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the return of the Bourbons, from honest tions, would have been the convocation of a attachment to the cause of royalty, and of legislative assembly, freely and fairly chosen; legitimate government, and from unfeign. but, by the ordonnance of the 13th of July, ed respect for the benevolent and virtu- he called together the electoral colleges, unous character of the sovereign : others wel- der such regulations, and prescribed such comed the Bourbons as a security from the conditions to the eligibility of the deputies, excesses of the foreign troops, of which two as were sufficiently indicative of the system days' experience had almost driven them to about to be pursued. despair. Many more were indifferent to the The number of representatives was reform of government, and to the reigning duced to 396: the qualification necessary prince, but, in present circumstances, peace for a candidate was enacted to be the paywith Europe, and deliverance from foreign ment of 5000 francs (2081.) of contribution ; invasion, seemed intimately and inseparably and such presidents were named to the elecconnected with the return of legitimacy. toral colleges as precluded the success of any A very great proportion were desirous to but a court candidate. The court was deterpalliate their former opposition, and to in- mined to employ no agents but those of the gratiate themselves with the family which ancient regime. Nearly the whole of the they could no longer resist, by the expression new prefects were nobles, and other appointof sentiments to which their hearts were ments were made in the same spirit. The strangers. The object of the king was to certainty of support, from the sovereign and include the leading men of all parties, and the ministers, gave to the partizans of the thus to inspire universal confidence. In this restored family an audacity which charactehe would have succe
cceeded, had not the coun rises the victory of a weak and prejudiced cils of the moderate and liberal part of the minority Already had accounts arrived ministry been uniformly thwarted by the that the massacre of the protestants had violence of their associates, and the secret begun in the south; and though the king machinations of the court. It was impossible was neither suspected nor accused of the for such discordant materials as the regicide slightest blame, these disturbances were re. Fouché, the revolutionary Talleyrand, and garded as a fatal omen of bigotry and inbethe despotic and vindictive princes, ever to cility on the part of his advisers. The acform a sincere and permanent union. Sus- counts from the provinces represented them picion and fear usurped the place of confi- in a state more violent than that of Paris. dence and liope. It was deeply felt that The population on the frontiers were still in Louis was restored by foreign bayonets, and arms—many garrisons still held out. Gene. that his former system of government would ral Clausel published an order of the day at be forcibly re-established. Had he, on his Bourdeaux, on the 13th of July, forbidding return, dismissed all whose evil counsels had the authorities to receive orders from Paris, before seduced him ; had he removed from or from any but the prince of Eckmuhl. At liis confidence those of his family of whom Lyons, a monument ivas raised “ to the warthe nation was most suspicious; had be riors who died for their independance at adopted the charter, and fulfilled with good Waterloo.” In the extensive range of those faith all its stipulations; had he published unfortunate provinces which were overrun, an universal amnesty, and solemnly declared or plundered, by the troops of the contithat neither the person nor the property of nental powers, resentment and disaffection any of his subjects should be endangered, on were exasperated to the highest pitch of act'ount of their forner political opinions or
human animosity. conduct, his subjects would gladly have sub It would be equally tedious and unprofitmitted to the sacrifices which the allies de- able to detail the prolix discussions, the sermanded, and have rallied round the throne vile flatteries, and the abortive attempts at of the constitutional and legitimate monarch. eloquence, which occupied the time of the
The best guarantee of the intention of two chambers, during the first session. It Louis to act in conformity with his declara- will be sufficient, for the purpose of historical
connection, merely to notice the leading fea- mildness and moderation of character. The tures of the king's administration, and the next menace of general Blucher was that of political opinions of those virtuous and emi- sending a considerable number of Parisian nent men, who united to the most enlight- bankers and merchants to Prussian fortresses
, ened views the intrepidity to avow their unless they paid, in twenty-four hours, the sentiments,
fifth part of a hundred millions, which he The moderation of the allies in the last imposed on the city of Paris. These proyear, when Europe arose in arms, and me- jects, though not executed, were considered naced the gates of Paris, would, it was be- by the troops as intimations that their own lieved, serve as a precedent for their conduct excesses, or extravagance, would be treated in this second conquest of the capital of with indulgence. France.
A great part of these troops were of the It was fondly imagined by the French landwehr, or Prussian levy in mass. They that European politics were changed for ever, were in general extremely poor, and their and that the vulgar ambition of darker ages poverty might excuse pillage: but another had given place to a magnanimity worthy part of this army consisted of professors and of our enlightened times, and confirming all students, who had made the crusáde as vothe beautiful systems of human perfectibility. lunteers. A Frenchman might be robbedThe events which had passed in France, dur- he might suffer even indignities, with paing the last year, had tended to establish tience but to be compelled to listen to the this opinion. Satisfied with the overthrow discourses of professors and students, who of Napoleon, and with compelling France to assured him that they had come only for his relinquish the immense territories she had good; who wished to persuade him of the conquered, all further restitution seemed for vast superiority of the German over the gotten; and the only object in Paris that had French 'nation, and of the propriety of de not been respected was the statue of Napo- taching froin France one or two of its prolean, which was quietly taken down from the vinces on the Rhine, with other topics of column of victory in the Place Vendome, similar import: this was a refinement in while the monument itself remained un- cruelty beyond the rights of war. The bad touched. Upon the whole, with the excep- French, and worse logic, of these war-doctors, ception of a few provinces, which the allied were alike insufferable to French ears and armies had traversed, France had suffered French vanity: and the tortured Parisians but little from their first invasion, and it exclaimed, in piteous accents, “ Rob me if was generally believed that, having once you please shoot me if you will—but spare more accomplished their great purpose, they me your harangues.” would depart in peace.
The Prussians were thus become the obVery different was the intention of the jects of general hatred. There might, inallies. "The Prussians, like other conquerors, deed, be some doubt whether they were in the pride of a second triumph, began to more detested than the Wirtemburghers imagine that they had been too moderate in and the Bavarians. The causes of this an. the conditions of the treaty, that they had, tipathy must be placed to the exercise of in the last visit, left the Parisians too many that spirit of vengeance to which the invadtrophies of victory; and that the duty yet ing arıny was abandoned, and to the inflexiremained to retaliate on the city, and the bility of Blucher, who turned a deaf ear to provinces, the same enormities which the the complaints of the inhabitants, though French had committed in Prussia,
the other generals, Bulow, Zeithen, and The first project of vengeance that occu Tauenzein, always interposed their authority pied marshal Blucher was that of blowing to prevent the outrages of their
troops. up the bridge denominated by the Parisians Order was still preserved in Paris, but the Pont de Jena: the execution of which at inhabitants without the walls, and thie couin. tempt was prevented by the interference of try round, were left to feel the full vengeance the king of Prussia, who acted with his usual of a licenticus soldiery, who, by the most
wanton spoliations, taught the French what to prepare an excellent dinner by an apa the Prussians had endured, from the former pointed hour, as he had invited several of visits of their countrymen. The poor pea- his brother officers to dine with him, and sant was too often the victim of this ven warned the butler that the best wines which geance, and the remains of his last year's the cellar afforded must be forthcoming. harvest were devoured. The pleasure felt He now went out, and returned at the by the husbandman, in watching the foster- appointed hour alone. Dinner was served. ing showers and the vivid sun-beams, that He complained that it was execrable, and ripen the fruits of the field, was here lost in violently dashed the dishes on the floor.the cruel apprehension that his crops would The wine was worse, and bottle after bottle become the prey of the conqueror. The sol. was spilled on the beautiful carpet. dier eyed askance the corn as it ripened, and At length, when he had wearied himself the
grape as it swelled, while the desponding and the domestics with his caprice, he or. owner, instead of thanking the Almighty for dered that the lady should be summoned to his bounties, turned his eyes to heaven to attend him. She was compelled tremblingly invoke its vengeance on the Prussian sol- to obey. To her astonishment he received diery.
her with respect, and addressed her in the The Parisians themselves received occa- following manner :-“ You have doubtless, sional lessons from these invaders. A Prus- Madam, been shocked at the conduct which sian officer expressed much desire to be quar- you have witnessed since my entrance into tered at the house of an old countess in the your house. Have you not thought it disFauxbourg St. Germain. His request was gracefully cruel and barbarous ?” The lady, complied with; and on his arrival at the ignorant to what this tended, and fearing lady's residence he was shewn into a small some new insult, hesitated what to reply. but comfortable apartinent, with a handsome I beseech you to answer me candidly," he bed-chamber adjoining. He expressed the continued, “ have you not deemed me a greatest dissatisfaction with this accommoda- complete savage ?"-"Indeed,” answered the tion, and required that the countess should lady, “ I was not prepared to receive such give up to him the whole of the first floor, treatment, and since you will compel me to which she occupied herself, and which was speak, I do think it most disgracefully barmost elegantly furnished. She remonstrated, barous."-" Have you not a son, Madam! but the officer was absolute, and insisted on in Prussia ?” I had a son there, but he being instantly shewn into his new apart- has perished." -“ No, Madam! he has not ments. The countess had no time to remove perished, and I am not the savage
you any of the articles even of her own boudoir, imagine. Your son was quartered at the and retreated to the second floor.
house of my infirm mother. During three She had scarcely retired thither when a months he inflicted on her the sufferings new message arrived from the Prussian, that which you have endured in the last few he had appropriated the second floor for his hours. I swore to avenge her. I have kept aide-de-camp, and that it must be immedi- my oath! No, Madam! I am not the barba-, ately prepared for his reception. This pro- rian whom you think. It was with inexduced an earnest and angry remonstrance pressible reluctance that I schooled myself from the lady. She urged not only the in to act the part which I have done. You humanity of the requisition, but the total will resume your apartments, and I will seek impossibility of complying with it. The a lodging elsewhere. Your son will soon bę officer was inexorable, and furiously replied, in Paris. Tell him that I meant to have re"Obey my orders, or take the consequences;" quired of him a strict account for the suffer, and at the same time he sent for a file of men ings of my poor mother; but I have avenged from the guard-house.
her in a nobler way, and I cordially forgive He now threw himself, in his dirty boots, him”. on one of the handsome sofas, and ordering In the country through which the Engi the cook to be summoned, commanded him lish were dispersed no complaint was heard,
They persevered in their humane and gene- and therefore not in his possession at the rous conduct; they paid for every thing de- time they were carried away.
He justified manded from the cottager; they laboured at this act of oppressive retaliation, prethe harvests, gathered in the fruits of the text that these objects belonged to the catheorchards, and busied themselves in the occu dral and the municipality of his capital. pations of rural industry. “ Happy," said Two months had now elapsed, when the the peasants, “ the country where the Eng- gallery of the Louvre was menaced from Jish are quartered!"
another quarter. The king of the NetherParis itself, though spared the first evils lands had published a constitution, in the of war, still wore the aspect of a conquered modern style, that is, on free and liberal city, guarded by foreign troops at all its principles; but the catholic clergy of Belgates, at every bridge, and in front of the gium were alarmed by the diffusion of docThuilleries. The Bois de Bologne (the trines which might tend to alienate the fideHyde Park of Paris), might now be termed lity and obedience of their flocks, and deeply a desert rather than a royal domain. The resented the circulation of the articles of the inhabitants might almost imagine themselves new constitution. In order to regain their in the wilds of America, amidst huts framed favour, and conciliate their attachment, it was of logs and branches, with the ground cleared determined to rescue the pictures of which around them, and nothing left but the stumps the Belgian churches had been despoiled, of trees, marking where they once grew.-- from their bondage in the museum of Paris. The walks, formerly crowded with the splen- The same conduct was adopted by M. Cadid equipages of the gay and great, lost their nova, the celebrated sculptor, in favour of the shade and their visitors, and were transformed pope. The possession of the sculptures into streets of tents. Here and there a tall taken from Rome, had, indeed, been guawithered stalk of a tree remained, and served ranteed to the French by the treaty of Toas a rubbing post to the horses and cattle.
lentino, but M. Canova represented that The humiliation of the French was now the peace concluded at that place had been completed, by the determination of the allies broken in arious instances by the French, to regain the monuments of art which had and that it was, therefore, just that the more been plundered from the various continental powerful sovereigns should support the cause powers
. When the convention was arranged, of the weaker, and restore the plunder of the provisional government demanded that Rome to the pope. The justice of all these the museum should remain untouched. The demands was strongly enforced in the subse. allied generals wrote with a pencil, “ Not quent correspondence and explanations of granted;" and general Blucher, immediately the duke of Wellington and lord Castleon his entrance into Paris, sent a letter to reagh. M. Denon, the director of the museum, de
NOTE, manding the immediate surrender of part of DELIVERED IN BY VISCOUNT CASTI.EREAGH its treasures. M. Denon replied, that it was TO THE ALLIED MINISTERS, AND PLACED an affair which must be negociated with his government, and that he would not give
Paris, September 11th, 1815. them up. M. Denon was arrested during Representations having been laid before the night, by twenty men, and was threat- the ministers of the allied powers from the ened to be sent to the fortress of Graudentz, pope, the grand duke of Tuscany, the king in West Prussia. From this argument there of the Netherlands, and other sovereigns; was no appeal. The objects demanded were claiming, through the intervention of the delivered. This would have been but a tri- high allied powers, the restoration of the fling loss, had not the king of Prussia seized, siatues, pictures, and other works of art, of in addition to the articles which belonged to which their respective states have been sucPotsdam and Berlin, those which had been cessively and systematically stripped,
by the taken from Cologne and Aix-la-Chapelle, late revolutionary government of France countries on the French side of the Rhine, contrary to every principle of justice, and to
UPON THEIR PROTOCOL.
of modern warfare, and the same the same extent of possessions which she having been referred for the consideration of held before the revolution, and desire, at the his court, the undersigned has received the same time, to retain the ornamental spoils of commands of the Prince Regent to submit, all other countries? Is it, that there can for the consideration of his allies, the follow exist a doubt of the issue of the contest, or ing remarks upon this interesting subject : of the power of the allies, to effectuate what
It is now the second time, that the powers justice and policy require?' If not, upon of Europe have been compelled, in vindica- what principle deprive France of her late tion of their own liberties, and for the settle territorial acquisitions, and preserve to her ment of the world, to invade France, and the spoliations appertaining to those territotwice their armies have possessed themselves ries, which all modern conquerors have inof the capital of the state, in which these, variably respected, as inseparable from the the spoils of the greater part of Europe, are country to which they belonged. accumulated.
The allied sovereigns have perhaps some The legitimate sovereign of France has thing to atone for to Europe, in consequence as often, under the protection of those armies, of the course pursued by them, when at been enabled to resume his throne, and to Paris, during the last year. It is true, they mediate for liis people a peace with the allies, never did so far make themselves parties in to the marked indulgences of which neither the criminality of this mass of plunder, as to their conduct to their own monarch, nor to sanction it by any stipulation in their treawards other states, had given them just pre ties : such a recognition has been on their tensions to aspire.
part uniformly refused; but they certainly That the purest sentiments of regard for did use their influence to repress, at that mo. Louis XXIII. deference for his ancient and
ment, any agitation of their claims, in the illustrious house, and respect for his misfor hope that France, not less subdued by their tunes, have guided invariably the allied generosity than by their arms, might be discouncils, has been proved beyond a question posed to preserve in violate a peace which by their having, last year, framed the treaty had been studiously framed to serve as a of Paris expressly on the basis of preserving bond of reconciliation, between the nation to France its complete integrity, and still and the king. They had also reason to exmore, after their late disappointment, by the pect that his majesty
would be advised voendeavour they are again making, ultimately luntarily to restore a considerable proportion to combine the substantial integrity of at least of these spoils, to their lawful owners. France, with such an adequate system of But the question is a very different one temporary precaution as may satisfy what now; and to pursue the same course under they owe to the security of their own sub circumstances so essentially altered, would: jects.
be, in the judgment of the Prince Regent, But it would be the height of weakness; equally unwise towards France, and unjust : as well as of injustice, and in its effects much towards our allies, who have a direct interest more likely to mislead than to bring back the in this question. people of France to moral and peaceful habits, His royal highness, in stating this opinion, if the allied sovereigns, to whom the world feels it necessary to guard against the possiis anxiously looking up for protection and bility of misrepresentation. repose, were to deny that principle of inte Whilst he deems it to be the duty of the grity, in its just and liberal application to allied sovereigns not only not to obstruct, but other nations, their allies (more especially to to facilitate, upon the present occasion, the the feeble and to the helpless), which they return of these objects to the places from are about, for the second time, to concede to whence they were torn, it seems not less a nation against whom they have had occa consistent with their delicacy, not to suffer sion so long to contend in war.
the position of their armies in France, or the Upon what principle can France, at the removal of these works from the Louvre, to close of such a war, expect to sit down with become the means, either directly or indi.