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soundly on his pillow after voting for ex- sometimes look a little into the conduct of pulsion.

the judges. The property, liberty, and chaLord Castlereagh entreated the house to racter of the people were deeply interested pause, and not let their feelings mislead them. in such a protection; and he had no notion It might be much better to run the hazard of being led into so much awe and reverence of letting individuals remain among them, for the courts, that the house should suffer with a stain upon them, than to risk a mea- themselves to hesitate in granting protection sure which lowered the exalted character of whenever a case justified to interference. If the public tribunals. Would they delegate it had been represented by the judge, that a sort of star-chamber above stairs, to review Berenger did appear before Lord Cochrane the proceedings of the first criminal court in in his red coat, stars, and various orders, the land ? Could the house call the prosecu. more like a mountebank than an officer, and tors, and hear the cause from beginning to there was no evidence given to that effect, end? What person convicted might not he thought that was a case sufficient for the hereafter suggest doubts to parliament? The house to inquire into. Lord C. had seized same plea might be made for all.

the first moment to entreat a hearing; and Mr. Stuart

Wortley confessed, that after having obtained it, declared on his honour all he could read on the matter he had that he was innocent; and such a declaration some doubts : now he had great ones. The from a man of a profession, the life and soul circumstances might have been brought about of which was honour and glory, ought to by others, without the noble Lord's guilt; have weight. As to the rule, he did not and therefore he could not sleep on his pil- think it was law. Lord C. appeared but low, if he voted for expulsion.

slightly connected with the transaction, and Mr. Bankes saw no third mode of pro appeared drawn into it by his relation; and ceeding that would not create a pernicious he approved of the mode of defence of his precedent. They ought not to step out of noble friend, for he would call him.so, betheir natural wholesome functions to attack cause he verily believed that he was truly the Chief Justice and the jury.

innocent; and he should have thought that Mr. Whitbread asked, were they prepared the noble and heroic exploits he had achievto vote expulsion, which was called no pu ed ought to have protected him against nishment, without a full conviction of guilt, one part of the sentence, at least, even if for the exalting the character of the house, guilty, and which was to the majority of the whose purity was such, that suspicion was country cruel, disgusting, and dreadful benever to alight upon it? Would it not be

Would it not be yond example. When, some years back, a among the bitterest moments of any gentle forged French

newspaper

made its appearman's life to know that he had been expelled ance in this country, no prosecution whatever from the house ? He felt all the difficulties had been instituted against the fabrication, respecting the appointment of committees. though the object undoubtedly had been to The question was, whether he had doubts of raise the funds. Such a practice was only the noble Lord's guilt? He must confess, that accounted a misdemeanour, and liable to be after his defence, the bent of his mind was, punished by six months imprisonment. But that he might appear wholly guiltless. There Lord C., with those feelings natural to his was an innate value in some points, notwith rank and to his profession, was to be punishstanding the noble Lord's injudicious mode, ed with the pillory. The Attorney-General by which he seemed to embody the whole had given his sentiments: formerly that feeling of the house against him. Now, how officer had no seat in the house. The learnever, he did doubt his guilt: and if com ed gentleman had not negatived a single pelled to a vote, he would say “ No,” to ex point of the speech of Lord C.; but had pulsion.

praised the Chief Justice, and the trial by Sir F. Burdett was not an advocate for the jury, drawing largely upon his own elo interfering unnecessarily; but it was of the quence, and the ignorance of his audience. highest importance that the house should He knew something of the mode of striking.

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special juries; and he believed it would have under the present system, seeins to be incur.' been difficult to find a common jury who able. Some pardonable faults have no doubt would have condemned Lord C. It was been committed by the people, and great most unnatural to suppose, that a man so crimes by the demagogues who are always indifferent about money as Lord C. would at work to agitate the public mind, but the become a swindler, and that he who was one very success of such attempts, and the eagerday a hero, would the next be a cheat. ness shewn by the people to second them,

Mr. Wilberforce. The house was not afford a strong presumption that there is qualified to act as a court of justice. Of this something in the political state of Ireland they seemed sensible, when they renounced which demands a remedy. The manifold the

power of deciding on contested elections. errors of the government of Ireland, comThe sentence of a court of justice had been mitted in past times, have left in the present hitherto untainted by the breath of calumny; agè evils so difficult to be corrected, that and our administration of justice had been those who are most ardent in the cause of extolled among foreign nations as the most improvement have often been deterred by excellent institutions; the greatest among the arduous nature of the task, and by the great, and the fairest among the fair, the violence and dissatisfaction which centu

The motion for expulsion was carried. ries of misgovernment and oppression have

It is a circumstance no less singular than produced among the Irish people. It is no unfortunate that Ireland, with the great ca easy task to remove the barriers which an pacity which she unquestionably has for im- ancient tyranny has established in its own provements of every kind, and the ample support, and to produce, amidst the conflictmeans which she possesses of adding to the ing struggle of unpropitious circumstances, power and prosperity of the empire, should any immediate improvement on the state of hitherto, on almost every occasion where the this unhappy country. To add to the other energies of the country were called forth, misfortunes of Ireland, a great proportion of have repressed rather than augmented our her people profess a religion which is not the exertions. With a fertile soil, considerable religion of the state, and which is avowedly wealth, and a numerous population, at once odious to all the professors of the reformed adventurous and brave, instead of promoting belief. It cannot be wonderful that in a the general interests of the united kingdom, country thus situated frequent symptoms of she has too often presented the most serious disaffection to government, and a general obstruction to the proceedings of govern- spirit of distrust and discord should prevail. ment. The truth is, that Ireland has always Whatever relates to Ireland must always been agitated by much deep and alarming be interesting to those who know what the discontent, and that many of the most daring inhabitants of that country might be made, and active of her people are employed in and what they actually are. devising means by which a separation may indeed, affect to believe that the Irish are be accomplished. It is the misfortune of the naturally so vicious, that no measures of goIrish nation that the lower orders become an vernment, no length of time, could reform unsuspicious and easy prey to all classes of them: but how these people would ridicule adventurers, and their ardent spirits, and ill the notion that the Turks were naturally so regulated habits, are seduced into enterprises bad that they could not be made better? If of the most hazardous and attrocious nature. such an opinion were avowed, would they It may seem strange that, situated in the not immediately reply, that the fault was immediate neighbourhood of a great and en with the government, not with nature ? At lightened country, enjoying all the advan- the same time it must be admitted that the tages of an easy and unrestricted intercourse, Irish catholics (for in speaking of the Irish and possessing the benefits of a political they are to be principally if not exclusively union with a people far advanced in wealth considered) in many respects conduct themand knowledge, she should still exhibit, selves as if they thought that it would be smidst all her virtues, a barbarism which, better to irritate than to soothe the English

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government, better to augment than to see and the catholic clergy in the British do-
diminish the evils of which they complain. minions, under such restrictions only as were
This character applies more particularly to suggested in the late bill.
the catholic committee of Ireland, whose It is easy to perceive that the writer of
proceedings have already alienated from their this letter is, in fact, disposed to concede the
cause many of their most conscientious and veto ; and it was therefore not to be expected
respectable advocates. In our last volume that he would have much influence with the
we mentioned that the violent Irish catholics Irish catholics. Such was the case ; and
rejoiced at the failure of the bill brought into those men who were represented as so de-
parliament for their relief, which they repre- voted to the pope, and so entirely governed
sented as an insult to the religion whose pro- by the authority of the church, were found
fessors it was intended to relieve.

refusing to acknowledge the authority of the
In this opinion of the bill they expected pope's representative. This difference of
they would receive the sanction of the pope; opinion necessarily weakened their cause ;
but if his opinion were to be gathered from and as the catholic committee still went on
that of Monsignore Quarantotti, president in the same violent manner, refusing that li-
of the sacred missions in his absence, it was berty and toleration to others which they
strongly adverse to them. In an official and claimed for themselves, and at the same time
public letter he styled the bill which was re- accusing each other of insincerity, it is not
jected, a most desirable measure, which, if it to be wondered at if the catholic cause in
were to be passed into a law, the catholics Ireland rather retroceded than advanced dur-
ought not only to receive with pleasure, but ing the year 1814.
to yield to their sovereign and to both houses The only circumstances in which the con-
of parliament unfeigned gratitude, and to dition of Ireland appeared to be improved,
show themselves by their future conduct was its agriculture : it was ascertained by the
worthy of so great an indulgence. In his evidence and the documents laid before the
letter he lays down this maxim,-upon which, committee of the House of Commons on the
however, it is vain and absurd to expect that corn trade, that the impor

ion of wheat the Irish will act while they labour under from Ireland into Great Britain had very civil as well as religious oppression,—that much increased within these few years; and they should not mix themselves with civil that this increased importation was owing to affairs : he admits that the government ought a spirit of agricultural improvement which to be freed from every reasonable doubt of had pervaded many parts of that island. But the fidelity, submission and allegiance, of much still remains to be done, even for the those who profess the catholic religion; and agriculture of Ireland; for how can improvemore especially of thosė who are admitted to ments be permanent, or carried on with that holy orders, or raised to the episcopal rank; spirit and to that extent which will render that, with respect to the latter, it would be them advantageous both to the individuals reasonable and just that the king should concerned and to the nation at large, while name commissioners to examine whether the it is actually dangerous in many parts to candidates were perfectly unexceptionable in take a farm, since the dispossession of a napoint of loyalty and obedience to the laws; tive, or an advance of rent, will expose

the that foreigners, or those who had not resided new comer to assassination? In fact, till within the realm for five years, should not be the minds and the morals of the Irish nation admitted to the exercise of ecclesiastical func are improved, it is in vain to expect, either tions; that, on the death or promotion of a that the soil will be as productive as nature bishop, the clergy of the diocese should re seems to have intended it should be, or that commend to the king a person as successor, the inhabitants will be as happy in themand, if disapproved, should recommend others selves, and as high among European nations, until the king should be satisfied; and that as their warm hearts and excellent talents the king's commissioners should inspect all entitle them to be. letters which might pass between the Roman But we cannot unfold the causes of the

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low condition in which Ireland has so long peasantry were liable excited that irritation been placed, or of the discontents that con- and ferocity, against which the state of igstantly agitate her peasantry, more fully or norance they were suffered to grovel in, satisfactorily than by laying before our rea without care or education, offered little corders the substance of the charge of justice rection to prevent a deluded people from exFletcher at the Tipperary assizes :-in it posing themselves to the punishment of those there undoubtedly are some exaggerations, laws which they set at defiance. Much also and some partial and unfounded statements; was to be attributed to the enormous rise of but on the whole it lays open many of the lands, occasioned by the deluge of paper most fruitful sources of Ireland's grievances, money and extraordinary calls occasioned by which the British government ought to re- the war for all the produce of the earth, by dress, not merely from a wish to benefit that which every necessary of life increased so country alone, but England also; for the much in its value. He repeated, that the strength and happiness of Ireland will most prosperity of the country brought mischief materially add to the strength and happiness to the peasant: after his landlord and his of Britain,

taxes he had the clergyman and the proctor; His Lordship made some preliminary ob- the latter, who was paid, with execrations, servations on the general duty of the grand for an agency that was odious; and the forjuror's office; bound as he was from the sta mer paid with reluctance by those to whom, tion in which he was placed, between the as a pastor, they looked for no spiritual comgovernment and the people, to a scrupulous fort. It was not, his Lordship emphatically inquiry into the ground of every matter of said, to be understood, that in any case the presentment. After his Lordship had expa- established clergyman got the full value of tiated on this topic, he proceeded to notice his tithes; but it was not to be wondered at more particularly the state of the country. that much dissatisfaction should be excited From the appearance of the calendar, al- by the tithes-farmer, who kept to himselt so though the quantity of criminal business was great a portion of what he exacted from the very great, he found it had been exceeded poor under the title of the clergyman. This on recent occasions, and hoped he might con- latter class, his Lordship said, ought, for gratulate the country, from this comparison, their own sakes, to establish a system as mothat some improvement had fortunately derate as consisted with their situation ; for, taken place in the public manners. If, how- surely, in point of personal interest, it was ever, unhappily, the country continued to be wise in them to secure a certain income by disturbed, notwithstanding the enactment of encouraging tillage under moderate charges, law after law, enforcing a coercion unknown rather than drive the farmer to a system of to the constitution, it showed most clearly pasturage, by which, under the agistment that the check against this contagion was to law, the tithes would be lost altogether. be found only in the exertions of the upper From this countenance and kindness, from a classes

. He had often heard it sneeringly wise liberality in the landlords, the tenantry observed of the Irish character, that, contrary would naturally be led, during the present to all other countries, they had become more state of depression in the value of their

probarbárous as they increased in that wealth duce, to look for assistance and encourageand those comforts which tended to civilise ment; and the landlords could not well set all the rest of the world. How the system up any argument to resist this appeal to of outrage which took place among the lower their consideration, when they reflected on orders here was to be accounted for, he did the failure of the corn bill, to the protection not know. It could not be extenuated or

of which the farmer had looked with so much justified any where; but in other places with hope and anxiety. But no man on these ac which he was familiar, there were many na counts, or any of them, was to violate the tural causes to which this unfortunate spirit laws: and it was only by the exertions of of insubordination could naturally be referred, such men as he then addressed, that the ad. The severe and heavy burdens to which the vantages and blessings of that peace and

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obedience were to be expected, in the imó called for, would, he hoped, be imposed by provement of which they had no excuse for them: he trusted that not a single pound apathy or relaxation. In other counties, his would be raised upon the country to gratify Lordship said, he found also that murmurs that vile spirit of jobbing, which he had witand discontent arose from the conduct of the nessed in other counties; but, on the contrary, clergy, not of the established church, looking that the gentlemen whom he addressed would for an increase of those voluntary contribu- be governed by the most conscientious scruple tions from which they derived their only in levying the public money, and by the misupport; and in some of those places the nutest scrutiny in inquiring into its fair and lower orders had not been refrained from just expenditure. This part of their duty acts of violence to prevent exactions. But was one, his Lordship said, in which the caif every man in the higher ranks of life would pacity even of the peasant was capable of individually exert himself

, it would be easy forming a proper estimate; and every man's to come at the root of all those evils of which reasoning would point out to him where we complained. To effect this, the great and grants were made for the purpose of public opulent landholder, instead of standing at his convenience and accommodation, or to put post ready at all times to support the laws of money into the private pockets of indivihis country and to promote its peace and duals; for it was impossible that the peasant prosperity, should not desert that country to should not feel, at the means which should spend its produce in another, and leave his administer to the hunger and nakedness of tenantry to the management of a griping his children, being diverted to any of those agent, whose only object was by misrepre- improper purposes, or submit to the disconsentation and deception to grasp all he could tented sentiment, that all law was made for the gratification of his own avarice. It against him, and no law for him. Let him, was to men such as he was addressing that said his Lordship, have, from bodies such as it particularly belonged to have a close and you, the protection he claims at your hands, watchful eye on the conduct of the magis- and no such unworthy idea will ever arise in tracy, in the exercise of those powers which, his mind. Let himn see that all public grants in fact, superseded the old constitution. They are for public purposes, and to promote genewere on the spot, and could trace every mis ral intercourse, and you encourage hiin to chief that arose from zeal or supineness. bear up against his burdens. His Lordship The latter was, in all cases, reprehensible and was glad to bear testimony, that he no where disgraceful: the former became baneful only found, accompanying the most disgraceful when it brought an over vigilance of power outrages, any thing like a conspiracy against into action to administer to some private the government, or a correspondence with purpose; when men cram the gaols with that great bad power, whose state was fallen, their miserable fellow-creatures, merely to he hoped, never to rise again. His Lordship show the extravagance of their loyalty.--No directed the most particular attention of the thing, said his Lordship, could beget amongst grand jury to the subject of private distillathe multitude a proper respect for the laws, tion-an evil which struck at the revenue,

more than the observation that the scales of which it defrauded to the amount of two : justice were too steadily and firmly placed millions of money in the year; at the comto be warped by any little feelings of cabal forts of all classes of life, by rendering it neor party. But of the two descriptions of cessary to resort to other sources of taxation men to whom he alluded, he did not know in order to meet the losses occasioned by this whether the apathy of the one or the vigi- fraud; and at the morals of the poor, who lance of the other was more criminal or mis were become so perfectly familiarized with chievous. His Lordship earnestly recom- perjury in defending themselves and their mended a strict frugality in the admeasuring neighbours against prosecutions for this ofof those public burdens which it was com fence, that all the sanction of an oath was pulsory for them to lay upon the country; obliterated in the districts where it was prac. and not a shilling which was not imperiously tised. His Lordship again adverted to the

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