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tion; as the man who had disciplined the mation of the house, his Grace the Duke of Portuguese levies, making them troops wor Wellington was in attendance. This was a thy to take the field with the British. . memorable scene.

All the members unco. Addresses to his Royal Highness the vered, rose, and enthusiastically cheered him Prince Regent, concurring in all his recom as he entered, dressed in his Marshal's uni. mendations, were moved and carried in suc- form, profusely decorated with military orcession, with entire unanimity, and the said ders, and bowing repeatedly to the house. addresses ordered to be presented by the The Duke seated himself in the chair of Lords with white staves.

ceremony, which was placed a few feet from. House of Commons, May 12.-A com the bar, and put his hat on. The members mittee upon

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messages of the Prince Re- of the house then resumed their seats, when gent being gone into by the whole house, his Grace instantly rose, took off his hat, and the Chancellor of the Exchequer took a wide addressed the Speaker to the following effect : survey of the military character of the Duke: “ Mr. Speaker, I was anxious to be permitted of Wellington and the other general officers to attend this house, in order to return my specified in those messages, and concluded thanks in person for the honour done me in by moving that the sum of 10,000l. be paid deputing a committee of the house to conannually out of the consolidated fund for the gratulate me on my return to this country. use of the Duke of Wellington, to be at any After the house had animated my exertions time commuted for the sum of 300,000l. to by their applause on every occasion that apbe laid out on the purchase of an estate. On peared to them to meet their approbation; the question being put, Mr. Whitbread ob- and after they had recently been so liberal jected to the proposed grant, because it was in the bill by which they followed up the not sufficiently large, and he did not approve gracious favour of his Royal Highness

the of the proposition that if the sum was found Prince Regent, in conferring upon me the inadequate a second application might be noblest gift a subject has ever received, I. made. No time ought to be delayed in hope I shall not be thought presumptuous making such a provision as was commensu if I take this opportunity of expressing my rate to the service rendered, and the dignity admiration at the great efforts made by this conferred. The house should have in con house, and by the country, at a moinent of templation to settle the Duke of Wellington unexampled pressure and difficulty, in order on a great landed estate, and in a noble to support, on a great scale, those operations house in some part of the country; and the by which the contest in which we were ensum proposed was not sufficient for such a gaged has been brought to so fortunate a purpose. Mr. Ponsonby moved to add conclusion. By the wise policy of Parlia100,000l. to the proposed sum. The Chan- ment, government were enabled to give the cellor of the Exchequer observed in reply, necessary support to the operations carried that no pecuniary reward could be equal to on under my direction. The confidence rethe services of the Duke of Wellington. He posed in me by his Majesty's ministers, and would therefore propose 400,000!. and aug. by the commander-in-chief, the gracious fament the annuity to 13,000l. per annum; so vours conferred on me by his Royal Highthat, with the sum of 100,000t. already grant- ness the Prince Regent, and the reliance I ed, half a million would be placed at the dis- had on the support of my gallant friends the posal of the Duke of Wellington, Mr, general officers, and the bravery of the offiWhitbread replied, that this addition made cers and troops of the army, encouraged me the act complete, and he was perfectly satis to carry on the operations in which I was fied. After the resolution had been unani- engaged, in such a manner as to draw from mously carried, grants of two thousand this house those repeated marks of their appounds per annum were conferred upon probation for which I now retum them my Lords Lyndoch, Hill, and Beresford. In the sincere thanksa Sir, it is impossible for me House of Commons (July 1) Lord Castle to express the gratitude which I feel. I can reagh stated, that in consequence of the inti- only assure the house, that I shall always be

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ready to serve my king and country in any pires. For the repeated thanks and grants capacity in which my services may be con bestowed upon you by this house, in gratisidered as useful or necessary.”

tude for your many and eminent services, Loud cheers followed this speech, at the you have thought fit this day to offer us your conclusion of which;

acknowledgments; but this nation well The speaker rose, took off his hat, and ad- knows that it is still largely your debtor.. dressed the Duke of Wellington as follows: It owes to you the proud satisfaction, that

My Lord, since last I had the honour of amidst the constellations of illustrious warriaddressing you from this place, a series of ors, who have recently visited our country, eventful

years have elapsed; but none with we could present to them a leader of our out some mark and note of your rising glory. own, to whom all, by common acclamation, The military triumphs which your valour conceded the pre-eminence; and when the has achieved upon the banks of the Dourd, will of heaven, and the common destinies of and the Tagus, of the Ebro, and the Garonne, our nature, shall have swept away the prehave called for the spontaneous shouts of ad- sent generation, you will have left your great miring nations. Those triumphs it is need name an imperishable monument, exciting less on this day to recount. Their names others to like deeds of glory, and serving at have been written by your conquering sword once to adorn, defend, and perpetuate the in the annals of Europe, and we shall hand existence of this country amongst the ruling them down with exultation to our children's nations of the earth. It now remains only children. It is not, however, the grandeur that we congratulate your Grace of military success which has alone fixed our high and important mission on "which you admiration, or commanded our applauses; it are about to proceed, and we doubt not, that has been that generous and lofty spirit which the same splendid talents, so conspicuous in inspired your troops with unbounded confi- war, will maintain with equal authority, dence, and taught them to know that the firmness, and temper, our national honour day of battle was always a day of victory; and interests in peace.” that moral courage and enduring fortitude, During the Speaker's address, the acclawhich, in perilous times, when gloom and mations were loud and frequent; and at the doubt had besét ordinary minds, stood never close of it there was a general and long contheless' unshaken; and that ascendency of tinued cry of hear, hear, hear !-- The Duke character, which uniting the energies of jea- then took his leave, bowing repeatedly, and lous and rival nations, enabled you to wield all the members, uncovered,

rose and warmly at will the fate and fortunes of mighty em cheered him, as he retired.

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CHAP. III.
Sanguine expectations excited by the late generosity of the allies.-Disappointment of these

hopes. The continuance of the slave trade severely censured in the two houses.--Talley.
rand is sent to the Congress at Vienna.Views and principles of that augut body.
Injustice of the allies towards Poland and Saxony.-

Proclamation of Frederck Augustus.Unprincipled determination of the confederates to promote the designs of Bernodotte on Norway. Their conduct severely reprobated in the British Parliament.Success of the Swedish arms and intrigues.-Wise and patriotic conduct of the King of Holland.Elevation of Hanover to the rank of a kingdom.--Infamy and faturty of the King of Spain. -Exemplary conduct of the Prince of Portugal.

By the treaty of Paris it was declared in plenipotentiaries to Vienna, for the purpose general terms, that all the powers engaged of regulating in a general congress the arun both sides in the late war should send rangements necessary for completing the

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enactments of that treaty. From this con choly. From his retired and reflective habits, . gress much was expected. The measures of it was presumed that in the congress of the allies towards France had been highly Vienna he would raise his voice, and exert generous and forbearing. They had declared his influence, in favour of those schemes in the face of the world that they were not alone which had for their object the reciproprompted by self-interest or ambition, and cal benefit of monarchs and subjects. Less their recent conduct had justified their pro- was expected from the Emperor of Austria fessions. They had expressed a sincere and than from his illustrious confederates. På ardent wish to restore to all Europe the rade and ostentation, a frigid indifference to blessings of peace and independence, and to the feelings and interests of his subjects, exheal the wounds which for more than twentycept as they were combined with the pomp years had been inflicted on the fairest por or the pecuniary advantage of the court, and tion of the globe. These assurances were apparent indifference to all the sufferings of amply redeemed in their conduct to the Europe, were the peculiar and unpleasing French nation, within the walls of Paris, and traits in the character of this monarch. From by the sacrifice of just retaliation to the dic- the other sovereigns assembled at Vienna : tates of humane and honourable feeling the kings of Bavaria, Wirtemburg, and When all these acts of lenity and modera Denmark, little was expected; for whatever tion were considered, in connection with the their personal characters might be, they posdeep impression which must have been felt sessed, comparatively, so little influence, that by the allies of the miseries of war, and the they would be compelled to acquiesce in the destructive tendency of ambition, even those views and plans of the three great potentates. who most suspected the sincerity and vera Besides the monarchs who were assembled city of princes, anticipated some great and

at the congress of Vienna, there were the good effect from the congress of Vienna. At ministers of Britain and France;. Lord Casthis congress were to be assembled the mo tlereagh from the former, and Talleyrand narchs themselves, and it might therefore be from the latter. The influence of England expected that unusual regard would be paid at the congress ought to have been very to the dictates of justice and sound policy. great. She

alone, of all the powers engaged The past sufferings of the allied sovereigns with Buonaparte, had never been conquered were considered as pledges of their sincerity, or invaded by her perseverence he was and their personal characters favoured these finally overthrown :. by her example the prepossessions. The Emperor Alexander allies had been encouraged to continue the had conciliated, during his visit to England, arduous contest :. she had made most won. the admiration and confidence of all classes

, derful and unparalleled exertions to aid by the suavity of his manners, and by the them, both with men and money. Her inimpressions connected with his late magna terests at Vienna were committed to a man, nimity to a fallen enemy. While in this who, however deficient as a minister of war, country he principally employed his time in possesses in the department of diplomacy inseeing and examining those institutions and telligence, firmness, and address. At the improvements in machinery which might be time when the allies were on the point of of service to his own country, so that it was gaining possession of Paris, and when Buona hoped by many that a monarch had at length. parte was in their rear, they were saved from arisen who would feel more delight in the retreat and probable destruction by the inprotection of knowledge, and the advance- tervention of Lord Castlereagh. As Eng. ment of civilization, than in war and con land had little or nothing to ask from the quest.

continental powers she was undoubtedly the 1814.-The king of Prussia had suffered better enabled to raise her voice in the cause deeply in his wars with Buonaparte, not mere. of justice and liberty. It was therefore hoped ly as a sovereign but as a husband: he bitterly that Lord Castlereagh would be able, on the lamented the death of his queen, and his de part of his country, to benefit the cause of méarour was sedate, reserved, and melan- . freedom at Vienna in a manner worthy of the

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nation which he represented, and of his own ús in safety and triumph out of all our trials reputation. One important object at least, than to do what in us lay to diminish the connected with the cause of humanity, it mass of human suffering. Never did any became his peculiar duty to obtain. By the time appear fitter for the proposition he had treaty of Paris the French were allowed to now to make. The great continental powers carry on the slave trade for five years, under had distinguished themselves by their mothe pretext that this treaty was absolutely deration and generosity, and had shown a necessary for the supply of her West India temper and character that left no doubt but islands with slaves. At this article of the that they would be well disposed to contritreaty the people of Great Britain were so bute to any great plan for the relief of sufferindignant that the Prince Regent gave in- ing nations. When the present circumstructions to Lord Castlereagh that he should stances were taken into consideration, when use his utmost endeavours to procure the it was considered what great provocations total and immediate abolition of the slave some of the allied powers had received from trade, not only from France, but from all' France, and what noble revenge they had the other European powers by which it was taken by returning benefits for injuries, and tolerated or carried on. All the remaining good for evil, he felt a most sanguine hope, objects which he was directed to accomplish that when they were made thoroughly acwere of the same description: all unconnected quainted with the nature of this horrid traffic, with the particular interests of Great Britain, they would, as a sequel to their noble conand conducive to the liberty and happiness duct, join heartily in this great act of justice of Europe ; and it was hoped that he would and humanity. At the time when this

quesprove successful.

tion was first. agitated, there were great and The subject of the slave trade was debated powerful interests contending against it. It in the House of Commons with a zeal and was then represented that the commerce and perseverance honourable to humanity. On · marine of this country would be ruined by May 3d Mr. Wilberforce rose to make a mo the adoption of such a measure; that the tion for an address to his Royal Highness estates in the West Indies could no longer the Prince Regent, to take the present op be cultivated, and that the slaves which portunity of proposing to foreign powers the were now sold to our islands, would be, in abolition of the slave trade. In 1806 and future, murdered on the coasts of Africa. 1810, the house had voted nem. con. addresses Those things were so confidently asserted, of a nature similar to the present. It was that it naturally produced some hesitation. impossible, however, for any person not to We had, however, ventured to try the expesees that there never was a period more fa- riment, and the threatened evils had not vourable, a better prospect of success, or more taken place. We had, therefore, tried the powerful motives for interference, than there experiment for all other nations; and in now was at the present time. It was a time in proposing to them to abolish this trade, we which the British cabinet and foreign go- could confidently tell them that those evils vernments were more closely drawn toge were not likely to ensue. The slave trade ther, and more intimately connected, than at of France had been practically destroyed by any former period. It was a time when all the war, and therefore that country had nothe nations of Europe were about to revive thing to give up in this respect. He did not their commercial relations with each other, wish to appear to exult over him who had and to study the elements of a lasting peace. lately fallen : but in justice to his subject he When we considered the extraordinary cir- must say, that there appeared such a conneccumstances in which we now stood, and the tion between the slave trade and Buonaparte, extraordinary successes we had experienced that while he was in power there was but in a long course of providential events, it little prospect of any general agreement of appeared to him that there was no better or nations to abolish it. He considered Buonamore acceptable mode of expressing our gra- parte a far greater enemy to mankind, from titude to that providence which had brought his principles, than even from his conquests :

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from his openly laughing to scorn all the to heaven for our own deliverance would not established principles of religion and morals, then be met by the shrieks of the suffering he was indeed a deadly enemy to the happi- natives of another country. It should never ness of mankind. The abolition of the slave be forgotten, that what was complained of, trade could never be agreed to by him, as he was not merely the sufferings of those indi. had not principle enough even to understand viduals, torn from their country and their the motives of it. When that most able and friends, and sold to slavery; but the great eloquent champion of the abolition (Mr. Fox) sum of African misery was, that, in consespoke to him upon the subject, he found it quence of this trade, internal wars were for impossible to convince him that England, or ever raging in Africa, and its inhabitants any other country, could seriously wish for were unacquainted with peace or security. the abolition of a measure from which reve Although he was no advocate for the Roman nues were derived, from motives of mere catholic religion, yet he must still do that humanity. The present king, however, justice to many of the heads of it to say, that would be faithful to the great duties of the the decrees of the pope, and the recommenstation he occupied, and there was something dations of their clergy, had principally coneven in the misfortunes which he had ex tributed, in former times, to the enfranchiseperienced, that naturally opened the mind of ment of the lower orders of the people in men to relieve the miseries of others. As to Europe. He therefore did believe, that the Spain, she was no longer in those delicate spirit of that religion would now, in catholic and critical circumstances, when the govern- countries, incline the rulers “ to do justice ment would be afraid of adopting a measure and to love mercy;" and he thought that that might give offence to the merchants of the reverence now shown to the pope was a Cadiz, or some other town that might be in pledge that the catholic countries would not terested in the trade. As to Portugal, it oppose a proposition made to them in the was known that the Prince Regent of Por true principles of christianity. The slave tugal had signed an engagement with this trade had been described by Mr. Pitt as the country for the gradual abolition of this greatest practical evil which had been suffertrade, but Portugal, he was sorry to see, ed to afflict the human race.

He concluded still persisted in the shameful traffic. He by moving an address to the following effect; then read some regulations which had been That the house, relying in confidence on adopted by the Portuguese government, the solemn assertions and declarations which which, to his feelings, were more provoking it had promulgated in 1806 and 1810, for the than even doing nothing for their relief. absolute and unequivocal abolition of the Sweden had already acquiesced in the pro- slave trade, humbly besought the Prince Re. position of our government. Denmark, gent to interpose the good offices and intermuch to its honour, had discontinued the ference of government with the allied powers trade for a long time; and America had de on the continent, to induce them to aid and clared against it. He did not think the pre- assist in this desirable and humane object, sent motion necessary for the purpose by discountenancing and forbidding the same minding ministers of the subject ; but his in their respective dominions.” object was to strengthen their representa The Chancellor of the Exchequer said, he tions, by showing to all foreign powers, that could not but hope that the unanimous dethe British parliament had not acted from a claration of the British parliament would mere transient fit of humanity and justice, have great weight with all the allied powers but that they considered this as a subject of on the continent; and that his honourable the most serious nature, and never could lose friend who had originally brought forward sight of it.

It would be a noble sequel to this laudable and most important measure the glorious events which had taken place in would live to see it carried into most com. Europe, if a foundation were now laid for the plete effect, and would be rewarded with that future security, peace, and happiness of the universal approbation which his unabated inhabitants of Africa. Our thanksgivings exertions and continual derseverance for

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