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consent is necessary for its employment in any other provinces of the empire.

MANY TRIBES AND TONGUES As might be supposed, the populations of these various provinces differ greatly in racial composition. The two Austrias (Upper and Lower), Salsburg, Tyrol, Vorarlberg and much of Carinthia and Styria, are occupied chiefly by Germans, who are found also around the edges of Bohemia and in much of Silesia. The rest of Silesia and the greater parts of Bohemia and Moravia are occupied by the Czechs. Western Galicia is Polish, as is also a small part of Silesia. Eastern Galicia and part of Bukovina are the home of the Ruthenians. In Carniola, GoerzGradisca, Istria, southern Styria and Trieste the Slovenes predominate, though the Italians and Ladini are also found there and also in Tyrol and the towns of Dalmatia. Serbs and Croats are numerous in Istria and Dalmatia, and Bukovina is largely given up to Roumanians.

The total population of the empire in 1900 was 26,107,304, and at the present time it may be as much as 29,000,000. Estimating it at the latter figure, the Germans may be reckoned at about 9,500,000, the Slavs at 18,500,000, and the Italians and Ladini, with a few Magyars and others, at 1,000,000.

GERMANS DOMINANT Although the Germans thus form a small minority, they have always been dominant because of their unity and the lack of unity among the Slavs. The Hapsburg dynasty is, of course, purely German. Therefore the court is German, and so is the great mass of the aristocracy. The chief objection of the other Hapsburgs and the court

to the Countess Chotek, the wife of the late Archduke Francis Ferdinand, was not merely that she was not of royal blood, but that she was not Austrian, being a member of an ancient Czech family of Bohemia. Until recently, too, the Germans formed a majority of the educated and wealthy classes. Above all, perhaps, they have had the advantage of language. For of all the many tongues of the empire, German is the only one that is of world-wide use and that possesses a literature generally known to the world.

It has long been the aim of the Germans to Germanize the empire. This ambition first was openly manifested in the golden days of Maria Theresa, the greatest of all Austrian sovereigns. She decreed that the German language should be taught in every school and that every one of her subjects should learn it. Her successor, Joseph II, went still further, and made it the official language of the empire.

In spite of all these efforts, however, the Slavs have long been increasing in numbers far more rapidly than the Germans, and have also been increasing their political and other influence.

HUNGARY ALSO COMPOSITE The Kingdom of Hungary is only a little less composite than the Empire of Austria. With a population of 21,030,000 it comprises 10,050,575 Hungarians or Magyars, 2,037,435 Germans, 1,967,970 Slovaks, 2,949,032 Roumanians, 1,833,162 Croats, and 1,106,471 Serbs. The Slovaks, Croats and Serbs are, of course, Slavs, numbering together 4,907,603. Adding these to the Slavs in Austria, we have a grand total of nearly 23,500,000 Slavs in the realms of a sovereign who began this world strife with a war against Slavs!

CHAPTER V

THE STORY OF RUSSIA

Redemption from Czarism in the War Fall of the German Romanoff Dynasty — The Drama of a Thousand Years — Rurik and the Varangians Early Designs Upon Constantinople Battling with the Tartars — Origin of the Romanoff Dynasty - Peter the Great and His “Window Looking on Europe" - Winning Recognition as a European Power The Struggle for the Sea and the Struggle for Liberty The Later Czars — Nihilism and Its Crimes — Despotism of the Holy Synod — “Red Sunday" and the Revolution — Establishment of the Duma - Last Struggle of Absolutism — German Intrigues During the War The Final Uprising of the People — The Russian Republic.

THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION is thus far the most significant achievement of the war. Doubtless it would have come in time, without the war; but doubtless also the war hastened it. There was an unconscious adumbration of it at the very beginning of the war, effected by the Czar himself. That was when he changed the name of the capital from the German form St. Petersburg to the Russian Petrograd. It would have been well for him and his family if he could at the same time have abolished German influence along with the German name. Himself by ancestry more German than Russian, and his wife almost wholly German, he was unable to get rid of the malign German influences which largely controlled the court, even though he was at war with Germany. In

consequence, the people ultimately rose and swept him and the whole Romanoff dynasty, more German than Russian, out of existence. The Russian Republic is the greatest fact in the world's politics thus far in the twentieth century.

It is therefore fitting that we briefly review the drama of more than a thousand years, of which this transcendent achievement is the culmination.

RURIK, OLEG AND IGOR We must turn back the pages of history more than ten and a half centuries to legendary times; when the great Norse chieftain Rurik and his two brothers invaded Russia with the Varangian crews of many Viking galleys, and founded Veliki Novgorod, the Great New Town, which long disputed with Moscow and Kieff the primacy among Russian cities. Rurik was succeeded by his son Igor, who during his minority was guided by the Regent Oleg, the Charlemagne of the North. It was Oleg who in the year 907 led an army to the very walls of Constantinople and thus first established the Russian design of possessing that city. The Greeks bought him off by making a favorable treaty. But in 941 Igor again attacked the city, with a fleet on the Black Sea and Bosporus said to have included thousands of boats. He was repelled by the use of Greek fire; but returned to still another attack, and then was bought off. Igor met with a fate premonitory of many subsequent tragedies in the Russian Imperial line. Some of his rebellious subjects bent two stout trees together until their top branches touched near the ground, tied his right hand and foot to one tree and his left hand and foot to the other, and then released them. Afterward Igor's widow went to the city of Korosten, now Iskorosk, whose people did this thing, and pretended to wish to make peace. All she asked was that every householder in the city would give her a tame pigeon from his dove-cote. They readily complied with this request, whereupon, at evening, she released all the birds and let

[graphic]

A RUSSIAN COSSACK CHARGE IN THE CARPATHIANS. Some of the stubbornest and most eagerly contested engagements of the great war took place on the snow covered heights of the Carpathians. This illustration shows a charge of a famous Cossack regiment upon an Austrian battery. The Cossacks are numbered among the finest cavalry organizations in the world and are fearless and relentless fighters. Their horses are small and wiry, having great endurance and adaptability to the cold weather and lack of proper food which is their usual lot.

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