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Christina, Queen of Sweden. S. L. Clayes .
Fraternalism and Paternalism. E. P. Powell . .
Hawaii, Our Prospective Territory. Frank H. Palmer
472, 544, 601
Rhetoric and Public Speaking in the American College. Prof. Henry
Allyn Frink, Ph. D. . . . . . . . . 129
Sonnets from Goethe. Geo. Upson Whicher .
Teaching English Literature. Prof. Leverett W. Spring ·
The Child and the Harebell. Poem. Alice Hamilton Rich
The True End of Education. Dr. Emerson E. White .
Thomes, M. D. . . . . . . . . . 530, 611
DEVOTED TO THE SCIENCE, ART, PHILOSOPHY AND
LITERATURE OF EDUCATION.
THE normal schools, as organized in this country, are profes
1 sional institutions for training teachers to teach. They owe their origin to the idea that teaching is a science and an art, and that both may be taught and learned as are any other science and art. It is therefore their distinctive work to develop the science and art of teaching. The ends to be attained should determine the means to be employed in normal instruction and the method of their application. The means will consist of a normal course of studies to be pursued, and the method will be a philosophical way of pursuing them.
If we suppose the normal schools of the country were established for the purpose of training teachers for the public schools, then the first subject to be taken up in the normal course should relate to the ends which these schools are expected to promote. A knowledge of these ends will direct the normal schools in selecting their subjects of instruction and in the special application of method in teaching. The public schools are doing their legitimate work when they are directing their pupils to the acquisition of useful knowledge, to a way of obtaining information of those things which cannot be made direct objects of knowledge, and to that method of using the mind which will result in its best development. Knowledge, information, method and mental development being the ends to which the public schools should direct their attention, these must determine the sort of professional training which public school teachers should receive. The normal course will include first, a study of the principles or laws of the mind that direct and limit it in learning, in acquiring skill in its various forms of activity, and in developing its character. Second, from a knowledge of these principles should be derived a method of teaching, a method which will establish the natural relations which the objects and subjects of knowledge should hold to the learner's mind, and which will provide right occasion for the kind of mental activity that is necessary to produce a right mental development. Third, referring to the same principles an ideal course of public school studies should be prepared, a course best adapted to bring before the learner's mind right occasions for useful knowledge in the order of its various grades of development, and right occasions for the progressive forms of mental activity and mental growth, corresponding to the forms of knowledge to be acquired.
This course of studies should be prepared with an intelligent reference to the relations that elementary holds to scientific knowledge, and that different forms of mental activity hold to disciplinary results. The different subjects of the course should be thoroughly examined for the purpose of preparing an orderly set of topics under each of them, and of inventing the best forms of illustrating their meaning and of directing the student in his studies. This opportunity should be improved by the normal pupil for perfecting his own knowledge of the different subjects he will be called to teach ; not in an academical way merely, but with constant reference to the communication of knowledge to others. At this point in the course the normal school should provide ample opportunity for applying theoretical knowledge in teaching real children pursuing the different grades of instruction conducted in our system of public schools. The practice of teaching by pupil teachers should be conducted under the supervision of normal teachers who are familiar with the science and art of teaching, and who by experience have acquired skill in such teaching as the public school requires.
This style and order of professional work will accomplish two ends. First, as the pupil teacher has already acquired some