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first assembly of the states of the kingdom open field near Stralsund bore, in German, of Hanover."

the following inscription. It having attracted At the end of this speech his royal high- strongly the popular attention it was shortly ness repaired in procession with the whole removed assembly to the church of the palace, where

INSCRIPTION. the hymn, Nun danket alle Gott,

" Now

Who rests this nameless mound beneath
thank all God," was sung, being particularly Thus rudely piled upon the heath,
chosen, “because the venerable father of the Naked to winds and water's sweep?
royal house, and of the country, his majesty

Does here some gloomy outcast sleep?

Yet many a footstep freshly round
George the Third, with his strong sense of Marks it as loved---as holiest ground.
piety, set a particular value upon it."

Stranger ! this mound is all the grave
Afterwards the deputies chose their presi-

Of one who lived as live the brave,
dent, who addressed his royal highness to the Nor ever heart's devoted tide
following import. He began by stating the More nobly pour'd than when he died.
obligations which the inhabitants of Hanover Stranger! no stone might dare to tell

His name who on this red spot fell!
were under to the prince regent, for calling
the deputies together, and to the British na-

These steps are steps of German men,

That when the Tyrant's in his den
tion for the decided, persevering, and glori Come crowding round with midnight troud
ous part which she had taken in the contest, To vow their vengeance o'er the dead.
which had terminated in the triumph of

Dead! No: that Spirit', lightning still.

Soldier ! thou seest the grave of SCHILL. peace and order. He next assured his royal highness, that in all their deliberations and Previous to the opening of the congress, proceedings they would use their utmost the Swiss had formed amongst themselves a endeavours to second his good intentions for federal compact. On the 8th of September the prosperity of Hanover; and he concluded this important document was signed by the by stating, that they considered the presence deputies of all the 10 cantons, at Zurich.“ of his royal highness as a pledge of the gra- The whole armed force was to be 30,000 cious regard of their beloved sovereign and men, and the contribution for its support. the prince regent.

21,000l. In case of danger, external or inThe German nations had well deserved the ternal, cach canton was entitled to claim the blessings of freedom and independence thus aid of its confederates, and no alliance between conferred by a laudable example on the separate cantons, unfavourable to the interests people of Hanover. No part of the popula- of the confederation, was to be formed. The tion of Europe contributed so much to the principle was acknowledged, according to destruction of Buonaparte as the inhabitants which there remained no subject in Switzerof Germany: men of all ranks and classes land, that the enjoyment of rights might no came forward in defence of their country, longer be prevented by the exclusive privi. animated by the most pure, enlightened and lege of any particular class of citizens. The honourable feelings, and the name of Schill diet declares war, concludes peace,

and forms alone would exalt their national character in alliances; but on these important questions the estimation of posterity. The memory of two-thirds of the voices are required to dethis devoted patriot and invincible soldier is termine; in all others an absolute majority. still honoured as that of the most distin Spain, on the contrary, whose struggles guished and gallant partizan that all the in- and misfortunes during the war had been, vasions of Germany had produced. As he beyond comparison, more arduous than those died under the reign of Buonaparte, all pub- of Switzerland, presented at the present mo lic honours would have only drawn down the ment a striking and melancholy scene. most exemplary vengeance, but the spirit of soon as Napoleon found that his affairs were the people was not to be easily subdued, and desperate he liberated Ferdinand, and sent the actions of this officer were recorded in all him back to Spain: on his signing articles the more secret and safer forms of rings, pic. of subservience to France, and of hostility to tures, busts, and enamels. A pillar in an the British nation, which had expended its


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blood and treasure in his cause. Scarcely deemed it necessary, under these circumhad he entered Spain before he plainly dis- stances, that the holy office should resume closed the line of conduct which he meant its jurisdiction. On this subject reverend to pursue. The re-establishment of civil and and virtuous prelates, respectable corporareligious tyranny, even more completely and ţions and grave personages, ecclesiastics and firmly than it had existed before the invasion seculars, have represented to me that Spain of the French, was his favourite object; all is indebted to this tribunal, for the good forthe labours of the cortes for the liberty of tune of not having fallen, in the sixteenth their country were overthrown; and those century, into the errors which have caused patriots and heroes who had been most in so many misfortunes among other nations: strumental in achieving the liberation of and that, on the contrary, at that period the Spain, and to whom Ferdinand was the most sciences were cultivated with distinction, and indebted, were treated with the utmost inhu- Spain produced a multitude of great men, manity. He seemed decidedly of opinion distinguished by their knowledge and their that Spain had been polluted by those states- piety. It has further been represented to men and warriors who had stood forth in his me, that the oppressor of Europe has not necause, while he took into his confidence many glected to employ, as an efficacious method of those who had betrayed him into the power of introducing the corruption and discord. of Buonaparte ; and, to crown his absurdities, which supported so well his projects, the suphe issued the following decree, by which the pression of this tribunal, under the vain preinquisition was re-established.

text that it could exist no longer in the en

lightened state of the present age, and that " Madrid, July 25. the pretended cortes, general and extraordi“ The glorious title of catholic, which dis- nary, under the same pretext, and under the tinguishes us from all other christian princes, favour of the constitution which they tumulis owing to the perseverance of the kings of tuously decreed, abolished also the holy office, Spain, who would never tolerate in their to the regret of the whole nation. For these states any other religion than the catholic, causes, I have been earnestly supplicated to apostolic, and Roman. This title imposes re-establish it in the exercise of its functions ; upon me the duty to render myself worthy and yielding to considerations so just, and to of it by all the means which heaven has placed the wish manifested by my people, whose within my power. The late troubles, and the zeal for the religion of our ancestors has an. war, which has desolated during six years ticipated my orders, by hastening to recal every province in the kingdom; the long spontaneously the subaltern inquisitors of abode which has been made in Spain by some provinces, I have, therefore, resolved, troops of different sects, almost all of whom that from this moment the supreme council were infused with sentiments of hatred to- of the inquisition, and the other tribunals of wards our religion; the disorder which has the holy office, shall resume their authorities been the infallible result of this; and the in- conformable to the concessions which have attention with which the affairs of our holy been made to them by the sovereign pontiffs, religion have been treated during this unfor- at the instance of my august predecessors

, tunate period; all these circumstances united and by the prelates of the dioceses, and by have laid the field open to wicked persons, the kings who have assured to them the full who have never experienced any check: exercise thereof, observing in this double judangerous opinions have been introduced, risdiction, ecclesiastical and civil, the ordonand have taken root in our states, by the nances which were in force in the year 1808, same means as they are spread in other coun- and the laws which have, on différent occatries. Wishing then to remedy so grievous sions, been made for obviating certain abuses. an evil

, and to preserve among my subjects But as, independent of these ancient laws, it the holy religion of Jesus Christ, which they may be proper to add new ones on this sub have always revered, and in which they have ject; and my intention being to perfect that lived, and always wished to live, &c. I have establishment in such manner as to render it

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eminently useful to my subjects, it is my vicious and effeminate, whose chief amuse-
desire that, as soon as the said supreme coun inent is the chess board, and the spinning
cil of the inquisition shall be assembled, two wheel, and who passes the mornings in knit-
of the members who compose it, joined to ting embroidery. Such are the individuals
two of the members of the council of Castile, who too frequently rule the fate and guide
both appointed by me, shall examine the the policy of nations !
forms and mode of proceeding of the holy After stating the general line of conduct
office, in its processes, and with respect to the which Ferdinand pursued, it will not sur-
censure and prohibition of books; and if they prise the reader that he did all in his power
find that the interests of my subjects, or the to obstruct the commerce of England, and
claims of sound justice, require any reform or awakened, by the outrageous violence of his
change, they will make their reports to me, conduct, the still more strenuous exertions
supporting their observations, in order that I of the malcontents in his South American
may take the necessary resolution.”

colonies. His measures and demeanour were
This decree is countersigned by his excel strikingly contrasted by the policy and con-
lency Don Pedro Macanaz, whose grand-. duct of his relative the prince of the Brazils,
father passed the greatest part of his life in who, instructed by his misfortunes, and pro-
prison, at the commencement of the last cen- fiting by his distance from the scenes of Eu-
tury, and died in exile for having written ropean warfare, devoted his talents and his
against the inquisition. But no act of folly leisure to the improvement of his subjects,
or persecution can surprise us in a monarch the extension of commerce, and the encou-
who is equally the enemy of the catholics, ragement, among the Brazilians, of every
by his indiscretion, and of the protestants, useful and civilized pursuit.
by his cruelty:. whose. habits are at once.

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and to whore

Duties of an historian.-Impartiality his first requisite.-- American Constitution.

Laws of retaliation adopted by the British ministry.-Military and naval opera-
tions on the lakes.- Battles near Fort Erie and the forts of Niagara.--Sir George
Prevost makes an attempt against Plattsburg; and is obliged to retreat.-Destruction
of Washington.Plunder of Alexandria.-Attempt on Baltimore.--Death of General

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Rigid and conscientious impartiality is the the opposing representations of prejudice and
first duty of an historian, and for the absence enmity in one connected and impartial state-
of that quality. no other excellence can be ment; regardless of the violence of parties,
received as an atonement. To weigh, with and guided in his decision by the progress
the hands of calm and inflexible justice, the of events.
inerits of measures and of individuals; to On the subject of the American' war we
state with candour the feelings and opinions have expressed the opinions and conclusions
of contending statesmen; and to describe, which the documents before us, and the in-
with the liberal feeling of a citizen of the formation communicated by the most popu-
world, the policy and conflicts of rival nations, lar writers on America, seemed best to justify.
are duties more frequently expected than But a singular work has lately appeared, sup-
performed. Yet discussion is the life of free posed to proceed from the pen

of Mr. Madi-
dom and the parent of truth, and it is a task son himself

, which it is but just to our readers, incumbent on the writer of history, to arrange and to ourselves, that we should occasionally

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compare with the statements of the enemies dians not taxed, three-fifths of all other perof America. The events, indeed, which have sons. The actual enumeration shall be made unfortunately occurred since the publication within three years after the first meeting of of our former narrative, are too well calcu- the congress of the United States, and within lated to humble the pride of Britain, and re every subsequent term of. ten years, in such press the triumph of unbecoming exultation. manner as they shall by law direct. The

The constitution of the United States has number of representatives shall not exceed been so frequently misrepresented, and so one for every 30,000, but each state shall little understood, that we shall commence have at least one representative; and until this chapter by recording the solemn act on such enumeration shall be made, the state of which its foundation is established. It pre- New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse sents a copious theme of reflection to an in- three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and telligent mind, and may be regarded as the Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, noblest record of a people who present pecu- New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvaliar claims on the interest of the English nia eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virreader, by affinity, by identity of language, ginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina and by their pretensions to a momentous in- five, and Georgia three. fluence on the destinies of the world.

“ When vacancies happen to the represenAMERICAN CONSTITUTION.

tation from any state, the executive authority WE, the people of the United States, thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such in order to form a more perfect union, esta- vacancies. blish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, “ The house of representatives shall chuse provide for the common defence, promote their speaker and other officers; and shall the general welfare, and secure the blessings have the sole power of impeachment. of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do “ Sect. 3. The senate of the United States ordain and establish this constitution for the shall be composed of two senators from each United States of America.

state, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six

years; and each senator shall have one vote. “ Sect. 1. All legislative powers herein Immediately after they shall be assemgranted shall be vested in a congress of the bled, in consequence of the first election, they United States, which shall consist of a senate shall be divided, as nearly as may be, into and house of representatives.

three classes. The seats of the senators of “ Sect. 2. The house of representatives the first class shall be vacated at the expira shall be composed of members chosen every tion of the second year; of the second class second year, by the people of the several at the expiration of the fourth year; and of states, and the electors in each state shall the third class at the expiration of the sixth have the qualifications requisite for electors year, so that one-third may be chosen every of the most numerous branch of the state second year; and if vacancies happen by relegislature.

signation, or otherwise, during the recess of * No person shall be a representative, who the legislature of any state, the executive shall not have attained to the age of twenty- thereof may make temporary appointments five years, and been seven years a citizen of until the next meeting of the legislature, the United States, and who shall not when which shall then fill such vacancies. elected be an inhabitant of that state in which “ No person shall be a senator, who shall he shall be chosen.

not have attained to the age of thirty years, " Representatives and direct taxes shall be and been nine years a citizen of the United apportioned among the several states which States, and who shall not, when elected, be may be included within this union, according an inhabitant of that state for which he shall to their respective numbers, which shall be be chosen. determined by adding to the whole number " The vice-president of the United States of free persons, including those bound to ser shall be president of the senate, but shall have vice for a term of years, and excluding In- no vote, unless they be equally divided.



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“ The senate shall chuse their other offi “ Neither house, during the session of Collcers, and also a president pro tempore, in the gress, shall

, without the consent of the other, absence of the vice-president, or when he adjourn for more than three days, nor to any shall exercise the office of president of the other place than that in which the two houses United States.

shall be sitting “ The senate shall have the sole power to “ Sect. 6. The senators and representatives try all impeachments. When sitting for that shall receive a compensation for their services, purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the When the president of the United States is treasury of the United States. They shall in tried, the chief justice shall preside; and no all cases, except treason, felony, and breach person shall be convicted without the con of the peace, be privileged from arrest during currence of two-thirds of the members pre- their attendance at the session of their respecsent.

tive houses, and in going to and returning “ Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall from the same; and for any speech or debate not extend further than to removal from in either house, they shall not be questioned office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy in any other place. any office of honour, trust, or profit, under “ No senator or representative shall, durthe United States; but the party convicted ing the time for which he was elected, be shall nevertheless be liable and subject to in- appointed to any civil office under the audictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, thority of the United States, which shall have - according to law.

been created, or the emolument whereof shall “ Sect. 4. The times, places, and manner have been encreased during such time; and of holding elections for senators and repre no person holding any office under the Unitsentatives, shall be prescribed in each state ed States shall be a member of either house by the legislature thereof; but the congress during his continuance in office. may at any time by law make or alter such “Sect. 7. All bills for raising revenue shall regulations, except as to the places of chus- originate in the house of representatives; ing senators.

but he senate may propose or concur with The congress

shall assemble at least once amendments as on other bills. in every year, and such meeting shall be on “Every bill which shall have passed the the first Monday in December, unless they house of representatives and the senate shall, shall by law appoint a different day. before it become a law, be presented to the

“ Sect. 5. Each house shall be the judge president of the United States; if he approve, of the elections, returns, and qualifications of he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, its own members, and a majority of each shall with his objections, to that house in which it constitute a quorum to do business ; shall have originated, who shall enter the smaller. number may adjourn from day to objections at large on their journal, and proday, and may be authorised to compel the ceed to reconsider it. . If, after such reconsiattendance of absent members, in such man deration, two-thirds of that house shall

agree ner, and under such penalties as each house to

pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with may provide.

the objections, to the other house, by which Each house may determine the rules of it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if apits proceedings, punish its members for dis- proved by two-thirds of that house it shall orderly behaviour, and, with the concurrence

become a law. But in all such cases the of two-thirds, expel a member.

votes of both houses shall be determined by Each house shall keep a journal of its yeas and


and the names of the persons proceedings, and from time to time publish voting for and against the bill shall be entered the same, excepting such parts as may in on the journal of each house respectively. If their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas any

bilí shall not be returned by the presiand

nays of the members of either house on dent within ten days (Sundays excepted) any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of after it shall have been presented to him, the those present, be entered on the journal. same shall be a law, in like manner as if he

e vote ascem 1, they , into tors d хрі» 1 day und of sixth

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