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tion. The menace, however profane and in The body of his majesty was presented to us. decorous as it was, fulfilled its purpose.
In It was clothed in a white waistcoat, with answer to the second message an order was breeches of grey silk, and stockings of the brought back to receive the corpse, and read same colour. We(M. Damoreau and myself) the funeral service. The concession was re sung
and recited all the usual ceived by the multitude as an assurance of prayers for the burial of the dead; and I can peace, and in the midst of repeated acclama- say with truth, that the very same populace, tions the funeral ceremonies were partially who had lately made the air resound with performed. The troops, instead of repress- their vociferations, listened to the prayers for ing the tumult, évinced an inclination to the soul of his majesty in solemn silence. support the populace. They had been di- Before the body was let
down into the grave, rected to admit only a certain number of which was about ten feet distant from the mourners and attendants into the church, but wall of the churchyard, a layer of quicklime all had been suffered to pass, and the sacred was thrown into the grave by order of the edifice was crowded. The tapers which had executive. The corpse was then covered been prepared for an approaching festival with a similar layer of quicklime, and next a were lighted up, and the performers at the quantity of earth was thrown in, and the opera, and the principal theatres, chaunted a whole beaten down several times. We resolemn anthem. The aların excited by this tired in silence after this too painful cereevidence of attachment to religious institu mony; and, as far as I can recollect, a mitions, in the sovereign, was confirmed by the nute of the whole was drawn up by the jusinstitution of a perpetual mass for the soul tice of peace, which was signed by the two of Louis XVI. : an excusable and interesting members of the department, and the two of proof of fraternal affection, but exciting many the commune. On
returning to the church, unpleasing emotions and remembrances. The I entered the burial in a register, which was day on which the bones of that inonarch and afterwards carried off by the members of the his queen were removed to the cathedral of revolutionary committee, when the church St. Denis was ordered to be kept as a solemn was shut up.” fast; the military were required to attend the Then follows an account of the disinterpublic mass. They obeyed the mandate, but ment. in alınost every place they disturbed the so “ After having, by means of some worklemnity of the rites, and appeared disposed men, one of whoin was present at the queen's for open 'mutiny; The ceremony was re- interment, opened the ground to an externt garded as a punishment inflicted on all who of ten feet in length, by five or six in breadth, were concerned in the deed, or connected and to the depth of about five feet, we came with the parties of the revolution. It con to a layer of lime from ten to eleven inches firmed the suspicions already entertained of in thickness, which we caused to be carefully the superstition and bigotry of the court, and removed, and under which we found a very revived the recollection of crimes and errors distinct impression of a coffin, of about five which it was the interest of all parties to for
for- feet and a half, or thereabouts, in length, get. On this occasion the following declara which impression was traced out amidst a tion, on oath, of the late vicar of the Magda- thick layer of lime, and along which there len church, and the report of the commis were found various fragments of plank still sioners appointed to recover the body, were untouched. We found within this outline, published in the Moniteur.
formed by the coffin, a great number of bones, “ On the 21st of January, 1793, the mem which we carefully collected; some, however, bers of the department and the commune in were wanting, which doubtless had been reformed me, that the orders they had received duced to dust : but we found the head entire, required them not to lose sight of the body and the position in which it was placed shewof his majesty. We were, therefore, obliged ed incontestibly that it had been detached to accompany them to the cemetery. On from the trunk. We also found some frag our arrival there I caused silence to be kept. ments of clothing-in particular two elastic
garters, in tolerable preservation, which we the remains of the queen were deposited
* The workmen opened in our presence a renounced his romantic projects of universal
“ We searched carefully for the remains of a point of extreme moment, and until a Neaany trace of clothing, without being able to politan army could approach the north of discover any; no doubt because the quantity Italy, Buonaparte's situation must have been of lime being much more considerable, had desperate, supposing him to have received a produced a greater effect. We collected all check in the south of France, at the outset the relics which we could perceive in this of his expedition. A series of dark intrigues confused mass of earth and lime, and placed therefore commenced between the principal them together in a large sheet prepared for conspirators and king Joachim, which ended the purpose, as also many pieces of the lime in his winding up his courage to the perilous yet entire.
achievement which they recommended. In “ We enclosed them with respect in a the north of Italy were many officers and large box, which we fastened, and sealed with soldiers who formerly served under Eugene the signet of the arms of France. We then Beauharnois, and it was reasonably believed, carried this box into the same chamber where considering the weak state of the Austrians,
that the army of Murat might, at least, have prehension of intrigues in the army, and in made their
the capital, and the importance attached by by the union of these veterans.
a considerable portion of the officers to their Internally, the subordinate agents were chief, in justification of their personal honour surprisingly active and successful. They before they left him. Lord Castlereagh stat. haunted the coffee-houses and brothels of the ed his objections to the treaty, but TalleyPalais Royal, those assemblages of every rand replied, that " he considered it, on the thing that is desperate and profligate. part of the provisional government, as an “ Buonaparte,” exclaimed a royalist to an object of the first importance to avoid any English traveller, " had with him all the thing that might assume the character of roguc-men, and all the rogue-women, and in civil war even for the shortest time : that he our country they are nineteen out of twenty." also found some such measures essential to One of these places of nocturnal rendezvous, make the army pass over in a temper to be called the Coffe Montaussier, was distinguish- made use of.” The other plenipotentiaries ed by the audacity with which its frequenters coinciding in these remarks, lord Castlereagh discussed national politics, and the vociferous withdrew his opposition, but declared himviolence with which they espoused the cause self, on the part of his government, to be no of the dethroned emperor. That the police, more than an acceding party to the treaty; whose vigilance extended, in Buonaparte's “ I should have wished,” says lord Castle reign, to the fire-side and bed-chamber of reagh, " to substitute another position in liell every citizen, should have overlooked, or ob- of Elba, for the seat of Napoleon's retirement, served, with supine indifference, those indi- but none, having the quality of security to cations of treason, in places open for public his person on which he insisted, seemed disrendezvous, arguès the incapacity of the su- posable, to which equal objections did not perior directors, and the treachery of those occur; and I did not feel that I could encolla whom they employed. Even the partial rage the alternative which M. de Caulincourt discovery of a correspondence between gene- assured me Buonaparte repeatedly mentionral Excelmans and Murat, served but to ed, namely, an asylum in England.” shew the imbecility of a government which But if it were necessary to acquiesce in his could not, or durst not, bring him to pu- selection of Elba, as the place of his abode, nishment. The epistolary intercourse with it might at least have been expected that the the isle of Elba was carried on with such coast and shore of the island would have been perfect security, that Buonaparte even deter- watched with the utmost precaution. But mined to come secretly to Paris, to concert the allies, in the delirium of their triumph, the necessary plans, and animate the con appear to have forgotten the enterprising spirators by his presence. He was only dis and active character of that individual, over suaded from so hazardous an enterprise by whose discomfiture and exile they were now the persuasions of Bertrand, who was then ostentatiously exulting. The British governdispatched to the capital with unlimited ment participated in this fallacious imprespowers.
sion of security. Sir Neil Campbell, the The danger to be apprehended from the British commissioner, unequivocally stated exile of Napoleon to a central position, like his opinion that some plot was in agitation. that of Elba, had been suggested to the allied He made frequent visits to the continent, to monarchs, by lord Castlereagh, immediately watch the intrigues of Napoleon, and he did previous to their signature of the treaty of not fail to report the alarming circumstances Paris. The motive which influenced the which he had occasion to observe. It would allies in concluding that treaty on terms so not have been difficult, even without insultfavourable to their enemy were, the incon- ing the dignity of Napoleon, or infringing on venience, if not the danger, of Napoleon's re his rights, especially as we were not parties maining at Fontainbleau, surrounded by to the treaty of Paris, to have stationed a fer troops who still in a considerable degree re- frigates round the island, and have rendered mained faithful to their commander: the ap- it impossible to escape with sufficient force
ence, “ Do
to effect his landing. Except a satisfactory part of the police. Indeed, so gross was reason be assigned for the omission of these their negligence, that a Frenchman, finding measures, posterity will attribute much of his friend ignorant of some well known piece the waste of blood and treasure, occasioned of news, observed, in reply, “ I suppose you by the new revolution, to the criminal su- belong to the police," as if to belong to that pineness of the British ministry.
body inferred à necessary ignorance of every If some blame may be attributed to the thing of importance that was going forward British government, the conduct of the in the kingdom. French cabinet evinced a blind security, bor The ladies were dressed in violet coloured dering on insanity. In the month of No. silks, and wore artificial violets on their bonvember, a stranger waited on one of the mi- nets. The watch-ribbands of the men were nisters, and offered to communicate impor- violet. When a partizan of Napoleon met tant state discoveries. It was agreed that he a Frenchman, whose sentiments he wished should receive for his disclosures the sum of to discover, he asked with apparent indiffer60001, and he then detailed the whole of the
love the violet.” If the anconspiracy to effect the escape of Napoleon, swer was simply “Yes," it was concluded and to erect his standard in France. The that he did not belong to the treasonable minister, instead of consulting with his col- party, but if he replied “ Ah!" and seemed leagues, communicated the secret to one of to understand the allusion, the sentence was the agents of police. He was a friend of completed by the enquirer, “ Ah! It will Buonaparte, and a conspirator, and he took appear again in the spring" “ The violet so adroit an advantage of the information which will appear in the springs was the thus unwarily given, that nothing criminal usual toast at convivial parties. appeared against his accomplices, and the in At this portentous moment, to the utter former was branded as an impostor, and de- surprise and dismay of the friends of loyalty, prived of his reward.
Soult was appointed minister at war. Of his In the bureau of the Abbé de Montesquieu, personal attachment to Buonaparte no doubt the minister of the home department, several could be entertained, as it is ascertained beletters were afterwards found unopened.- yond the possibility of dispute, that he fought They were written by the prefect of the the sanguinary battle of Thoulouse three days Var, the department in which Napoleon after he had been informed of Napoleon's landed, were dated in the latter end of Janu- abdication, in the futile hope of retrieving ary, and informed the minister, that from the his affairs. By whatever motives he might repeated passage of suspected persons to and be influenced, it is certain, that in the prefrom Elba, he could not but entertain strong sent emergency he acted exactly as the suspicions of some dangerous plot. Other friends of Buonaparte must have desired.communications, apparently thrown aside The most loyal of the troops were removed without being read, disclosed the names of to a distance, and all the military friends of the conspirators, requested instructions in the ex-emperor were recalled from the Rhine what manner to proceed, and urged the ne and the Garonne, and quartered on the route cessity of an armed force, to arrest the pro which he afterwards pursued. gress of the traitors on their first landing. The British government had been confiHad it not been for this unparalleled and al dentially informed of these proceedings, and most incredible neglect, Europe would have the very time of the explosion was predicted. been saved the horrors of a sanguinary con The proclamation of Napoleon to his partitest, but she might have lost a useful lesson, zans had been confided by a Frenchman to
The well known symbol of the violet, by Mr. Playfair, who transmitted that docuwhich the friends of Buonaparte intimated ment, together with the cypher in which it his return to France with the appearance of was written, to Lord Liverpool's office, but that flower in spring, was generally known received, in return for his patriotism and inand adopted two months at least previous to genuity in deciphering, only insult and nehis landing, vet attracted no attention on the glect!' The cypher is probably superior to
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C Z 11 0 P b с
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0 I a
d f K X
f M u W X
Z N a
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Z P a
e f Qs t u W
у cd e f S
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у h WIX
any which has yet been used in political in- is the first letter of the proclamation, and
placed underneath it, viz. n, is that which is
ing letter to, n, in the division opposite that
“ Frenchmen ! Your country was betray-
ed: your emperor alone can replace you in
"His eagles will again soar on high, and
So early as the spring of the year 1814, the duke of Otranto, Fouché, foreseeing the evils which were about to menace his coun
try, and sacrificing his personal attachment bc
i k 1
to Napoleon to the interests of the nation,
faithfully stated opinions, with equal impar-
vernment. The character of Fouché had A proclamation, in cypher, from Buonaparte been formed in the school of indigence and in the hands of one or more persons, in al austerity. He was born in the year 1748
of most every regiment in the scrvice,
poor parents, vintagers, near Nantes, in
Britanny. A beggar boy in the streets of “ Neyiptuhklmepenelzinwicetttklmeprtgzkp the city, he was noticed and adopted, from Achwhrdpkdabkfkntzimepunggwymgftgq motives of benevolence, by the friars of the Ffdesreuwxqfkzxbelignfmysnqangopolfa order called oratoire. At an early age he PmmlampabJarwccqzuanruvzskqdknh
was received as a novice, and afterwards as a Hihydghtbailxdfqkngtxyrogwgrlnlwtoy member, of the order. Several years before Pberzepbgairfygkpzawrwleipdgacrkff
the revolution he spread disunion and disconmwzfergpech."
tent throughout the convent, and although The same deciphered by means of the table his superiors condemned him, at different and key.
times, to severe penance, and close confineFrançais! votre pays etait trahi, votre ment, it produced no perceptible influence empereur seul peut vous remettre dans la on his conduct. After the destruction of the position splendide que convient a la France. order of Jesuits, the education of youth in Donnez toute votre confiance a celui qui France was entrusted to their rivals
, the vous a toujours conduit a la gloire.
friars of the order of oratoire. The prin“ Ses aigles planeront encore en l'air, et ciples of Fouché, at that period, may be obetonneront les nations."
served in the conduct of his pupils. During The key (which, it will be seen, may be the civil troubles in Britanny, in 1788, most changed at pleasure) was in this instance, of them left Nantes, to join the revolutionary La France et ma famille. (France and my standard at Rennes. Some of their number family.)
obtained considerable eminence, and others It is thus used
were consigned to the scaffold. No sooner L being the first letter of the key, refer to were the inonastic institutions abolished by that letter in the first column of the cipher the national assembly, than Fouché apostain capitals; then look for the letter f, which tized and married. Having thus incurred