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and cruelty? Yet ministers would not allow behind him, to apply this theory to the brave
them to inquire, or were themselves most and unfortunate people of Norway, and not
scandalously ignorant, whether the condition to suffer them to be juggled out of their na-
of a treaty, which could alone bind them tural rights and political independence, by
down to such disgraceful conduct, had been fine theories of liberty and happiness, by
fulfilled or not. He was sorry not to see an technical acuteness, and the strict letter of
honourable and learned member (Mr. Ste- unfulfilled treaties.
phen) in his place, or he should have ani The war between Sweden and Norway
inadverted on some expressions that had fal- began with a naval action. The Norwegiaris
len from him. He might have alluded to had stationed a flotilla near the Hualom
the half pious, half profane, expression which islands, protected by a number of batteries
he suffered to escape him, that we had thrown raised upon them. On July the 26th the
down the gauntlet to the Almighty, who, he Swedish admiral, baron Pike, made a signal
had no doubt, would take it up. He would for his fleet and flotilla to weigh and move
also (if he were present) say, that that honour to the attack of the Norwegians, but a calm
able gentleman's tender mercies were cruel, prevented them from reaching a proper sta-
though he himself was not among the wick- tion, so that the attack was postponed till
ed; for, if he had not known his voice, and the following morning. The Norwegian ad-
person, and his manner, so well as he did, he miral, however, did not wait for the arrival
should have supposed, during his speech to of the enemy, but threw the cannon of his
night, that he was hearing one of those per batteries into the sea, and retired to Frede-
sons who used formerly to descant on the rickstadt. Major-general Gahn, on the 31st
miseries of the Africans in their own country, of July, had entered Norway, and on the ed
in order to show the justice and humanity of August attempted to force a strong posi-
of the slave trade. [Here Mr. Whitbread, tion, from which he was driven back with
seeing Mr. Stephen enter the house, hailed some loss: and on the following day found
his approach, and, recapitulating what he had the enemy, who had taken a circuitous route,
just said, proceeded. If that honourable in his rear with a superior force. An obsti
and learned gentleman were not also one of nate and sanguinary action ensued, in which
the most moral and philosophical characters the Swedes made good their retreat, with the
of the age, who held all jacobins and jacobin- loss of a gun, 20 baggage waggons, and a
ism in the utmost abhorrence, he should al- considerable number of men killed, wounded,
most have mistaken him for one of the mem and prisoners. Admiral Pike having, on
bers of the constituent assembly of France, the second of August, received orders from
setting out on a crusade to Norway, with the the crown prince to attack Kragero, three
rights of man in one hand, and a sword and bodies of troops were landed upon the island,
famine in the other, to compel them to accept supported by gun-boats and armed vessels.
of freedoin and happiness, on the peril of The Norwegians retreated, and a battery sur-
their lives. Mr. Whitbread here pointedly rendered after a cannonade. Frederickstadt
alluded to the sentiment of the right honour was summoned, was attacked on refusal by
able member for Liverpool, delivered out of the boats and vessels, and at last consented
the house at a convivial meeting, in which to capitulate. The garrison, of 2000 meli,
the eloquent speaker had declared his satis- having signified their allegiance to the king
faction, that it was in the wilds of Russia, of Sweden were permitted to return home.
of i barbarous and despotic country, that This unequal contest was of short duration.
Buonaparte had been first defeated. This, The Norwegians though numerous were ill
according to the right honourable gentleman, equipped, and their country was grievously
proved that patriotism had nothing to do suffering for want of corn. T'he crown prince
with the freedom, or the forms of govern- of Sweden took advantage of this circun.

stance, and liberally supplied with provisions He wished the right honourable member, all the prisoners whom he took, and the inand the learned and honourable gentleman habitants of those parts of the country which

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he conquered : and the former, after being of rights ever reposed on the sacred discharge well fed, were sent back to spread their kind of duties, a memorable confession, an awful treatment. The stratagem succeeded; the lesson to those sovereigns whose violation of resistance of the Norwegians became gradu- their people's rights, and whose systematic ally weaker, and after a short contest Chris contenipt of every moral and political oblitian, as he saw no prospect of the enemy's gation have, from one generation to another; : expulsion, abdicated the throne.

extended the miseries of war, and the evils ayreed by the crown prince that hostilities of popular commotion. Even in the most should cease, that the diet of Norway should despotic states, where. slavery alone appahe assembled, and that they should deter- rently prevails, “ the poor worm will turn mine with respect to the union of their coun- when trod on;" and it yet remains for fututry with Sweden. The result of their meet- rity to shew whether the selfish impolicy, or ing was such as might be anticipated; they indifference to the feelings of their subjects, were convinced that resistance to Sweden displayed in the conduct of the continental was useless, and they saw that the allies were sovereigns, does not contain within itself the determined to put the crown prince in pos- seeds of discord, revolution, and personal prlsession of Norway if he could not accomplish nishment to them and their posterity. it himself. On the other hand, the allies, as It has already been remarked, that before well as the crown prince, solemnly promised the

congress at Vienna, it was determined by to the Norwegians the continuance of all the allies that the territories of the stadtholtheir rights and privileges. Thus circum- der should be extended by the annexation of stanced, the diet almost unanimously chose those parts of the Netherlands which, previ. the king of Sweden as the king of Norway, ous to the revolution, had belonged to Ausand in the month of October the crown was tria. This increase of territory was undoubtformally accepted by Charles XIII. The edly effected by the interference of the prince ceremonial part of the transaction was per- - regent of England, who had intended that formed by the crown prince, who, accompa- . the prince of Orange should become the nied by his son, prince Oscar, proceeded to husband of the princess Charlotte of ales, the diet to receive from the members the and was anxious to render the dominions of oath of fidelity to king Charles, and to his son-in-law secure from the possibility of transmit to them his majesty's oath, to govern French incursion. It may be doubted, howaccording to the constitution and the laws. ever, whether the addition of the NetherOn this occasion the crown prince declared lands to Holland did not rather impede than that the Swedes and the Norwegians should promote this important object. France and always remain two nations, equal and inde Holland are now in immediate contact; the pendent, though united: the great basis of population of the Netherlands is by no means their union being their geographical posi- proportionate to the extent of territory ; the tion, their similarity of origin and character, jealousies of the French and Dutch, so freand their mutual zeal for liberty and repre- quently prevented by the intervention of the sentative government.”. Speaking of himself, Austrian provinces, will be renewed; and as he added : “ Amidst the din of arms, and no neutral towns will remain to prevent the while on the German soil, I marched, toge- immediate conflict of the adjacent nations, ther with the allies of Sweden, to combat the France, with her mighty and disproportionate most horrible tyranny that ever oppressed means will be able to invade and over-run Europe, I looked for no other reward to my the Netherlands whenever she is tempted so labours than the present moment, and the to do, or will subject the king of Holland to . peaceful palm which I this day receive from the necessity of inaintaining a large and ex- . a free people is far dearer to my heart than pensive standing army. At the present moall the laurels of victory." The proclamation ment he may possibly rely on the protection of his Swedish and Norwegian majesty re of the allies, and the peculiar friendship of peated the assurances of the crown prince, Great Britain ; but the views of the conti and emphatically declared that the formation nental states are at least uncertain : the at

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tachment of England may cease with the by the government, free from every reguli. temporary causes by which it was occasioned; tion which could oppress the genius and subthe relation of Holland to foreign courts may due the spirit: personal freedom was to be be much affected by the alliance of William no longer a name; justice was to be admito a Princess of Russia, and the ancient de- nistered impartially, guided by fixed prin pendencies of France now possessed by his ciples, and securing to every man his rights family—a family of very moderate talents, and his property : commerce, agriculture and will always be the object of envy and re manufactures were to be no longer obstructvengeful feeling to that vain and ambitious ed: no restraint was to be imposed on the people. It is obvious also, that the ports domestic econoiny of any class;—the finances and garrison towns on the coast of Flanders and the arming of the people,--the main pilinight at once become the ground of jealousy lars of the body politic, ---were to be placed between Britain and Holland, and enable the in that central point, upon which the greatest latter power to become a formidable or prin- and most invaluable privilege of every

free cipal auxiliary in any plan for the subversion people, their independence, may be firmly of our maritime rights, or the limitation of fixed. our commerce. That the present sovereign

In order to ascertain whether a constitư. of the Netherlands entertains any wishes or tion founded on these principles met the designs of this suspicious description cannot wishes and expectations of the inhabitants of be supposed; but the history of the last 12 the Netherlands, the prince appointed a spe. years fiilly informs the intelligent enquirer cial commission, who were to choose out of how little dependance can be placed on the a numerous list given in, six hundred per. friendship of rival nations, however connected sons, in due proportion to the population of by the ties of obligation on one side, or gra- each of the departments : these were to astitude on the other. Appearances are cer semble, and come to a determination on the tainly in favour of the sovereign of Holland, proposed constitution. But as it was desirwhose sentiments on the duties of the station able that these members should be possessed to which he had been called were highly of the general confidence, a list of the persons honourable to his moderation and his good chosen for each department was to be made

In his address to the people of the public, in order to afford an opportunity to united Netherlands, the prince begins by all the inhabitants, being house-keepers

, to stating that he had considered it as one of disapprove of any they might deem unqualithe first and most sacred of his duties, to fied. No inhabitant was to be deprived of summon together men of consideration, and this right, except domestic servants, valets, to charge them with the weighty task of bankrupts, and persons in a state of nonage, establishing a fundamental code, built upon or under accusation. The


who were the manners and habits of the people for approved were to be regarded as the reprewhom it was intended, and corresponding to sentatives of the Dutch nation, and to their the wants of the time. This had been done, were to be submitted the details of a consti. but though the prince approved of the result tution founded on the principles already of their labours, his heart was not yet satisfied. stated. This was accordingly done; and as As it respected the concerns of the whole far as theory goes, the people of the NetherNetherlands it was proper that the whole lands certainly possess a much freer constituDutch people should be recognised in this tion now than they did before: but, as we important work. He therefore assured them, have frequently remarked, the possession of that in it their dearest interests were suffici. a written constitution, however conformable ently attended to; that religion, as the foun to the soundest principles of liberty, and tain of all good, was honoured and maintain- however strongly guaranteed and guarded, (d: but at the same time religious freedom is by no means incompatible with practical was disturbed by nothing of temporal con slavery. cerus, but secured in the most ample manner; In the beginning of December, the secrethe education of youth was to be attended to tary of state for the home department pre


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sented to the states-general a long report on who think it no evil for a nation to be de. the situation of the united Netherlands. pendent on foreigners for their supply of After some general remarks he adverted to After stating the curious fact, that the subject of commerce, which, he observed, agriculture had rapidly improved, notwithmight well be deemed the principal source standing the oppression of the French goof prosperity to Holland.

Among the vernment, and the frequent and violent countries subjected to the yoke of France, changes to which Holland had been exposed, there was certainly none (he said) which more a fact which may be predicated at least in an severely felt the pernicious effects of the pro- equal degree with regard to France, he adds, hibitive system than the Netherlands." He “ What our ancestors could never have lookthen enumerated the causes which still ope- ed for in this respect, the Netherlander may rated to retard the progress of commerce to now boast, that he is able to supply all his its former eminence: the principal of these necessary wants from his own soil, and is were, the want of capitalists; the great want liberated from that disgraceful dependance of suitable shipping; the uncertainty with on other nations under which he formerly respect to the state of commerce in other laboured.” countries; the heavy duties on merchandize; 1814.-After a variety of observations on the delayed restoration of the greater part of the provincial government, the state of relitheir Indian possessions; and finally, a'sort gion, of the poor, and of the administration of of fear that Europe was not yet restored to a justice, he next proceeded to the system of state of permanent tranquillity.

national defence. The army, he observed, He next alluded to the establishment of a might almost be regarded as a veteran army. national bank at Amsterdam, which had been The navy, though having had less practical found extremely useful in vivifying mercan- experience, would soon lay a foundation for tile credit. With regard to the West India regaining its ancient renown. He concluded colonies of Holland, some of them would be his speech by some general remarks on the restored ; and it might reasonably be hoped, subject of the relations in which Holland that such as might not be restored would stood with foreign powers, which he said not be entirely lost to the mother country, were highly satisfactory. as it inight be hoped that a direct commerce It has been already stated, that in the would be permitted with them.

course of 1814 the congress of Vienna, though On the subject of manufactures he observ- it was supposed that its labours would tered, that "it had been an idea entertained by minate in a short period, the leading memsome people, that commerce and manufac- bers of it having, uncalled for,expressed themtures in Holland were hostile to each other; selves in the plainest and strongest language and that the protection of the latter was in as actuated solely by a sincere and ardent jurious to the welfare of the former : but this desire to establish the independence and tranidea had been proved to be erroneous; for, quillity of Europe, without the most indirect at the very

time when Holland was the great or distant view to their own aggrandizement ! staple of the commodities both of the north or interests,-yet, in fact, was not known, and the south, and when its commerce pro- officially, to have come to a determination duced great capitals, then also its manufac on any important point at the close of the tures had reached their highest pitch of pros- year. At present, we shall just hint, that perity.

Britain did not act very wisely in agreeing He next adverted to the fisheries. In the to continue their respective subsidies till the year 1814, 110 herring busses had clear congress had broken up, since it may

be suped out for the herring fishery, a number posed that, so long as they were so liberally almost equal to that of the most flourishing paid, they would not hasten to bring the times of the republic.

affairs of the congress to a conclusion, In that part of his speech which related It ought not, however, to be inferred that to agriculture there is a remarkable passage, Britain, the great paymaster of Europe, was which well deserves the attention of those not, according to some, rewarded, not only

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for lier exertions and sacrifices in the cause when his royal highness the duke of Cam-
of Europe, but also for the subsidies which bridge addressed the assembly.
she still continued to grant; for one of the After complimenting the Hanoverians on
known acts of the Congress, and the only one their firm and loyal attachment to their sove-
(with a single exception) which transpired in reign, and upon the share which they had un-
the course of the year 1814, was the raising der the greatest of commanders, Wellington,
of Hanover to the rank of a kingdom. Some in destroying the tyranny of Buonaparte,
may, indeed, doubt whether this is likely to and restoring independence and tranquillity
prove a blessing to Great Britain, and may to Europe, he informed them that the prince
argue that, as our ministers were always regent, one of the race of the Guelphs, who
sufficiently ready to give into the predilec- had always been distinguished for justice and
tions of the king of Great Britain for his Ger- mildness, had given to the German sove-
man dominions, while they constituted only reigns the first example of calling an assem-
an electorate, they will be called upon for bly, in which the voice of the people might
more hearty and extended co-operation now declare itself with freedom, to point out the
that Hanover has become a kingdom; and it best means of promoting the welfare of the
might have been expected, and hoped, that country. The first step towards this impor-
the king of such a nation as Great Britain tant object was made by the union of the
would have not thought that any dignity or states, of all the different parts of the coun-
rank could be added to his titles, by being try, to which were now given the rights of
able to assume the name of king of Hanover. granting money and other points of legisla-

Sueh, however, were the facts. On the tion. One of the principal objects of their 12th of October Count Munster, the Hano deliberation would regard the means of reverian minister at the congress of Vienna, paying those who, in confidence of good delivered a note to the ministers of Austria faith, lent their property to supply their puband of the other powers assembled there, in lic wants. The prince regent, for his part, which he explained the reasons why the considered the good faith which the soveprince regent had deemed it proper to assume reigns of Hanover had never violated, so the title of king of Hanover, in the name sacred, that he would contribute from the and on behalf of his father. By the 6th ar revenues of his own domains, rather than ticle of the treaty of peace, at Paris, it was these claims should remain unfulfilled. The agreed that the states of Germany should next object was to place Hanover in a state remain independent, and join in a federal of security from any other attack. Britain, to union. In consequence of this arrangement, which Hanover, along with the rest of Europe, the title of electoral prince of the holy Ro- had been so much indebted, had generously man empire ceased to be expedient under replaced the necessary warlike stores carried existing circumstances., Several of the prin- off by the enemy. He concluded by informcipal powers, in this point of view, had in- ing them that it would be their duty to vited the prince to renounce the title of elec- consider of the arrangements in the adminis. tor, and assume that of king. He had ac tration of justice, and to deliberate on useful cordingly done so: and count Munster, in institutions for the good of the country.-the name of his master, expressed himself in What the regent intended would be comthe strongest terms of confidence that the municated to them by his counsellors, while imperial court of Austria would receive his he would lend an attentive ear on other subdeclaration with sentiments of friendship, jects. The list of full poivers which had been and would recognize the new title, which presented and approved, and the necessary circumstances had induced his royal highness regulation for the order of the states of the to adopt for his house in Germany. Soon kingdom, would be coinmunicated to them: after the publication of this note, and Hano according to these, they were to begin by ver was raised to the rank of a kingdom, an choosing a president “ But, first, let us, assemblage of all the states, composed of des with united devotion, implore the blessings puties from the different classes, took place of the Most High on the sacred work of the

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