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bers lost their lives from the effects of incessant watchings. Such were Brainerd, Lane, Barbour, Hadduck, Harrison, Lathrop, and many besides them, who regarded not fatigue, la bour, health, or life itself, under the promptings of a stern sense of duty, and a self-sacrificing spirit.
The ravages of the pestilence were not confined to our own country. The angel of death, who seemed to have come across the Atlantic to us, re-visited the eastern world during the past summer with more fatal effect in some places than at the first visitation. Especially was this observable in England and France. In the cities of Paris and London nearly one thousand have died in a day. The ravages of the disease were felt throughout Europe—Berlin in Prussia, and Birmingham in England, are said to have been the only large cities exempted. Every where, too, as in this country, it struck down its victims from all ranks and descriptions of persons without discrimination. In France, as in the United States, the President of the republic was attacked by it. A distinguished Marshal of France, and Catalini, who had been the most brilliant star in the musical world, were its victims.
We have recorded thus much in this place concerning this fearful pestilence, which, with its attendant scourge, war, has made the year 1849 emphatically a year of death and mourning. In this notice we have intended to do no more than to chronicle its advent, and by the instances we have given of its fatal visits, to exhibit the virulence of its attacks. It is perhaps true that it was not so violent in some places, especially on the Atlantic coast, as in 1832; but on the western rivers it was equally if not more so. Under the statistical head we shall give some figures and tables showing the extent of the mortality, and from which can be collected the data for determining comparative results.
9th. The President of the United States, Gen. Zachary Taylor, left the seat of government on a northern tour. He was accompanied by Dr. Wood of the army, a member of his family, and several other gentlemen. At the rail-road depot, near Baltimore, he was received with acclamation by a large concourse of people, and was greeted with much enthusiasm on his arrival in the city. On the 10th he left Baltimore, and proceeded to York and Lancaster, Pa. On his way he was met by Governor Johnston, with a committee of citizens, who welcomed him to the State. When he arrived at Lancaster, in answer to the address made to him, he said:
“I have come to Pennsylvania with no political purposes in view, but that I might witness in person her agricultural, manufacturing, and mining operations, and I am gratified to know that thus far the people have welcomed me, without distinction of party, to this renowned commonwealth. I have come among you, too, in a plain and unostentatious manner, feeling that I should nevertheless receive kindness and hospitality wherever I visit or sojourn. In this spirit the people met me at my first entrance into the State, and in this spirit they have escorted me from place to place.”
At Harrisburgh he was received with much courtesy by all classes of citizens. At Carlisle he became indisposed, but rallied sufficiently to go on to Chambersburgh, and to Bedford Springs, where he seemed to fully recover his health. At Pittsburgh he arrived on the 18th, and met with a very flattering reception from the citizens, headed by Hon. Walter Forward. After leaving Pittsburgh, en route to Erie, the same gratifying expression of good feeling on the part of his fellow-citizens was tendered to him at all places through which he passed. When he came near to Erie he was found to be very ill, his disorder having returned, and it became necessary to convey him rapidly into the town to private lodgings. Here he became seriously ill, so that fears were entertained for his life. The Vice President left Buffalo and went on to Erie to be with him.
The crowd who had assembled to see him were disappointed, and indeed the termination of his journey was destined to be entirely different from that which was expected when he left home. It was his intention to have passed through the State of New York, and to have attended the great agricultural fair which was to be held at Syracuse on the 12th September; but his extreme debility, and the precarious state of his health, forbade the accomplishment of this purpose. He therefore hastened to Niagara Falls, passed rapidly through Buffalo, Albany, New York city, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, and arrived at Washington after an absence of four weeks. It was matter of surprise to many that the President should have hazarded a tour during a season so especially unpropitious, whilst the air, every where, was tainted with the epidemic poison, and the excitement consequent upon receptions rendered him more than usually liable to an attack.
Since his return we are gratified to learn that he has regained his wonted health.
9th. A very serious rail-road accident occurred on the New York and Philadelphia road. As the morning train of cars from Philadelphia was approaching Princeton, the locomotive, tender, and the truck of the baggage-car, were precipitated into the canal, by the switch near the bank having been maliciously turned for the special purpose of causing an accident. Fortunately the passenger cars maintained their position upon the track, but the sudden check to a speed of about twenty miles an hour, caused the way car to be crushed into the body of the forward deck car, carrying death and dismay to those unfortunate passengers in that portion of the train. Two persons were crushed to death, and eighteen others more or less injured.
11th. The President of the United States issued his proclamation warning all citizens against connecting themselves with an armed expedition which it was supposed was about to be fitted out from the United States to invade the island of Cuba. (See History and Documents.)
13th. The Hungarian General, Georgey, surrendered his whole
between 30,000 and 40,000 men, to the Russian General, Rudiger. The surrender was made near Grosswardein, at the village of Saellosz, and was without conditions-Georgey only claiming, as a favour, the intervention of Field Marshal Paskiewitch, the Russian general-in-chief.
Previous to this surrender of Georgey, it appears that Kossuth and his ministers, sensible of the desperate condition of affairs, had resigned all power, civil and military, into the hands of Arthur Georgey. Upon this transfer being made, Georgey issued a proclamation to the Hungarians, in which he says:
“The provisional government has ceased to exist. The governor and the ministers have voluntarily resigned office, and government is broken up. Under these circumstances a military dictatorship is a necessity, which I assume provisionally, together with the civil power. Citizens! whatever can be done for the country, in our position of ex tremity, I shall endeavour to accomplish, either peaceably or by force of arms, whichever necessity requires; but, at any rate, so that the enormous sacrifices already made shall be lightened.”
To the commander of the strong fortress of Comorn, General Klapka, he addressed a letter requiring him to surrender that strong hold of the Hungarians into the hands of the Austrians. We give his reasons for this order in his own language:
“General, the die is cast our hopes are crushed! Our power has been broken by the House of Hapsburg-Lorraine, aided by the armies of Russia. The struggles and the sacrifices of our great nation were fruitless, and it were madness to persevere. General, you will think my actions at Vilagosh mysterious and even incredible. I will explain my motives to you and to the world. I am a Hungarian. I love my country above all things, and I followed the dictates of my heart, which urged me to restore peace to my poor and ruined country, and thus save it from perdition.
“ General, this is my motive for what I did at Vilagosh. Posterity will judge me.
“General, by virtue of the dignity of Dictator, which the nation conferred on me by the (dissolved) parliament, I summon you to follow my example, and by an immediate surrender of the fortress of Comorn, to end a war of which the protraction would for ever crush the greatness and the glory of the Hungarian nation.”
Comorn had a garrison of 20,000 men, and one year's provision. The garrison refused to surrender, and at the latest accounts was resolved to hold out, and “ laugh a siege to scorn.” But if the whole country submits, they too must in the end yield.
Kossuth with Dembinski, Perczel and others, succeeded in escaping, and reached the Turkish dominions, where they were protected by the Sultan. The English minister at Constantinople is said to have inter
fered in their behalf. A story has found its way into the papers, and seems to be credited, that Kossuth carried off with him the Hungarian crown and the State jewels. Of this crown, a curious account is related, from which it would appear that it was originally presented by the Pope 800 years ago to the sovereign of Hungary—that it was once packed away in a cask—then stolen by a maid-pawned by a Queen to the Emperor of Germany-was stolen again and fell into the hands of the Turks-was returned by Solyman—was given to the Emperor Ferdinand, and at last restored to the Hungarians.
The statements concerning the submission of the Hungarians, and the flight of Kossuth and his compatriots, are still confused and involved in much uncertainty at the time we are writing. In our next number we shall be able to give a more satisfactory and definite narrative of these interesting events.
14th. A very singular optical illusion was observed on the Catskill mountains. The following account is written by an eye-witness:
“The afternoon was a memorable one for the mountain. The optical illusion of last Monday week was reproduced, but more transcendently beautiful than it had ever appeared before. It is the third time in twenty years that this extraordinary phenomenon has been perceived. Mrs. A. and myself were sitting on the rock in front of the piazza, when she suddenly exclaimed, “Look, look!” I did so, and the whole hotel was surrounded in the cloud before us. The whole house was assembled immediately, and we ran out to the point of rock from which the phenomenon of last Monday had been perceived. We were scarcely there a minute when a beautifully arched rainbow was formed in the cloud, exactly in the centre of which was seen the entire group, precisely as they stood on the ledge of the rock. It was not merely their shadows, but the entire form of each person in the group was distinctly visible; each person saw the whole group, not merely the reflection of his own image. This lasted about five minutes, when the rainbow disappeared, and the phenomenon of Monday last succeeded; each person saw his own shadow, of huge dimensions, reflected on the cloud and surrounded by a halo of light, but was unable to see that of his neighbour. I shall never in my life see any thing of the kind again, and if I had not seen it, I could have formed no conception of its effect; it was perfectly thrilling. The poems of Ossian, the Children of the Mist, the Death Fetch of the Germans, the spectral phantoms that were fearful visions to less enlightened ages, were all realized distinctly and palpably before us. This visit to the Catskills has revealed to me more of the wonders of nature than all else that I have seen put together."
15th. The convention for the union of the two sections of the democratic party, (Hunkers and Barnburners,) met at Rome, New York. The leaders on both sides were present, and though there was no for
mal settlement of differences, yet they progressed so far towards it, as afterwards, in subsequent conventions, to agree upon union tickets to be supported at the next election. The consequence will probably be, that in the coming conflicts the two great parties, (Whig and Democrat,) will battle with undivided strength for the supremacy. A united front in the one will oblige harmony and increased energy in the other. The strife of party can never cease in our country as long as the press is free,—the right of private opinion unrestricted,—the people sovereign, and the desire of office prompts men to struggle for power.
16th. The following are the details of a sad disaster in the harbour of Mazatlan:
“ The French ship Roland, Captain Bajoux, was wrecked upon the Creston rocks, in our harbour. She was lying at anchor, bound for San Francisco, when a severe tempest sprang up in the night of the 10th, which resulted as above. Out of forty-five passengers, consisting of Americans, French, Mexicans, Spaniards, and the others who had already gone on board, twenty-five bave perished, baving most of them drowned--some, however, being severely bruised and wounded. Five of the sailors managed to get off into a boat, but suddenly the Roland went to pieces, and carried them down with her. The English frigate Champion rendered prompt and energetic aid to the sufferers. Eight of the passengers were picked up and saved by the British officers, whose conduct deserves the highest praise. Two of those officers are reported to have jumped overboard into the sea to rescue some drowning persons from the ill-fated ship. A man named Paul Adams was one out of eight saved by the officers of the Champion.”
16th. A company of United States troops, commanded by Captain H. B. Budd, had a fight with the Apache Indians at Los Vegas. It was represented as a hand to hand conflict. Lieut. Burnside and two others of the troop were wounded. A considerable number of the Indians were sabred-six prisoners and thirteen horses were brought in.
Several riots recently occurred at Montreal, one especially on the night of the 14th inst., when about thirty persons went into La Fontain's house, broke open the gates and entered the garden. A number of shots were fired by the persons in the house, said to be a body of disguised mounted police.
A man named Mason was shot, ten slugs entering his body, killing him almost instantly. A number of others are said to have been wounded.
There is a growing feeling in favour of the independence of Canada, or its annexation to the Union. A plan is suggested for the partition of the country into three States. The Montreal Gazette propounds this scheme; and the following are stated to be the division and boundaries proposed:
1. The State of Canada West, to include the whole of Upper Canada