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Singular. Nominative, father.. Genitive, father's.. Nominative, fathers. Genitive, fathers'.


N. B. Two or more Nouns in the Genitive Case are frequently united by a single s and one Apostrophe joined to the last of them, and omitted, though understood, to the others; as, " Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob's posterity." But when any words come between them, the apostrophe and s must be joined to each noun; as, the king's and the queen's jewels were disposed of.

Gender is the distinction of sex. There are three genders, the masculine, the feminine, and the neuter. The Masculine Gender dénotes the male kind; as, a man, a horse.

The Feminine Gender denotes the female kind; as, a woman, a princess.

The Neuter Gender denotes things without life; as, a pen, a table.

By a common figure in the English Language, the Sun, the Sky, Death, Time, &c. are masculine. On the other hand, the Moon, the Church, Ships, and frequently countries and virtues, as, France, Spain, Faith, Hope, &c. are of the feminine gender.

N. B. Figuratively, in the English Language, we commonly give the masculine gender to noung which are conspicuous for the attributes of impartins

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or communicating, and which are by nature strong and efficacious. Those, again, are made feminine, which are conspicuous for the attributes of containing or bringing forth, or which are peculiarly beautiful or amiable.

It sometimes happens, that the same noun is either masculine or feminine. The words parent, child, cousin, friend, neighbour, servant, and several others, are used indifferently for males or females.


AN ADJECTIVE is a word added to a Substantive to express some quality or property of it; as, a wise man, a good woman.

Adjectives admit of three degrees of comparison; the Positive, the Comparative, and the Superlative.

The Positive expresses the simple quality or property of the noun; as, wise, good.

The Comparative increases or lessens the quality; as, wiser, less wise.

The Superlative increases or lessens the quality to the highest, or lowest degree; as, wisest, least wise.

The Comparative is formed by adding r or er to the Positive; or, by prefixing the adverb more to it. And the Superlative is formed by adding st or est,


to the Positive; or by prefixing the adverb most to it; as, wise, P. wiser, C. wisest, S.; or wise, P. more wise, C.-most wise, S.

Monosyllables, for the most part, are compared by er and est; and dissyllables by more and most.

Some Adjectives form their Comparison irregular ly; as, good, better, best; bad, worse, worst; little, less, least; much or many, more, most; and a few others.

Some Adjectives cannot be compared, because their significations do not admit of increase; as, all, each, every, any, some, one, two, three, &c.

An Adjective put without a Substantive with the definite Article before it, becomes a Substantive in sense and meaning; as, Providence rewards the good, and punishes the bad."


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A PRONOUN is a word used instead of a Noun, to prevent the frequent repetition of it; as, "The man is happy; he is benevolent; he is useful."

There are four kinds of Pronouns, namely, Personal, Possessive, Relative, and Adjective Pronouns.

The Personal Pronouns are; I, thou, he, she, it; with their plurals, we, ye or you, and they.



The Possessive Pronouns are such as relate to possession or property; as, my, thy, his, her, our, your, their.

My and thy become mine and thine before a Substantive or Adjective beginning with a vowel or silent h; as, Blot out all mine iniquities."

The two words own and self, when joined to Pronouns make them emphatic, and imply opposition; as, "This is my own horse;" that is, a hired horse." "I went myself;" that is, "not another."

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Himself, themselves, are now used in the Nominative Case, instead of hisself, theirselves; as, "Himself shall do this;" "They performed it themselves."

Relative Pronouns are such as relate to some word or phrase going before, which is thence called the Antecedent; they are, who, which, what, and that.

Who relates to persons, which to things and animals; as," the boy who reads; the books which I lost; the bird which sung so sweetly is flown."

What is used in speaking of things, and includes both the Relative and Antecedent; as, this is what I wanted, i. e. the thing which I wanted.

Who and which have sometimes the words, soever and ever annexed to them; as, whosoever or whoever, whichsoever or whichever, but they are seldom used.


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Who, which, and what, are also called Interrogatives, because they are used in asking questions.

N. B. That, when it cannot be turned into who or which is a Conjunction.

Pronominal Adjectives are of a mixed nature, par- ticipating the properties both of the Pronoun and the Adjective, which are these; each, every, either; this, that, and their plurals, these, those; some, one, any, all, and such.:

The Adjective Pronouns may be subdivided into three sorts, namely, the Distributive, the Demonstra- tive, and the Indefinite.

1. The Distributive, are those which denote the persons or things that make up a number, as taken › separately and singly. They are each, every, either. 2. The Demonstrative are those which precisely point out the subjects to which they relate this and that, these and those, are of this class.


This relates to a person or thing which is near us and that refers to a person or thing at a distance; as, “this man is more intelligent than that ;" and the same thing holds of their plurals these and those. This, indicates the latter or last mentioned; that, the former or first mentioned; as," Both wealth and poverty are temptations; that, tends to excite pride, this, discontent."

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