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former period of her eventful history. With scription were the result, as well as a fluctuaevery opportunity of gratifying his revenge, tion of opinion and a disaffection towards and in opposition to the advice of his most the government.

That moral opposition intimate counsellors, not a single individual which was known to the whole of Europe was subjected to execution or imprisonment. did not escape the calculations of BuonaThe lives and the property even of the most parte, and he had no need of any other exconspicuous enemies of the house of Bourbon hortation to throw himself into the midst of were held as sacred. His dethronement was this discontent and these elements of disoccasioned by the facility of his teinper and cord.” the goodness of his intentions. He had not The individuals attached to his interests sufficient firmness to reject the counsels of consisted of all who had been indebted to his his favourites, and possessed too much virtue kindness for their wealth or political conseto yield to the profligate wishes of his army quence, and who were reduced to insignifiand his people. Had he forgotten his profes- cance or comparative poverty by his abdicasions, and done violence to his conscience; tion: functionaries whom the king had imhad he adopted the system of martial despot- prudently deprived of those emoluments ism, and pursued the career of lawless ambi- which they had enjoyed during twenty tion, he might have continued to reign, the years; and soldiers languishing in indolence idol of the French, and the terror of sur and penury. A large proportion also of the rounding nations.

French community: the licentious, the proThe personal friends of Napoleon, in fane, and the votaries of pleasure, were imFrance, were more enthusiastic than nume patient to be relieved from the rigid, austere,

He was beloved only by a few of the and devout regulations adopted by the Bourprincipal officers, whom he most had favour. bons. The observance of Sunday, and at ed; the others were afterwards attached to tendance on public worship, had long been a his cause by their love of war and plunder, novelty to the majority of the citizens of and by their respect for his military talents. Paris, and they dreaded the influence of a They would have followed, at the moment, government which should subject their haany leader, who would have given them as bits and amusements to religious restraints. fair a promise of the gratification of their fa We have already narrated the circumvourite propensities. The republicans and stances attending the exile of Napoleon to the constitutionalists regarded him with the isle of Elba. The reluctance with which mingled dread and aversion. Fouché, who he followed the cominissioners, and the tears must have been intimately acquainted with in which he was always surprised when for a the principles and views of all parties, asserts moment. he was left alone, shewed that he in his second memorial that It was not considered his loss of empire as final, and his from attachment to Buonaparte, it was still political life as terminated beyond the hope less from fidelity to his causė, that in the of a revival. He no sooner arrived at his month of March a part of France was seen new sovereignty than all the energies of his to associate itself with his destinies. He mind were directed to complete the fortificaowed his successes entirely to our discords, tions of his capital, to add to its embellishwhich made him be regarded by some as a · ment, and to improve the agriculture and liberator, and by others as an instrument: resources of the island.

His days passed and this instrument gave us much more rea away in the most pleasant occupations. All son for fear than for hope.” In another paper, his hours were filled up. That indefatigable addressed to the confederate powers, after activity which in other times he applied to the second abdication of Napoleon, Fouché the vastest conceptions of genius, he employremarks, Why should the truth be now ed on the island of Elba in studying the emconcealed. An imprudent and overwhelm- bellishment of the retreat which he had choing zeal for the rules and maxims of the an He rose before day, passed the hours cient monarchy led to the commission of till seven or eight o'clock in his library, and many faults Alarms of more than one de- then took some repose. He afterwards went

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out and visited all the works, and spent much beauty and fashion of Elba were assembled,
time in the middle of his workmen, among and dancing with great glee, when about
whom were many soldiers of the guard. Two inįdnight Buonaparte came, unexpected and
Italian architects traced, according to his or unescorted, in his barge, to join the festivity.
đers, plans of buildings on which he had de- He was very affable, and visited every part
termined. Whatever was the state of the of the ship, and all the amusements which
weather his majesty visited his country house had been prepared for the different classes of
of St. Martin, in the environs of Porto Fer- persons.
rajo. There, as in the city, the emperor was On his birth day, the 15th of August, he
occupied with the interior management of ordered the mayor to give a ball

, and for this his house, requiring an exact, account from purpose a temporary strueture, capable of the persons he employed, and entering into holding 300 persons, was to be erected, the the most trifling details of domestic and rural expence of the whole entertainment, and the economy. After breakfast he reviewed his building, to be defrayed by the inhabitants little

army. He required the greatest exact-themselves. These were unpropitious ausness in their exercises and mancuyres, and pices under which to commence a ball, and enforced the strictest discipline. After the accordingly nothing could have more comreview he mounted his horse for his morning pletely failed. His aunt, the two ladies of rides. Among his principal officers and at- honour, and madam Bertrand arrived, but tendants were inarshal Bertrand and general only 30 of the fair islanders were present, Drouet, who scarcely ever quitted him. On and Buonaparte, acquainted with the circumhis

way he gave audience to all whom he stance, did not attend. met. He listened to every complaint, and On the highest hill of the island was a redressed every well supported case of injury little church, in an almost inaccessible situaHe then returned to dinner. All who were tion. One of his party observed that it was admitted to his table were treated with the a most inconvenient site for a church, as no most perfect kindness and cordiality. Napo- congregation could attend it.“ It is on that leon appeared to have discovered the secret account," said Buonaparte,

more conveniof becoming a simple individual without

ent to the parson, who may preach what stuff descending from his dignity, and the conver he pleases without fear of contradiction.” As sation had all the careless freedom which they descended the hill, and met some peacould be enjoyed in the most familiar society. sants with their goats, who asked for charity, He early announced that he would hold a Buonaparte told a story which the present court and receive ladies twice a week. The circumstances brought to his recollection. first was held on the 7th of May, 1814, and When he was crossing the great St. Bernard, a great concourse attended their new sove- previously to the battle of Marengo, he met reign. Buonaparte at first paid great atten a goat herd, and entered into conversation tion to the women, especially to the hand- with him.

with him. The goat herd, little suspecting some ones, and asked them, in his rapid way, to whom he was speaking, lamented his own whether they were married? how many hard lot, and envied the riches of his neighchildren they had ? 'and who their husbands bours, who actually possessed cows and corn were? To the last question he received one fields. Buonaparte enquired, if some fairy universal answer. Every lady, according to were to offer to gratify all his wishes, what her own representation, was married to a he would ask. The poor peasant expressed, merchant, but when it came to be further ex in his own opinion, some very extravagant plained that they were merchant butchers, desires, such as a dozen of cows, a good farmand merchant bakers, his imperial majesty house, &c. Buonaparte, afterwards, recolpermitted some expressions of dissatisfaction lected the incident, and astonished the goat to escape him, and ily retired.

herd by the fulfilment of all his wishes. On the 4th of June there was a ball on When the emperor received the visit of board the British frigate in the harbour, in any stranger, which frequently happened, he honour of the king's birth day: the whole entertained him with grace and familiarity.

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He conversed with philosophers and learned staff, and asked him if there was the smallest men, of the Institute, and of the Royal So- chance of their surviving. He was told there ciety of London, on the recent discoveries in

Can they be moved with the natural philosophy, chemistry, galvanism, army? They will infect the rest of your and nosology. He congratulated the rich troops, sir.' " Then treat them as I should English landholders on the progress of their wish you to treat me in similar circumstances ; agriculture, and the liberality of their coun give them a dose of opium. Desjounettes try's laws, and talked with the military of started with horror and answered, Never, the historical memoirs which he was writing sir. My office is to cure and not to kill of his campaigus.

and I acknowledged that he was right, and The following interesting conversation is the men were left behind, but not poisoned. recorded by a gentleman who visited him in From Egypt,' he said, I returned to Paris, December, 1814.

where I lived for some time in private. One I found him standing by the fire, dressed day I saw in the paper a decree of the conin a very shabby uniform, with the grand vention, naming Buonaparte commander-incordon of the legion of honour. On being chief of the army. I bought the paper, and introduced to him, he bluntly asked me, with gave three-pence for it, not having the least # sharp piercing voice, “Where did you come idea it referred to myself, I went to a coftrom? From France, sire.' His tone and fee-house and began to inquire who this manner were immediately changed. With Buonaparte was, saying, that I was not aware the utmost affability he asked, What do of having a namesake so lucky. No one they say of me in France ? Speak freely.' knew. I walked down to where the con* The great mass of the people is decidedly vention sat. The doors of the house were attached to the Bourbons, but many remem crowded. I was soon recognized, and saluted ber you with affection, particularly the with the shout, “ Buonaparte, our little gearmy.'


, for ever." I now found a vacant throne, ** He then began his o orhistory, and went and no one ready to fill it. I seized on it. through it from his first signalizing himself Was I wrong? I am satisfied with what I at Toulon to his campaign in Egypt, on have done, and have the consolation to know which he enlarged with much complaceney that I have increased, rather than diminished I ventured to ask him whether he had au the happiness of France.' thorised the massacre at Jaffa. He acknow “ He then began about the Bourbons.ledged that he had; but vindicated his con • Lewis XVIII is a good nian; he has some duct on the score of the previous treachery talent; does he apply much?” Six hours of those very Turks, who had been released a day. * Much may be done in six hours. on parole, and who had again been taken in Monsieur has the manners of a gentleman, arms against him. He said that he had only but he has no application. The dukes of ten thousand men with him, and that he Angouleme and Berri are no great things; could neither retain the prisoners, nor, with --they are mere nothings.' He seemed to out the certainty of his own destruction, dis- know little of the duke of Orleans, and when miss them, as they would again have fought informed that be possessed superior talents, against him; and that he was therefore com- application and decision, he expressed consipelled to order all who were taken at Jaffa" derable surprise and much emotion. He to be shot. •I do not repent the action,' he then-spoke of the emperor

Alexander. He added, “ for in war whatever is expedient is a mere shuttlecock, and yet you have no and useful is lawful.'

idea how artful he is. The king of Prussia "I then questioned him with regard to his is a good man. He thinks himself very wise, poisoning the sick. He said that it was but in reality he is exceedingly weak, yet he partly true and partly false. On the eve of is a good man notwithstanding that. He a forced march some of his soldiers were re. next spoke of Talleyrand with the utmost ported to be dying of the plague. He sent asperity, and maliciously attributed to him for Desjounettes, the head of the medical crimes of which he was never guilty. He

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professed himself friendly to universal tolera- of Paris, and of his abdication. On these
tion ;-had favoured the Jews partly on prin- topics he would descant from hour to hour
ciple;-had built churches for all sects ; with the utmost vehemence, exhibiting in
blamed the restrictions on Roman Catholics very rapid succession traits of eloquence, of
in England as unworthy a great nation ;- military genius, of indignation, and of petu
declared that he had murdered neither Wright lant vanity. With regard to the audience
nor Pichegru.-In good faith,' said he, “they to whom he addressed these tirades, he was
were in prison, and there they died. Piche- far from scrupulous, and hardly any auditor
gru was without talent, without head. -- who approached in his moments of agitation
Moreau had almost made me repent


was excluded from his confidence.
clemency towards him; but no! I would not The number of works begun and finished
have injured his life. But I have been too in the space of ten months, under the ex-em-
inerciful. This has been my ruin. Had I peror's superintendance, might have seemed
spilled more blood, I might yet have filled to indicate that he regarded Elba as his final
the throne of France.'

and permanent residence. His palace at In another conversation a visitor said, “Your Porto Ferrajo was seated on a rock, between majesty has been much reproached on the ports Falcone and Etoile, on the Moulins subject of Moscow.' . You are right, I com Bastion. On his arrival it consisted of two mitted a great error there. What object principal wings, which served for lodgings had you in view in the conquest of Moscow ? to the superior officers of engineers and ar• To become master of the continent.' • And tillery. The emperor caused the interior of what then ? To compel your nation to be these wings to be decorated, and the centre just. Whither are you going?' • To Naples.' building, by which they were united, to be * You will see Murat there. That man has raised. He drew the plans himself, dictated no head. He has not one military idea, ex the internal arrangement, and superintended cept on the field of battle. When he has re the details. From the windows he had a ceived his orders, he piques himself on per- complete view of the whole country. He forming them. He is a god until five o'clock saw all that was passing in the town, and no at night. What will become of him ? You vessel, however small

, could enter the port will pass by Rome. The pope is an obsti- without his perceiving it. The front room nate old monk.'

formed one of the apartments intended for Lord Bentinck, lord Douglas, and a great the princess Pauline on the first story. number of other English gentlemen, were Napoleon,” says a French author, with an admitted, courted, and frequently treated air of wise importance, as if the subject were with fetes and exhibitions of fire-works.- of consequence,“ occupied the ground floor. They all returned with a deep impression of His mother had a small private house in the his intellectual superiority, and of his per- town.” The Emperor apparently forgot the sonal courtesy. One of them accompanied delusions of the active world in the tranquil Napoleon to the works of Porto Ferrajo: pleasures of calm retirement, and, as far as They met the grand marshal, who was com could be judged from his demeanour, found ing from the port and going towards the pa some consolation for all his misfortunes, and lace, with papers under his arm. “ Are they for the ingratitude of the French nation, in French journals ?” Yes, sire." “ Am I amusing and benevolent pursuits. well cut up?”. “ No, sire, there is no men But about the middle of autumn a striktion of your majesty to-day.” “ Come then, ing change was observable in his habits and we shall have it to-morrow. It is an inter- demeanour. He had, until that period, mitting fever ; but the fits will pass away.” evinced an apparent resignation to his fate.

But all his thoughts and conversation were His discourse was rational, and his conduct not as light and pleasant as these. Sometimes consistent. He displayed the greatest pre lie would indulge in accounts of the last dilection for the constant presence and society

, campaign, of his own views and hopes, of of sir Neil Campbell, the British accreditel the defection of the marshals, of the capture agent at Elba. It seemed as if he had no

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thing to conceal, and his conversation was rigorous ordinances of the catholic worship,
frank, loquacious, and even indiscreet. At actors and actresses are in a state of excom-
this moment he received a visit from some of munication; a stigma which deprived them
his family and friends who had just left Paris. of the benefits of Christian burial. Many
From that hour he became restless and dissa- years had passed since this barbarous exelu-
tisfied. He shunned the company of the sion had been enforced, an exclusion con-
British officer, and excluded himself from all demned by the catholics themselves, and pe-
society. The greater portion of the day was culiarly absurd and unjust, in a people who
employed in assiduous study or solitary con were enthusiastically fond of theatrical per-
templation, and his intimate companions formances, and who worshipped a Vestris or
dared not intrude on his retirement. He a Talma with as inuch enthusiasm as a Fe-
frequently wandered along the shore with nelon, or a Durell.
folded arms, and unequal and agitated step, The attendants on the remains of made-
while the embellishments of Porto Ferrajo, moiselle Raucour were astonished and dis-
and the improvements of the island, were mayed when they found the gates of the
no longer remembered.

church locked against them, and admission The conduct of that division of tlie Bour- positively refused; and their surprise was hons which supported the doctrines of divine succeeded by general indignation. The cries right and absolute authority, and the weak- of fury and vengeance, from an outrageous ness of the immediate representatives of the multitude, were heard in every part of the king, conspired to facilitate every ambitious capital, and every avenue within a quarter design that Napoleon might have formed or of a mile of the scene was blocked up by the matured in his solitude. Monsieur, previous populace. The doors of the church were to the arrival of his brother, in 1814, had forced, but no priest appeared. A message humanely, but hastily, proclaimed that the was therefore sent to the king, supplicating droits reunis, or consolidated duties of ex the interposition of his majesty, and an ancise, should be abolished. This pledge, so swer was immediately returned, that the solemnly but incautiously given, on a subject affair belonged to the jurisdiction of the of peculiar inportance, made a powerful im- church, and that the interference of the king pression on all the commercial towns, and with the spiritual authorities was impossible. naturally promoted the popularity of the The tumult increased, and the danger of inroyal cause. But, on opening the budget surrection became every inoment more visible, for the present year, it was discovered that when a second deputation proceeded to the the finances were in a state of so much dis- Thuilleries. At the same time a declaration order that the government could not exist was communicated to the court, on the part without the tax; and Louis was compelled of all the actors, actresses, and performers, in to continue a burthen which Monsieur had Paris, that if the remains of mademoiselle neither right nor authority to abolish. The Raucour were not instantly admitted to the conduct of the sovereign, in permitting the privileges of Christian sepulture, they would resumption of these duties, was represented in a body read their recantation, and adopt as a flagrant instance of perfidy and oppres the Lutheran or Calvanistic faith. It is not sion.

difficult to determine whether the impruThe jcalousy in which the priesthood were dence of the king, or the profligate and inheld, and the indifference of the people to re- pudent disregard of all religious principle, ligious edicts and ceremonies, were exaspe- displayed in the declaration of the performers, rated by a singular and disgraceful occur was most deserving of reprehension. The rence. Mademoiselle Raucour, a celebrate bigotted, yet well meaning, policy of Louis actress, and a woman of respectable character, might be excused, but the shameless defiance died at the age of sixty. Her corpse, at- of every religious feeling, and the open tended by a train of carriages, and a large avowal of a resolution to change their belief, concourse of people, was brought for inter from simple motives of resentment and conment to the church of St. Roque. By the venience, deserved the most severe reproba

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