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these proceedings and declared purposes, of representatives,--Notwithstanding the ear-
which exhibit a deliberate disregard of the ly day which had been fixed for your session
principles of humanity and the rules of civi of the present year, I was induced to call you
lized warfare, and which must give to the together still sooner, as well that any inade-
existing war a character of extended devasta- quacy in the existing provisions for the wants
tion and barbarism, at the very moment of of the treasury might be supplied, as that no
negotiations for peace, invited by the enemy delay might happen in providing for the re-
himself, leave no prospect of safety to any sult of the negotiation on foot with Great
thing within the reach of his predatory and Britain, whether it should require arrange-
incendiary operations, but in manful and uni. ments adapted to a return of peace, or fur-
versal determination to chastise and expel the ther and more effective provisions for prose-
invader. Now, therefore, I, James Madison, cuting the war.
president of the United States, do issue this The result is not yet known: if on one
my proclamation, exhorting all the good hand the repeal of the orders in council, and
people thereof to unite their hearts and hands the general pacification of Europe, which
in giving effect to the ample means possessed withdrew the occasion on which impress-
for that purpose. I enjoin it on all officers, ments from American vessels were practised,
civil and military, to exert themselves in exe suggest expectations that peace and amity
cuting the duties with which they are respec- may be established, we are compelled on the
tively charged. And more especially, I re other hand, by the refusal of the British go-
quire the officers commanding the respective vernment to accept the offered mediation of
military districts to be vigilant and alert in the emperor of Russia, by the delays in gir-
providing for the defence thereof; for the ing effect to its own proposals of a direct ne-
more effectual accomplishment of which they gotiation, and, above all

, by the principles are authorised to call to the defence of ex and manner in which the war is now avowposed and threatened places portions of the edly carried on, to infer that a strict hostility militia most convenient thereto, whether they is indulged more violent than ever against be or be not parts of the quotas detached for the rights and prosperity of this country.-the service of the United States under requi- This increased violence is best explained by sitions of the general government. On an two important circumstances, that the great occasion which appeals so forcibly to the contest in Europe for an equilibrium, guarana proud feelings and patriotic devotion of the teeing all its states against the ambition of American people, none will forget what they any, has been closed witho:it any check o:1 owe to themselves, what they owe to their the overbearing power of Great Britain on country, and the high destinies which await the ocean, and that it has left in her hands it; what to the glory acquired by their fa- disposable armoury, with whichi, forgetting thers, in establishing the independence which the difficulties of a remote war against a free is now to be maintained by their sons, with people, and yielding to the intoxication of the augmented strength and resources with success with the example of a great victiin which time and Heaven have blessed them. to it before her eyes, she cherishes hopes of In testimony whereof I have hereunto set still further aggrandising a power already my hand, and caused the seal of the United formidable in its abuses to the tranquillity of States to be fixed to these presents. Done the civilized and commercial world. But at the city of Washington, the first day of whatever may lare inspired the enemy with September, in the year of our Lord 1814, these more violent purposes, the public couinand of the independence of the United States cils of a nation, more able to maintain than

it was to acquire its independence, and with JAMES MADISON. a devotion to it rendered more ardent by the "By the president,

experience of its blessings, can never délibeJas. MONROE, sec. of state."

rate but on the means most effectual for de

feating the extravagant measures of unwarFellow citizens of the senate and house rantable passion, with which alune the war

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the 39th.

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can now be pursued against us. In the frontier have also acceded to stipulations
events of the present campaign, with all its which bind them to the interest of our U.
auginented means and wanton use of them, nited States, and to consider our enemy as
he has little ground for exultation, unless he theirs also.
can feel it in the success of his recent enter In the recent attempts of the enemy on
prise against this metropolis and the neigh- Baltimore, defended by militia and volun.
bouring town of Alexandria, from both of teers, aided by a small body of regulars and
which his retreats were as precipitate as his seamen, he was received with a spirit which
attempts were bold and fortunate. In his produced a rapid retreat to the ships, whilst
other incursions on our Atlantic frontier, his a concurrent attack by a large fleet was suco
progress, often checked and chastised by the cessfully resisted by the steady and well direct-
martial spirit of the neighbouring citizens, ed fire of the fort and batteries opposed to it.
has had more effect in distressing individuals In another recent attack by a powerful force
and in dishonouring his arms, than in pro- on our troops at Plattsburg, of which regu-
moting any object of legitimate warfare.- lars made a part only, the enemy, after a per-
And in the two instances mentioned, how- severance for many hours, was finally com-
ever deeply to be regretted on our part, in pelled to seek safety in a hasty retreat

, our his transient success, which interrupted for a gallant bands pressing upon him. On the moment only the ordinary public business at lakes, so much contested throughout the war, the seat of government, no compensation can the great exertions for the command made accrue for the loss of character with the world, on our part have been well repaid on Lake by his violation of private property, and his Ontario. Our squadron is now, and has destruction of public edifices, protected as been for some time, in a condition to confine, monuments of the arts by the laws of civilised that of the enemy to his own port, and to warfare. On our side we can appeal to a se favour the operations of our land forces on ries of achievements which have given new that frontier. On lake Champlain, where lustre to the American arms. Besides the our superiority had for some time been unbrilliant incidents in the minor operations of disputed, the British squadron lately came the campaign, the splendid victories gained into action with the American, commanded on the Canadian side of the Niagara by the by captain Macdonough: it issued in the American forces under major-general Brown, capture of the whole of the enemy's ships. and brigadiers Scott and Gaines, have gained The best praise of this officer and his infor these heroes and their emulated compa- trepid comrades, is in the likeness of his nions the most unfading laurels; and having triumph to the illustrious victory which im. triumphantly proved the progressive disci- mortalized another officer, and established, pline of the American soldiery, have taught at a critical moment, our command of anothe enemy that the longer he protracts his ther lake. On the ocean, the pride of our hostile efforts, the more certain

and decisive naval arms has been amply supported : a sewill be his final discomfiture. On the south- cond frigate has indeed fallen into the hands ern border victory has continued also to fol- of the enemy, but the loss is hidden in the low the American standard. The bold and blaze of heroism with which she was defendskilful operations of major-general Jackson, ed. Captain Porter, who commanded her

, conducting troops drawn from the militia of and whose previous career had been distinthe states least distant particularly of Tenes- guished by daring enterprise and by fertility see, have subdued the principal tribes of hos- of genius, maintained a sanguinary contest tile savages; and by establishing a peace with against two ships, one of them superior to them, preceded by recent and exemplary his own, and other severe disadvantages

, till chastisement, we have guarded against the humanity tore down the colours which vamischief of their co-operations with the lour had nailed to the mast. This officer British enterprises which may be planned and his comrades have added much to the against this quarter of our country. Impor- glory of the American flag, and have merited tant tribes of Indians on our north-westem all the effusions of gratitude which their

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country is ever ready to bestow on the cham-' during the nine months ending the 13th of pions of its rights and of its safety,

June last, amounted to 32 millions of dollars, “ Two smaller vessels of war have also be- of which 11 millions were the proceeds of come prizes to the enemy, but by superiority the public revenue, and the remainder deof force, which sufficiently vindicates the re rived from loans. The disbursements for putation of their commanders; whilst two public expenditures during the same period others, one commanded by captain Warring- exceed 34 millions of dollars, and left in the ton, the other by captain Blakely, have cap- treasury on the 1st of July near five millions tured British ships of the same class with a

of dollars. gallantry and good conduct, which entitled " The demands during the remainder of them and their commanders to a just share the present year, already authorised by conin the praise of their country.

gress, and the expenses incident to an exten" In spite of the naval forces of the enemy sion of the operations of the war, will render accumulated on our coasts, our private cruis- it necessary that large sums should be proers also have not ceased to annoy his com vided to meet them. From this view of the merce, and to bring their rich prizes into our national affairs, congress will be urged to ports : contributing thus, with other proofs, take up without delay, as well the subject of to demonstrate the incompetency and the pecuniary supplies, as that of military force, illegality of a blockade, the proclamation of and on a scale commensurate with the exwhich has been made the pretext for vexing tent and character which the war has asand discouraging the commerce of neutral sumed. powers with the United States.

" It is not to be disguised that the situa“ To meet the extended and diversified tion of our country calls for its greatest efwarfare adopted by the enemy, great bodies forts : our enemy is powerful in men and of militia have been taken into the service of money, on the land and on the water : avail. the public defence, and great expenses incur. ing himself of fortunate cireumstances, he is red. That the defence every where may be aiming with an undivided force a deadly both more convenient and more æconomical, blow at our growing prosperity, perhaps at congress will see the necessity of immediate our national existence. He has avowed his measures of filling the ranks of the regular purpose of trampling on the usages of civilarmy, and enlarging the provisions for special ised warfare, and given earnest of it in the corps, mounted and dismounted, to be en- plunder and wanton destruction of private gaged for a longer period of service than are property: due from the militia. I earnestly renew at " In the pride of maritime dominion, and the same time a recommendation of such in his thirst of commercial monopoly, he changes in the system of the militia, as by strikes with peculiar animosity at the proclassing and disciplining on the most prompt gress of our navigation and manufactures : and active service the portion most capable of his barbarous policy has not even spared it, will give to that resource for the public those monuments of taste with which our safety all the requisite energy and efficiency. country had enriched and embellished our A part of the squadron on lake Erie has infant metropolis

. From such an adversary, heen extended to lake Huron, and has pro- hostility in its greatest force and worst forms duced the advantage of displaying our com may be looked for. The American people mand of that lake also. One object of the will face it with the undaunted spirit which, expedition was the reduction of Mackinan, in their revolutionary war, defeated his unwhich failed, with the loss of a few brave righteous projects; his threats and his barinen, among whom was an officer distin- barities, instead of dismay, will kindle in guished for his gallant exploits; and the ex every bosom an indignation not to be extin. pedition, ably conducted by both land and guished but in the disaster and expulsion of Naval commanders, was otherwise valuable such cruel invaders. In providing the means in its effects.

necessary the national legislator will not The monies received into the treasury distrust the enlightened patriotism of his


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constituents. They will cheerfully and part of the United States. At present, the proudly bear every burthen of every kind principal banks in the middle states had stopwhich the safety and honour of the nation ped payment; while the notes of those banks demands.

which still were in credit would not pass out We have seen them every where give of the particular state where they were issued. their taxes, direct and indirect, with the In order to secure the circulation of the treagreatest promptness and alacrity: we have sury notes, it would be proper to issue them seen them rushing with enthusiasm to scenes in small sums for the ordinary purposes of where danger and duty call; and, offering society; to allow the holders to fund them, their blood, they give their surest pledge with an interest of 8 per cent.; to make that no other tribute will be withheld. them payable to bearer; to make them re

Having forborne to declare war until to ceivable in all payments for public lands and other aggressions had been added, the capture taxes; to pledge for the payment of the inof nearly 1000 American vessels, and the im- terest, so much of the internal duties as shall pressment of thousands of seafaring citizens, be necessary. and until a final declaration had been made With regard to new taxes, the committee by the government of Great Britain, that her remarks that several manufactures, which hostile orders against our commerce would had grown up in the United States, in connot be revoked but on conditions as impos- sequence of the war having shut them out sible as unjust, whilst it was known that from foreign markets, were in such a flouthese orders would not otherwise cease but rishing condition that they would bear to with a war which had lasted nearly 20 years, be taxed; and with taxes on them, they proand which, according to appearance at that pose to unite a pledge of the public faith for time, might last as many more--having ma the continuance of the double duties till these nifested on every occasion, and in every pro- taxes were repealed. They then give in the per mode, a sincere desire to meet the enemny resolutions which they deem necessary: 1st

, on the ground of justice, our resolution to to continue the direcť tax, and to increase it defend our beloved country, and to oppose to 50 per cent. : 2d, to increase the duty on to our enemy's persevering hostility all our spirits by an additional duty of twelve and energy, with an undiminished disposition a half cents on the gallon : 3d, to add 100 towards and friendship on honourable per cent to the duties on sales by auction: terms, must carry with it the good wishes of 4th, to add 50 per cent to the duty on the the impartial world, and the best hopes of conveyance of papers and letters: and lastly, support from an omnipotent and kind Pro- to impose a duty on different manufactured vidence,

6 JAMES MADISON.” The estimate of the amount of the

That part of the message of the president posed increase, and of the new duties, was
which related to finances was referred to a 11,635,000 dollars; while the revenue under
committee of ways and means, who made the oldsystem of taxation was only 10,800,000:
their report in the course of the same month, thus, at one stroke, doubling the taxation.
It begins by stating that the resources for The list of the manufactured articles that
carrying on the war must consist in taxes, it was proposed to tax, and the amount of
loans, and treasury notes. With respect to the tax laid on each article, give us some in-
the first, they could not be collected in time sight into the progress of manufactures in
to meet the immediate demands of the war ; the United States : from this list it appears
as to loans, a reliance on them, under the cir- that the manufacture of hats is in a flourish-
cumstances of the country, must be uncer- ing condition ; the amount of the duties to
tain; and, if obtained, the terms would be be levied on them is 600,000 dollars: the
exorbitant. Treasury notes, therefore, must next article points out the improvements
be had recourse to; and they would be of which the United States have made in the
general service to supply a medium of circu- manufacture of cotton: “cotton-yarn, spun,
lation, which would pass current in every by the aid of machinery, worked by steam

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or water, 400,000 spindles at 25 cents, should be preserved and made complete with
100,000 dollars.” The various manufactures the least possible delay; that a permanent
of leather are calculated to consume 18 mil. force, consisting at least of 40,000 men, in
lion pounds; and even the manufacture of addition, should be raised for the defence of
goat and sheep skins to resemble Spanish the cities and frontiers ; that the corps of en-
leather, appears to be so far advanced as to gineers be enlarged; and that the ordnance
be able to bear a tax. The next class of department be amended. This letter was
manufactures taxed are those of iron; viz. accompanied with explanatory observations,
300,000 tons of pig-iron, 100,000 tons of cast which detailed a plan of a still more formi-
iron, 100,000 tons of bar-iron. The quantity dable description, for augmenting the military
of beer, ale, and porter, manufactured and force of the United States. In these obser-
taxed, is estimated at 6,000,000 dollars. The vations there were several remarkable pas-
next article of taxation is a singular one: it sages : it was distinctly stated, that if the
is called the furniture tax; excluding beds, United States sacrificed any right, or made
kitehen furniture, carpets and curtains of any dishonourable concession to Britain, the
domestic manufacture; and also all furniture spirit of the nation would be broken. “ The
which on the whole is not of the value of United States must relinquish no rights, or
200 dollars. The estimate of this tax is perish in the struggle: there is no interme-
made on a supposition that the United States diate ground to rest on. A concession on
contain 800,000 families ; of which there are one point leads directly to the surrender of
259,000 exempt, as possessing less than 200 every other." “ To bring the war to an ho-
dollars worth; 300,000 families who possess nourable termination, we must not be con-
between 200 and 400 dollars; 100,000 who tent with defending ourselves. Different
possess between 400 and 500: 75,000 who feelings must be touched and apprehensions
possess between 600 and 1000; 25,000 who excited in the British government.” It
possess between 1000 and 1500: 15,000 who cannot be doubted that it is in the power of
possess between 1500 and 2000; 10,000 who the United States to 'expeł the British forces
possess between 2000 and 3000; 10,000 who from this continent." From this view of the
possess between 3000 and 4000; the same subject, the secretary at war concluded it
number who possess between 4000 and 6000; would be necessary to bring into the field
5000 who possess between 6000 and 9000; next campaign not less than 100,000 regular
and 1000 who possess farniture worth above troops.
9000 dollars. The next important article is For this purpose a bill was brought into
paper, which however is taxed only to the congress, entitled, “ An act to provide for
amount of 30,000 dollars. The number of filling the ranks of the regular army, -by.
vats is estimated at 2000. Nails made by classifying the free white male population of
machinery appear to be of considerable con the United States :" the first section of this
sequence, as their weight is estimated at 20 act directs, that all the white male inhabi-
million pounds, and they are taxed at one tants between 18 and 45 be classed-classes
cent per pound. The number of gold watches of 25 in each to be made under the authority
is estimated at 250,000: of silver ones at the of the assessors of the United States; where
same number; and of playing cards at 400,000 there are no assessors, under marshals; both

of whom are to be bound under penalty to After the finances, the next object which complete the classification in a given time; engaged the attention of the American go- each class to furnish one able-bodied man vernment was the state of thearmy; a military between 18 and 45, to serve during the war; committee was formed for this purpose, and to be delivered over to the assessor or maron the 17th of October the secretary at war shals, and by them to be delivered over to addressed a letter to them respecting the de- the United States' officers authorized to refects of the military establishment; in which ceive him: the marshals and assessors were he proposed that the military establishment to determine the precincts of each class, so then existing, amounting to 62,448 men, that the property in each: division shall be as

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