly silent, and the men, with no cartridges, were fighting with clubbed rifles, knives and even with stones and bludgeons.
THE CONQUEST OF POLAND Having swept the unarmed Russians out of Galicia, the Germans turned northward for the conquest of Russian Poland. Three powerful armies, from north, west and south, simultaneously converged upon Warsaw. Still destitute of proper supplies, the Russians could do nothing but retire, and it was a wonderful achievement that there, as in Galicia, they were able to retire without being thrown into confusion and rout and without losing such equipment as they had. Never did a defeated army retire in better order. But it did retire. Kovno was abandoned 154
on August 17th, Brest-Litovsk on August 26th, and Grodno on September 3d. The German conquest of Poland was then practically complete.
Meantime German armies at the extreme left were driving the Russian right before them, through Courland, until they were close to Riga and were planning to menace Petrograd itself. But from the fall of 1915 to the early summer of 1916 the lines remained practically unchanged. The Germans were being kept
"Hapsal | busy on the western front,
Kirrefer and the Russians were prepar
Moni Karusen ing themselves for a renewal
Meloido of their campaign under hap
Anseky sobe pier auspices.
Pen. GULF OF
ANOTHER RUSSIAN DRIVE
Early in June, 1916, the
Japoken RI GA
Angermunde Russian armies were ready for action. Under the command of General Brussiloff they struck, with their left, against RIGA,
Dathlon the German and Austrian right, in Galicia and Bukowina, with tremendous effect. The movement began on June 5th. Four days later Czernowitz was taken, and by the end of the month Kolomea was also captured. Stanislau fell on August 9th, and a few days later Lemberg was threatened. Then, unfortunately, a diversion was caused by the German invasion of Roumania, and it was necessary to stop the Galician advance in order to send troops thither. During the rest of the fall and the winter of 1916–17,
therefore, little change occurred on that part of the battle front. The tremendous drives of the allies at the west made it necessary for all German troops that could be spared from the east to be sent thither, while the domestic revolution in Russia caused a suspension for the time of Russian activities.
THE WAR AT THE STRAITS Turkey entered the war at the end of October, 1914, but it was not until four months afterward that it became
involved in serious opBLACK SEA
erations. It was in sdhehtor
the latter part of FebAbatonissa Domuiden
ruary, 1915, that the
allies undertook the 9Sekerkoj
formidable task of capRumlli Kavak Belgrade
This movement had
two major objects. Co mi rekod
One was, to gain conRumi-koi Kiaghat Khan Karfi Hissaro 1 Anatoli sen
trol of the Dardanelles
and the Bosporus, so 3 Eyub
Ortakoy orkesjytar engel-kol
that supplies could be Begle bl. Widge Kusandchule
sent to Russia by that CONSTANTINOPLE Serai seutari
short and direct route Kadikord CONSTANTINOPLE
instead of by way of Malery-ko!
AND THE BOSPHORUS
the White Sea, which 8 EA OF MARMOR
was obstructed with
ice for much of the year and which landed supplies at a remote point from that at which they were needed, or by the still longer route across the Pacific Ocean. The other object was to cut the line of communication between Germany and