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nearly equal as possible : in case of failure, American commissioners and themselves .
each class to pay a penalty; and if this was
not paid in a certain number of days, it was 1. The forcible seizure of mariners from
to be collected from the taxable inhabitants on board merchant ships on the high seas,
of the district, in proportion to property real and in connection with it the right of the
and personal : the marshals and assessors king of Great Britain to the allegiance of all
were to act der the direction of the presi- his native subjects.
dent of the United States. Any person ag 2. That the peace be extended to the In-
grieved by excessive valuations may appealdian allies of Great Britain ; and that the
in the manner as with respect to the direct boundary of their territory be definitely
taxes : the money accruing from the penal. marked out, as a permanent barrier between
ties to be employed by the secretary of war the dominions of Great Britain and the Unit-
to recruit the armies. The last section pro- ed States. An arrangement on this subject
vides that any five white male inhabitants, to be a sine qua non of a treaty of peace.
being liable to military duty, who shall fur 3. A revision of the boundary line between
nish a soldier between 18 and 45 during the the British and American territories, with
war, shall be exempt from military duty the view to prevent future uncertainty and
during the war.

Whatever objections may be made to this The British commissioners requested in-
bill, as enacting regulations for raising men, formation whether the American commis-
which very strongly resembled the conscrip- sioners were instructed to enter into nego-
tion of France, it must be acknowledged tiation on the above points ? But before
that the very proposing it was a proof that they desired any answer, they felt it right to
the president felt himself strong, and that his communicate the intentions of their
popularity, instead of having been diminish- ment as to the North American fisheries, viz.
ed, had been increased by the events of the that the British government did not intend
war. Still, if this war had been in accordance to grant to the United States gratuitously,
with the sincere and zealous opinion of the the privileges formerly granted by treaty to
inhabitants of the United States, it seems them, of fishing within the limits of the Bri-
reasonable to suppose that they would have tish sovereignty, and of using the shores of
stepped forward as volunteers in defence of the British territories for purposes connected
their country: the whole number proposed with the fisheries.
to be raised by this bill was only 100,000, At their next meeting, the American com-
not more than one-fourth of the volunteers missioners stated, that upon the 1st and 3d
who in Great Britain offered their ser- points they were provided with instructions:
vices during the revolutionary war with but not on the 2nd and 4th: that the Ame-

rican government had appointed separate But events were taking place at Ghent, commissioners to treat with the Indians for which rendered it extremely probable that 'peace. They then presented further subjects there would be no necessity for carrying into considered

by their government as suitable effect the regulations of this bill. On the for discussion: these were, 8th of August the British and American 1. A definition of blockade, and, as far as commissioners met at this city: the former may be agreed, of other neutral and belligewere lord Gambier, Mr. Goulbourn, one of rent rights. the under secretaries of state for the colonial 2. Certain claims of indemnity to indivi, department, and Dr. Adams. The American duals for captures and seizures preceding and commissioners were John Quincy Adams, J. subsequent to the war. A. Baynard, H. Clay, John Russel, and Al 3. They further stated, that there were bert Gallatin. At their first meeting the various other points to which their instrucBritish commissioners gave in a list of the tions extended, which might with propriety subjects in which it appeared to them that be objects of discussion, either in the nego. difference of opinion would arise between the tiation of the peace, or in that of a treaty of

ex had Un Gh diar 1


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commerce, which, in the case of a propitious states. But they also complained that sea-
termination of the present conferences, they men, bona fide, and, according to the laws of
were likewise authorised to conclude. That all countries, American citizens, were taken
for the purpose of facilitating the first and out of American ships; and that they would
most essential object of peace, they had dis not suffer their national flag to be insulted
carded every subject which was not consi- by searching their vessels on any pretext.-
dered as peculiarly connected with that, and In order to settle the difference with respect
presented only those points which appeared to impressment, the president expressed his
to be immediately relevant to this negotia- willingness to exclude all British seamen

from the vessels of the United States; and
At a subsequent meeting on the 10th of even to exclude all British subjects, except
August, the British commissioners endea- those already naturalized; and also to surren-
voured to persuade the American commis der all British seamen deserting from British
sioners, that it would be desirable that the vessels. This was certainly a fair proposi-
American government should give up many tion, if it could have been followed


with places, of which they were still in possession, efficient practice; but it was well known for the purpose of rendering the limits of that certificates of citizenship were easily obCanada more precise and secure: but on this tained in the United States; and where these point the American commissioners were im were shown, how was it to be determined moveable:--the British commissioners also whether they were genuine or not? The expressed their surprise that no instructions admission of the president, however, was imhad been given by the government of the portant in another point of view; as it disUnited States, to treat at the congress of tinctly involved an acknowledgment that Ghent with respect to peace with the In- every state has a right to the service and alledians.

giance of its subjects, and that such allegiThe most important as well as the most ance and services cannot be alienated. difficult points in dispute between Great Bri The question respecting blockade was tain and the United States were undoubtedly equally difficult: it appears to us that we those relating to the impressment of seamen have stretched this right beyond what justice out of American ships, and the practice of and common sense, as well as the usages

blockade. With respect to the first, it was nations will warrant, and even beyond our
alleged on the part of Britain, that every own acknowledged principle: we admit that
state had a right to the allegiance and ser no blockade is legal, except where it is sup-
vices of its own subjects; and that such ser ported by a sufficient force :--but were even
vices and allegiance could not be alienated all the ships of the British navy adequate to
by the individual. It was a well known fact, the efficient blockade of the immense extent
that many British seamen entered on board of the sea coast of the United States ? Cer-
American ships. To these the British go tainly not; and to call that a blockade, where
vernment claimed a right; and if they were the ports are only occasionally and partially
not given up by the American government, blocked up, seems

up, seems to us a gross misapplica-
it claimed a right to search for them, and take tion of words! In fact, instead of issuing a
them out of the American ships on board of proclamation, intimating to neutrals that we
which they were
The American govern-

ħad blockaded all the coast of America, we
ment, on the other hand, did not directly ought to have expressly declared, what was
deny that a state had a right to the allegi our intention and our practice, that we did
ance and services of its subjects; but they not mean to permit neutrals to trade with
virtually denied that such allegiance and the United States.
services could not be alienated ; since they It would probably, therefore, have been
considered as citizens of the United States, impossible to have brought together the opi-
and of course as ceasing to be subjects of the nions of the British and American commis-
country in which they were born, aù who sioners on these subjects, had not the peace
had lived a certain number of years in those which had taken place in Europe fortunately

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08:47 degree, we them in 1812.

rendered their further discussion of no im- and the apprehension that, if the war were portance. Both governments

, therefore, yery not speedily terminated, some of the Eurowisely agreed to forego points of dispute which pean powers might take the part of the could no longer be acted upon, and which, United States, especially on the subject of by the return of peace, had becoine mere abs maritime rights. On the side of the United stract principles.

States, their government were disposed to The other subjects of any importance, peace, principally on account of the unpopuwere the admission of the Indians to the larity of the president, the embarrassment of treaty, and the fixing a new frontier to Ca- their commerce and finances, and the devasnada. We certainly asked a very improper tation to which their coasts were exposed. thing, when we asked, that the United States The terms of the treaty of peace (which was should not transgress on the Indian territory: signed at Ghent on the 24th of December, in the course of events, the Indians must give ratified immediately by the prince regent, place to the inhabitants of the United States; and transmitted without delay to Washingand it is desirable on every account that it ton, for the ratification of the president) were should be so.

as follows: say,

that in the course of 1. All discussion of our maritime rights is events Canada must fall into the possession waved on both sides. of the United States; and we even doubt 2. Mr. Madison does not insist on our whether this would be any serious evil. To giving up the prizes captured in retaliation those who consider colonies as very beneficial of the Berlin and Milan decrees

. to the parent state, and their loss as weaken 3. We leave our Indian allies as we found would cite what was the of the loss of 4. We give up all our conquests, and parour American colonies : are not both we and ticularly the province of Maine, of which our they better for it? Have we not less expense commanders took permanent possession by and more trade ? - and is it not probable that solemn proclamation ; requiring from the

inthe same would be the case if we lost Cana- habitants an oath of allegiance to his majesda ? Colonies always flourish best when in- ty. We are graciously permitted, however

, dependent; and as the real benefit which the to retain the islands which were actually ours parent state derives from them is derived by the treaty of 1783. from commerce with them, it is evident that 5. Commissioners are to be appointed on this benefit will be increased in proportion both sides, to determine whether there shal as they flourish, while the expense of main- be any, and what safe and practicable comtaining them will be done away. But to munication between Quebec and Upper Careturn to the immediate point

in dispute be- nada, together with all other disputed questween Great Britain and the United States, tions of territory. with regard to Canada : it was not to be ex 6. We are to be allowed the exclusive enpected that the latter would cede any part joyment of the right of fishing on our own of its own territory, at least without an equi- coasts 'at Newfoundland ! 'and of trading to valent, especially if they had any design our own settlements in the East Indies. against Canada, and if this cession would

Having thus brought to a close our 'acmake Canada more secure.

count of the naval and military operations The negotiations at Ghent were very pro- against the Americans, it is impossible 'not tracted, and at last terminated rather unex- to compare the results of our hostility with pectedly in a pacific manner. What brought the means which we possessed, and the exabout this termination is not well known: pectations we had formed. Our disasters probably, on our side, the want of success, were rendered more disgraceful by the tone even after we had sent out reinforcements of triumphant anticipation with which we from the peninsula; the enormous expense announced our designs, and the indiscrétion of sending out troops to Canada, and keeping with which 'we avowed 'our confidence of them there; the critical state of our finances; success. The glory wbich we had lately'ob

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tained against a much more celebrated foe, decisively beaten and conquered, and till we
presented a striking contrast to the imbecility had thus redeemed our naval and military
and mismanagement displayed in the Amé character. Fortunately for the honour of
rican campaign. These humiliating circum- England, the happiness of America, and the
stances infused into the minds of a large por- interests of humanity at large, the British
tion of the British people a vindictive wish government was animated by more meri-
that our government would not make peace torious feelings, and more enlightened po-
with the United States till they had been licy.

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Labedoyere's description of the state of France.-Connection of Buonaparte voith the con

spiracy.-His habits, umusements, and pursuits, in the Island of Elba.Impolicy of
placing him at that place.--Negligence of the allics, und apathy of the British ministers,
--Preparations for Napoleon's escape. The life of Fouché, duke of Otranto.--Alar
in France at the prospect of a new revolution.

The situation of France at the recall of The army had not submitted until the cause
Louis is thus described by the treacherous of their former master was desperate. They
and unfortunate Labedoyere. In 1814 had then slowly and reluctantly tendered
neither the nation nor the army could longer their allegiance. That a monarch had been
support the yoke of Buonaparte. It was forced upon them was a fruitful source of
tired with war without motive, and exhaust- discontent. The sovereign was now sur-
ed by sacrifices without utility. All felt the rounded by those against whom. they had
necessity of a repairing government. Where long and desperately fought, whom they
could we flatter ourselves that we should find considered as the enemies of their country,
it but in the recall of the Bourbons, whose and whom they regarded with mingled con-
names reminded France of a series of good tempt and aversion. The emigrant noblesse
kings, and ages of prosperity.” Such was and the soldiers of the revolution, entertained
the general language of the marshals and the most hostile sentiments towards each
officers of France, on the first return of the other, and the professions of gratitude and
Bourbon dynasty to the throne; and the confidence which the court expressed were
flatteries which were heaped upon them in too evidently insincere to deceive or to con-
return by every member of the royal family ciliate.
were so gross and profuse, as at once to gra The return of the prisoners from Russia
tify their pride and awaken their suspicion, and England increased the general discon-
The line of conduct at first adopted by the tent. One hundred and fifty thousand men,
court was singularly unfortunate, as it was destitute of subsistence or empolyment, were
afterwards compelled to confer its principal restored to France, with all the habits of idle-
favours on the troops of La Vendée and of ness and depravity to which a long detention
Coblentz, who formed the military strength in prison so powerfully conduces. In war
of the royalist party, and who claimed the alone they possessed the means of indulging
reward of their former sufferings. Discon- their vicious and licentious propensities, or
tent and suspicion were excited in the minds of supporting their existence. They united
of the Buonapartean military; the remem therefore with the regular troops in eager
brance of their former chief, with whom they and importunate demands to be conducted
had no rivals, was recalled, and the founda once more in the paths of glory.
tion was laid for their speedy disaffection. The officers who returned from Russia had

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suffered considerable losses, and demanded his ostensible ministers, who were attached an indemnity. The arrears of their pay to the constitution, and saw in a strict adenormous, and the claimants were innumer- herence to its principles the true honour and able. It was necessary to create a commis- only security of the monarchy. To this sion to examine and liquidate their claims. party the king inclined. He had sworn to The delay inevitably attending such transac- be faithful to the charter, and his ambition tions excited the most general but unreason would have been amply gratified, had he able discontent. Many of them assumed possessed the affections, and contributed to courage to penetrate to the foot of the throne, the prosperity, of a free and happy people. and in the most insolent language demanded A number of the Bourbon princes, and the of the king the recompence of those services old and confidential advisers of the king, which they had rendered to the exiled em formed a second party in the state. They peror.

beheld with jealousy every concession in faAnother event converted their complaints vour of liberty, and ardently wished for the and remonstrances into actual rebellion. The return of the ancient regime. The re-estaextravagance of the former government had blishment of the ancient and arbitrary goleft the finances in a state of utter confusion vernment of the Bourbons was the object of and exhaustion. That part of France which their daily wishes and their nightly dreams. had been the theatre of the last campaign They constantly surrounded the king: and was unable to contribute its quota to supply they possessed a thousand opportunities of the exigencies of the state. Retrenchments influencing his mind and guiding his deciwereabsolutely necessary, and while the house. sions. To this perpetual struggle between hold establishment of the king was conducted the honest intentions of the monarch, the on the most rigorous principle of economy, advice of his most enlightened counsellors

, and every part of the administration cheer- and the arbitrary principles of his family and fully submitted to its share of privations, the favourites, the inconsistencies and errors of army could not expect to be exempt

. Seve. his unfortunate but honest performance of ral of the regiments were disbanded, and all his regal duties, must be ascribed. He acted the supernumerary officers placed on half under circumstances of the most arduous napay. The French


however unreason ture. He owed his crown exclusively to the ably, deeply resented this necessary measure. efforts of the allies, and no sooner was he Louis had promised that all the officers should seated on the throne than they withdrew to retain their respective ranks. They falsely their respective countries, and left him at the alleged that this promise was broken when mercy of that very army which fought with they were deprived of part of the emolu so much perseverance against his cause. The ments formerly attached to their respective few friends whom he had brought with him situations. When one half of their pay was could lend but little assistance or protection, at once deducted, they were no longer able and were regarded with an eye of vigilant to support that luxury, or that respectability, suspicion. which they had enjoyed under the warlike Though the monarch had been imprudent auspices of Napoleon, or even to maintain in rejecting the crown as the gift of the that situation in society to which their rank people, though he could not evince a marked entitled them. Stimulated by these consi- partiality to the murderers of his brother, and derations, and regarding the conduct of the the persecutors of himself, and though he sovereign as a breach of promise, they anxi. could not contemplate, without feelings of ously waited for some pretext by which they gratitude and of justice, the individuals who might justify their rebellion, and were pre- had shared his sufferings, yet he had given pared to follow any leader who might flatter sufficient pledges that he was determined to them with the hope of plunder and of vic iassume the character and merit the praise of tory.

a patriot king His bitterest enemies can. Í'he court of Louis was divided into two not deny that, under his first administration, parties. The first comprised the majority of France enjoyed more real liberty than at any

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