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had signed it, unless the congress, by their

“ To make rules for the government and adjournment, prevent its return, in which regulation of the sand and naval forces. case it shall not be a law,

“ To provide for calling forth the militia, Every order, resolution, or vote, to which to execute the laws of the union, suppress the concurrence of the senate and house of insurrections, and repel invasions. representatives may be necessary (except on "To provide for organizing, arming, and a question of adjournment) shall be presented disciplining the militia, and for governing to the president of the United States; and, such part of them as may be employed in before the same shall take effect, shall be ap the service of the United States, reserving to proved by him, or, being disapproved by the states respectively the appointment of him, shall be re-passed by two-thirds of the the officers, and the authority of training the senate and house of representatives, accord- militia, according to the discipline prescribed ing to the rules and limitations prescribed in by congress. the case of a bill.

“ To exercise exclusive legislation in all “ Sect. 8. The congress shall have power cases whatsoever, over such district (not exto lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and ceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession excises, to pay the debts, and provide for the of particular states, and the acceptance of common defence and general welfare of the congress, become the seat of the

government United States; but all duties, imposts, and of the United States, and to exercise like auexcises, shall be uniform throughout the thority over all places purchased by the conUnited States.

sent of the legislature of the state, in which To borrow money on the credit of the the same shali be, for the erection of forts, United States.

magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other To regulate commerce with foreign na needful buildings. And tions, and among the several states, and with “ To make all laws which shall be necessary the Indian tribes.

and proper for carrying into execution the To establish an uniform rule of naturali foregoing powers, and all other

powers

vested zation, and uniform laws on the subject of by this constitution, in the government of bankruptcies throughout the United States. the United States, or in any department or

“ To coin money, regulate the value there office thereof. of and of foreign coin, and fix the standard “ Sect. 9. The migration or importation of of weights and measures.

such persons as any of the states now existTo provide for the punishment of coun ing shall think proper to admit, shall not be terfeiting the securities and current coin of prohibited by the congress, prior to the year the United States.

one thousand eight hundred and eight; but “ To establish post-offices and post-roads. a tax or duty may be imposed on such im

* To promote the progress of science and portation, not exceeding ten dollars for each useful arts, by securing, for limited times, to person. authors and inventors, the exclusive right to “ The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus their respective writings and discoveries. shall not be suspended, unless when in cases

** To constitute tribunals inferior to the of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may supreme court.

require it. " To define and punish piracies and felonies * No bill of attainder, or ex post facto law, committed on the high seas, and offences

shall be passed. against the law of nations.

“ No capitation, or other direct tax shall To declare war, grant letters of marque · be laid, unless in proportion to the census, and reprisal, and make rules concerning cap or enumeration herein before directed to be tures on land and water.

taken. “ To raise and support armies, but no ap “ No tax or duty shall be laid on articles propriation of money to that use shall be for exported from any state. No preference shall a longer term than two years.

be given, by any regulation of commerce or “ To provide and maintain a navy. revenue, to the ports of one state over those

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of another: nor shall vessels bound to or no senator or representative, or person holdtfrom one state be obliged to enter, clear, or ing an office of trust or profit under the pay duties in another.

United States, shall be appointed an elector. No money shall be drawn from the trea ** The electors shall meet in their respective sury, but in consequence of appropriations states, and vote by ballot for two persons, of made by law; and a regular statement and whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant account of the receipts and expenditures of of the same state with themselves. And all public money shall be published from they shall make a list of all the persons voted time to time.

for, and of the number of votes for each, “ No title of nobility shall be granted by which list they shall sign and certify, and the United States; and no person holding transmit, sealed, to the seat of the govern. any office of profit or trust under them shall, ment of the United States, directed to the without the consent of the congress, accept president of the senate. The president of of any present, emoluinent, office, or title, of the senate shall, in the presence of the senate any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or and house of representatives, open all the foreign state.

certificates, and the votes shall then be count“ Sect. 10. No state shall enter into any ed. The person having the greatest number treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of votes shall be the president, if such numof marque and reprisal ; coin money; omit ber be a majority of the whole number of bills of credit; make any thing but gold and electors appointed; and if there be more silver coin, a tender in payment of debts ; than one who have such majority, and have. pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, an equal number of votes, then the house of or law impairing the obligation of contracts, representatives shall immediately choose by or grant any title of nobility.

ballot one of them for president; and if no No state shall, without the consent of the person have a majority, then from the five congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports highest on the list the said house shall in like or exports, except what may be absolutely manner choose the president. But in choosnecessary for executing its inspection laws; ing the president, the votes shall be taken by and the net produce of all duties and imposts, states, the representation from each state laid by any state on imports or exports, shall having one vote; a quorum for this purpose be for the use of the treasury of the United shall consist of a member or members from States; and all such law shall be subject to two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the revision and controul of the congress.

the states shall be necessary to a choice. In No state shall, without the consent of con- every case, after the choice of the president, gress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops the person having the greatest number of or ships of war in time of peace, enter into voters of the electors shall be the vice-presi.. any agreement or compact with another state, dent. But if there should remain two or or with a foreign power, or engage in war, more who have equal votes, the senate shall unless actually invaded, or in such imminent choose from them by ballot the vice-presidanger as will not admit of delay.

dent. ARTICLE II.

“ The congress may determine the time “ Sect. 1. The executive power shall be of choosing the electors, and the day on which vested in a president of the United States of they shall give their votes; which day shall America. He shall hold his office during the be the same throughout the United States. term of four years ; and, together with the person, except a natural born citizen, vice-president, chosen for the same term, be or a citizen of the United States, at the time elected as follows

of the adoption of this constitution, shall be " Each state shall appoint, in such manner eligible to the office of president; neither as the legislature thereof may direct, a num shall any person be eligible to that office, ber of electors, equal to the whole number of who shall not have attained to the age of senators and representatives to which the thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a state may be entitled in the congress; but resident within the United States,

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ARTICLE III.

* In case of the removal of the president " The president shall have power to fill up fron office, or of his death, resignation, or all vacancies that may happen during the reinability to discharge the powers and duties cess of the senate, by granting commissions of the said office, the same shall devolve on which shall expire at the end of their next the vice-president, and the congress may, by session. law, provide for the case of removal, death, “ Sect. 3. He shall from time to time give resignation, or inability, both of the president to the congress information of the state of the and vice-president, declaring what officer union, and recommend to their consideration shall then act as president, and such officer such measures as he shall judge necessary and shall act accordingly, until the disability be expedient: he may, on extraordinary occaremoved, or a president shall be elected. sions, convene both houses, or either of them,

" The president shall, at stated times, re and in case of disagreement between them, ceive for his services a compensation, which with respect to the time of adjournment, he shall neither be encreased or diminished dur- may adjourn them to such time as he shall ing the period for which he shall have been think proper ; he shall receive ambassadors elected, and he shall not receive within that and other public ministers : he shall take period any other emolument from the Unit care that the laws be faithfully executed, and ed States, or any of them.

shall commission all the officers of the United " Before he enter on the execution of his States. office, he shall take the following oath or “ Sect. 4. The president, vice-president, affirmation:

and all civil officers of the United States, " " I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I shall be removed from office on impeachment will faithfully execute the office of president for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or of the United States, and will, to the best of other high crimes and misdemeanours. my ability, preserve, protect and defend, the constitution of the United States."

“ Sect. 1. The judicial power of the " Sect. 2. The president shall be comman- United States shall be vested in one supreme der in chief of the army and navy of the court, and in such inferior courts as the conUnited States, and of the militia of the seve gress may from time to time ordain and estaral states, when called into the actual service blish. 'l'he judges, both of the supreme and of the United States; he may require the inferior courts, shall hold their offices during opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in good behaviour, and shall, at stated times

, cach of the executive departments, upon any receive for their services a compensation, subject relating to the duties of their respec- which shall not be diminished during their tive' offices, and he shall have power to grant continuance in office. reprieves and pardons for offences against the “ Sect. 2. The judicial power shall extend United States, except in cases of impeachment. to all cases in law and equity, arising under

“ He shall have power, by and with the this constitution, the laws of the United advice and consent of the senate, to make States, and treaties made, or which shall be treaties, provided two-thirds of the senators made, under their authority; to all cases present concur: and he shall nominate, and affecting ambassadors, or other public minisby and with the advice and consent of the ters and consuls ; to all cases of admiralty senate shall appoint ambassadors, other pub- and maritime jurisdiction ; to controversies lic ministers and consuls, judges of the su to which the United States shall be a party ; preme court, and all other officers of the to controversies between two or more states, United States, whose appointments are not between a state and citizens of another state, herein otherwise provided for, and which between citizens of different states, between.. shall be established by law. But the con citizens of the same state claiming lands un-, gress may, by law vest the appointment of der grants of different states, and

between a such inferior officers as they may think pro- state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign per, in the president alone, in the courts of states, citizens or subjects. law, or in the heads of departments.

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other

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public ministers, and consuls, and those in * Sect. 3. New states may be admitted by which a state shall be party, the supreme the congress into this union; but no new court shall have original jurisdiction. In all state shall be formed or erected within the the other cases before-mentioned, the supreme jurisdiction of any other state; nor any state court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both be formed by the junction of two or more as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and states, or parts of states, without the consent under such regulations, as the congress shall of the legislatures of the states concerned, as make.

well as of the congress. - The trial of all crimes, except in cases “ The congress shall have power to dispose of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such of and make all needful rules and regulations trial shall be held in the state where the said respecting the territory or other property be. crimes shall have been committed; but when longing to the United States; and nothing not committed within any state, the trial in this constitution shall be so construed as shall be at such place or places as the con to prejudice any claims of the United States, gress may by law have directed.

or of any particular state. “Sect. 3. Treason against the United States

“ Sect. 4. The United States shall guaranshall consist only in levying war against them, tee to every state in this union a republican or in adhering to their enemies, giving them form of government, and shall protect each aid and comfort. No person shall be con of them against invasion ; and on application victed of treason unless on the testimony of of the legislature, or of the executive (when two witnesses to the same overt act, or on the legislature cannot be convened) against confession in open court.

domestic violence, “The congress shall have power to declare

ARTICLE V. the punishment of treason, but no attainder “ The congress, whenever two-thirds oz of treason shall work corruption of blood or both houses shall deem it necessary, shall forfeiture, except during the life of the per- propose amendments to this constitution, or, son attainted.

on the application of the legislature of twoARTICLE IV.

thirds of the several states, shall call a coll“ Sect. 1. Full faith and credit shall be vention for proposing amendments, which, given in each state to the public acts, records, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and and judicial proceedings of every other state. purposes, as part of this constitution, when And the congress may, by general laws, pre- ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of scribe the manner in which such acts, records the several states, or by.conventions in threeand proceedings, shall be proved, and the fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode effect thereof.

of ratification may be proposed by the con“ Sect. 2. The citizens of each state shall gress: provided that no amendment which be entitled to all privileges and immunities may be made prior to the year one thousand of citizens in the several states.

eight hundred and eight, shall in any man“ A

person charged in any state with trea ner affect the first and fourth clauses in the son, felony, or other crime, who shall flee ninth section of the first article; and that no from justice, and be found in another state, state, without its consent, shall be deprived shall

, on demand of the executive authority of its equal suffrage in the senate. of the state from which he fled, be delivered

ARTICLE VI. up, to be removed to the state having juris

“ All debts contracted, and engagements diction of the crime.

entered into, before the adoption of this conNo person held to service or labour institution, shall be as valid against the United one state, under the laws thereof, escaping States under this constitution, as under the into any other, shall, in consequence of any confederation. law or regulation therein, be discharged from “ This constitution, and the laws of the such service or labour, but shall be delivered United States which shall be made in pursu. up on claim of the party to whom such ser ance thereof; and all treaties made, or which vice or labour may be due.

shall be made, under the authority he of

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United States, shall be the supreme law of

James M'Henry the land ; and the judges in every state shall

Daniel of St. Thomas

Maryland, ...... be bound thereby, any thing in the consti

Jenifer, tution or laws of any state to the contrary

Daniel Carroll, notwithstanding.

John Blair, “ The senators and representatives before

Virginia.....

James Madison, jun. mentioned, and the members of the several

William Blount, state legislatures, and all executive and judi- North Carolina, Richard Dobbs Spaight, cial officers, both of the United States and

Hugh Williamson of the several states, shall be bound by oath

John Rutledge, or affirmation to support this constitution;

Charles Cotesworth but no religious test shall ever be required as South Carolina, Pinckney, a qualification to any office or public trust

Charles Pinckney, under the United States.

Pierce Butler,
ARTICLE VII.

Georgia,...

s William Few, " The ratification of the conventions of nine

| Abraham Baldwin. states shall be sufficient for the establishment “ Attest. WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary." of this constitution between the states so ratifying the same.

The contest between Great Britain and the “ Done in convention, by the unanimous United States had excited, so long as the

consent of the states present, the seven- conflict with Buonaparte continued, only a teenth day of September, in the year of confined and partial interest, and when the our Lord one thousand seven hundred downfall of Napoleon had inflamed our pride and eighty-seven, and of the indepen- and surpassed our expectations, we looked dence of the United States of America forward to the same good fortune and sucthe twelfth. In witness whereof we cess in the prosecution of our trans-atlantic have hereunto subscribed our names. hostilities. It was believed, with more na“ GEORGE WASHINGTON, president, tional vanity than prudence, that Britain, so

And deputy from Virginia. long the undisputed mistress of the ocean,

(John Langdon, New Hampshire,

would soon sweep the seas of all the AmeriNicholas Gilman, can ships : and that the troops who had so Nathaniel Gorham, gloriously proved their warlike prowess in

the Peninsula, had only to appear on the Wm. Samuel Johnson, frontiers of the United States, to obtain a Connecticut, ....

Roger Sherman, certain and easy victory over the undisciNew York,...... Alexander Hamilton, plined forces of America. It was confidently

William Livingston, predicted that our troops would advance

David Brearley, New Jersey,...... William Patterson,

without loss or interruption to the capital,

and that our successes would induce the inJonathan Dayton,

habitants of the northern states to separate Benjamin Franklin, from those of the southern provinces. DeThomas Mifflin,

luded by the false representations of the
Robert Morris,

American newspapers, our ill informed and
Pennsylvania.....
George Clymer,

sanguine politicians anticipated the defeat
Thomas Fitzsimmons, and downfall of the republican party, and on
Jared Ingersol,

the eve of every new election for officers of James Wilson,

state loudly predicted the discomfiture of
Gouverneur Morris,

Mr. Madison and his friends. The stability,
George Read,

however, of that gentleman's power was at Gunning Bedford, jun. this period confirmed and secured by the · Delaware,........ John Dickinson,

pacific tenor of his language and his conduct.
Richard Bassett,

He reflected, that if the war were prolonged
Jacob Broom,

for many years it would entail on the United

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Massachusetts,... Rufus King,

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