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to show their operation

Our comineree with the neighboring State of Peru, owing to the onerous daties levied or our principal articles of export, has been on the decline, and all enılearors to procure an alteration have hitherto proved fruitless With Boliria

, we have yet no diplomatic intercourse, and the continual conleste carrel on between it and Peru, have made me defer, until a more favorable period

, the appointment of any agent for that purpose. Asri of atrocious piracy having been committed on one of our trading shiga

, by the inhabitants of a settlement on the west coast of Sumatra, a frigate was despatched with orders to demand satisfaction for the injury, if those wbo committed it should be found to be members of a regular governmeat, capable of maintaining the usual relations with foreign nations; but if, as it *** supposed, and as they proved to be, they were a band of lawless pirates, to indiet such a chastisement as would deter them and others from like aggressions. This last was done, and the effect has been an increased respect for our flag in those distant seas, and additional security for our commerce.

la the view I have given of our connexion with foreign powers, allusions have been made to their domestic disturbances or foreign wars, to their revolutions or dissensions. It may be proper to observe, that this is done solely in cases where those events affect our political relations with them, or

on our commerce. Further than this, it is neither our policy nor our right to interfere

. Our best wishes, on all occasions, our seod off. es, when required, will be afforded to promote the domestic tranquility ani foreign peace of all nations with whom we have any intercourse. Any intervention in their affairs further than this, even by the expression of an oficial opinion, is contrary to our principles of international policy, and will always be avoided. before you, will exhibit the national finances in a highly prosperous state.

The report which the Secretary of the Treasury will, in due time, lay Oxing to the continued success of our commercial enterprise, which has esabied the merchants to fulfil their engagements with the Government, the the last session; and, with the other means of the Treasury, will prove fully receipts from customs during the year will exceed the estimate presented at adequate, not only to meet the increased expenditures resulting from the all the public debt which is at present redeemable. It is now estimated that large appropriations made by Congress, but to provide for the payment of the customs will yield to the Treasury, during the present year, upwards of twentyight millions of dollars. The public lands, however, have proved will not much exceed two millions. The expenditures for all objects other less pro luctive than was anticipated; and, according to present information, than the public debt, are estimated to amount, during the year, to about sixdollars, will have been applied to the principal and interest of the public teen millions and a half, while a still larger sum, viz. eighteen millions of

It is expected, however, that, in consequence of the reduced rates of duty, which will take effect after the 3d of March next, there will be a considerable falling off in the revenue from customs in the year 1833. It will, nevertheless, be amply sufficient to provide for all the wants of the public service, the reminder of the public debt. On the first of January next, the entire estimated even upon a liberal scale, and for the redemption and purchase of public debt of the United States, funded and unfunded, will be reduced to within a fraction of seven millions of dollars: of which $2,227,363 are not of right releemable until the first of January, 1834, and $4,735,296, not un



til the second of January, 1835. The commissioners of the sinking fut however, being invested with full authority to purchase the debt at the m ket price, and the means of the Treasury being ample, it may be hoped ti the whole will be extinguished within the year 1833.

I cannot too cordially congratulate Congress and my fellow-citizens the near approach of that memorable and happy event, the extinction of t] public debt of this great and free nation. Faithful to the wise and patriot policy marked out by the legislation of the country for this object, i he pr sent administration has devoted to it all the means which a flourishing con merce has supplied, and a prudent economy preserved, for the public Tre sury. Within the four years for which the people have confided the exe cutive power to my charge, fifty-eight millions of dollars will have been af plied to the payment of the public debt. That this has heen accomplishe without stinting the expenditures for all other proper objects, will be seen by referring to the liberal provision made during the same period for the sup port and increase of our means of maritime and military defence, for in ternal improvements of a national character, for the removal and preserva tion of the Indians, and, lastly, for the gallant veterans of the revolution.

The final removal of this great burthen from our resources, affords the means of further provision for all the objects of general welfare and public defence which the constitution authorizes, and presents the occasion for such further reduction in the revenue as may not be required for them. From the report of the Secretary of the Treasury, it will be seen that, after the present year,

such a reduction may be made to a considerable extent, and the subject is earnestly recommended to the consideration of Congress, in the hope that the combined wisdom of the representatives of the people will devise such means of effecting that salutary object, as may remove those burthens which shall be found to fall unequally upon any, and as may promote all the great interests of the community.

Long and patient reflection has strengthened the opinions I have heretofore expressed to Congress on this subject; and I deem it my duty, on the present occasion, again

to urge them upon the attention of the Legislature. The soundest maxims of public policy, and the principles upon which our republican institutions are founded, recommend a proper adaptation of the revenue to the expenditure, and they also require that the expenditure shall be limited to what, by an economical administration, shall be consistent with the simplicity of the Government, and necessary to an efficient public service. In effecting thisadjustment, it is due, in justice, to the interest of the different States, and even to the preservation of the Union itself, that the protection afforded by existing laws to any branches of the national industry, should not exceed what may be necessary to counteract the regulations of foreign nations, and to secure a supply of those articles of manufacture essential to the national independence and safety in time of war. If, upon investigation, it shall be found, as it is believed it will be, that the legislative protection granted to any particular interest is greater than is indispensably requisite for these objects, I reobmmend that it be gradually diminished, and that, as far as may be consistent with these objects, the whole scheme of duties be reduced to the revenue standard as soon as a just regard to the faith of the Government, and to the preservation of the large capital invested in establishments of domestic industry, will permit.

That manufactures adequate to the supply of our domestic consimption would, in the abstract, be beneficial to our country, there is no reason to

the Union.


; and to effect their establishment, there is, perhaps, no American But for this purpose, it is presumed that a tariff of high duties, designed sitizen who would not, for a while, be willing to pay a higher price for then. men. The most they have anticipated is a temporary, and, generally, incidental protection, which they maintain has the effect to reduce the price, by domestie competition,

below that of the foreign article. Experience, howere, our best guide on this as on other subjects, makes it doubtful whether the advantages of this system are not counterbalanced by many evils, and whether it does not tend to beget, in the minds of a large portion of our cestrymen, a spirit of discontent and jealousy dangerous to the stability of

What then shall be done? Large interests have grown up under the implied pledge of our national legislation, which it would seem a violation of public saith suddenly to abandon.

Nothing could justify it but the pul lic Balets, which is the supreme law. But those who have vested their capital in manufacturing establishments, cannot expect that the people will continue, Is it not enough that the high duties have been paid as long as the money etired for any legitimate purpose in the administration of the Government. arising from them could be applied to the common benefit in the extinguishbe satisfied that the policy of protection must be ultimately limited to those

ment of the public debt?

Those who take an enlarged view of the condition of our country, must articles of domestic manufacture which are indispensable to our safety in time of war. Within this scope, on a reasonable scale, it is recommended secure to it a liberal and efficient support. But, beyond this object, we have by every consideration of patriotism and duty, which will doubtless always already seen the operation of the system productive of discontent. In some Sections of the republic, its influence is deprecated as tending to concentrate vice which, in other countries, have characterized the existence of monopowealth into a few hands, and as creating those germs of dependence and lies, and proved so destructive of liberty and the general good. A large pedient on these grounds, but as disturbing the equal relations of property portion of the people, in one section of the republic, declares it not only inexby legislation, and therefore unconstitutional and unjust. of the tariff system; but they are, nevertheless, important in enabling us to re#cribed to a mistaken view of the considerations which led to the adoption

Doubtless these effects are, in a great degree, exaggerated, and may be view the subject with a more thorough knowledge of all its bearings upon the great interests of the republic, and with a determination to dispose of it so It is tus painful duty to state that, in one quarter of the United States, op

justice, complain. their execution, if not to endanger the integrity of the Union. position to the revenue laws has risen to a height which threatens to thwart

Whatever obstructions may be thrown in the way of the judicial authorities of the General Government, it is hoped they will be able, peaceably, to overcome them by the prudence of their own officers, and the patriotism of the people. Bat, should this reasonable reliance on the moderation and good sense of all portions of our fellow citizens, be disappointed, it is believed that the laws themselves are fully adequate to the suppression of such attempts as may be immediately made. Should the exigency arise, rendering the execution of

That none can,


the existing laws impracticable, from any cause whatever, prompt notice it will l'e given to Congress, with the suggestion of such views and me sures as may be deemed necessary to meet it.

In conformity with principles heretofore explained, and with the hope rediicing the General Government to that simple machine which the cons tution «reated, and of withdrawing from the States all other influence tha that of its universal beneficence in preserving peace, affording an unifor currency, maintaining the inviolability of contracts, diffusing intelligence and discharging, unfelt, its other superintending functions, I recommend th provision be made to dispose of all stocks now held by it in corporation wheth:r created by the General or State Governments, and placing the pro ceeds in the Treasury. As a source of profit, these stocks are of little or n val je: as a means of influence among the States, they are adverse to the puri ty ut ur institutions. The whole principle on which they are based, i deemed by many unconstitutional, and to persist in the policy which they indicate, is considered wholly inexpedient.

It is my duty to acquaint you with an arrangement made by the Bank o the United States, with a portion of the holders of the three per cent. stock, by which the Government will be deprived of the use of the public funds longe than was anticipated. By this arrangement, which will be particularly explained by the Secretary of the Treasury, a surrender of the certificate: of this stock may be postponed until October, 1833; and thus the liability of the Government, after its ability to discharge the debt, may be continued by th; failure of the bank to perform its duties.

Such measures as are within the reach of the Secretary of the Treasury have been taken, to enable him to judge whether the public deposites in that in tit ition may be regarded as entirely safe; but, as his limited power may pruve inadequate to this object, I recommend the subject to the attention of Corgress, under the firm belief that it is worthy of their serious investigation. An inquiry into the transactions of the institution, embracing the bı anı hes as well as the principal bank, seems called for by the credit which is given throughout the country to many serious charges impeaching its character, and which, if true, may justly excite the apprehension that it is no longer a safe depository of the money of the people.

A nong the interests which merit the consideration of Congress after the pynient of the public debt, one of the most important, in my view, is that of the public lands. Previous to the formation of our present constitution, it was recommended by Congress that a portion of the waste lands owned by the States should be ceded to the United States for the purposes of general harniony, and as a fund to meet the expenses of the war. The recommendation was adopted, and, at different periods of time, the States of Massachusetts, New York, Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Georgia, grarted their vacant soil for the uses for which they had been asked. As The lands may now be considered as relieved from this pledge, the object for which they were ceded having been accomplished, it is in the discretion of Congress to dispose of them in such way as best to conduce to the quiet, har nony, and general interest, of the American people. In examining this question, all local and sectional feelings should be discarded, and the whole United States regarded as one people, interested alike in the prosperity of their common country.

It cannot be doubted that the speedy settlement of these lands constitutes the true interest of the republic. The wealth and strength of a country are

ads of liberty.

poor future deliberations.

ne population, and the best part of that populatien are the cultivators of the e Independent farmers are every where the basis of society, and true la addition to these considerations, questions have already arisen, and Ey be expected hereafter to grow out of the public lands, which involve Letights of the new States and the powers of the General Government; and, wless a lberal policy be now adopted, there is danger that these questions Sweder i a great sectional interest, when brought into full action, will be may spedily assume an importance not now generally anticipated. The in33e of diseon tent; and it is the part of wisdom and sound policy to foresee * approaches, and endeavor, if possible, to counteract them. Of the various schemes which have been hitherto proposed in regard to

disposal of the public lands, none has yet received the entire approbation 'the National Legislature. Deeply impressed with the importance of a sis oecasion, to urge it upon your consideration; and, to the propositions seeds and satisfactory arrangement of the subject, I deem it my duty, on ions which hare occurred to me, in the hope that they may assist


in soon as practicable, to be a source of revenue, and that they be sold to settlers,

It seems to me to be our true policy that the public lands shall cease, as . the expense of the present system, and the cost arising under our Indian

a limited parcels, at a price barely sufficient to reimburse to the United States ospects. The advantages of accurate surveys and undoubted titles, now

seem to forbid the abolition of the present system, be(2382 none can be substituted which will more perfectly accomplish these aportant ends. It is desirable, however, that, in convenient time, this machinery be withdrawn from the States, and that the right of soil, and the

are disposition of it, be surrendered to the States, respectively, in which heir equal share of taxation under our impost system, have, in the pro

The adventurous and hardy population of the west, besides contributing Large proportion of forty millions of dollars, and, of the revenue received Zress of our Government, for the lands they occupy, paid into the Treasury vereirom, but a small part has been expended amongst them. When, to he disadvantage of their situation in this respect, we add the consideration what it is their labor alone which gives real value to the lands, and that the tad not originally any claim to them, and which have enjoyed the undividprocesas atising from their sale are distributed chiefly among States which ed that the new States will remain longer contented with the present policy, ed emolument arising from the sale of their own lands, it cannot be expect. after the payment of the public debt. To avert the consequences which may be apprehended from this cause, to put an end for ever to all partial and wterested legislation on this subject, and to afford to every American citizen of enterprise, the opportunity of securing an independent freehold, it seems to me, therefore, best to abandon the idea of raising a future revenue does not warrant the application of the funds of the General Government to

In former messages, I have expressed my conviction that the constitution wd, both as a means of doing justice to all interests, and putting an end to a bjects of internal improvement which are not national in their character, tourse of legislation calculated to destroy the purity of the Government,

secured to purchasers,


out of the public lands.

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