War in the Gulf, 1990-91: The Iraq-Kuwait Conflict and Its Implications

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Oxford University Press, 27.09.2001. - 299 страница
For most Americans, the war against Iraq lingers in memory as a vast morality play, a drama offering ready made heroes and villains: a glowering dictator in military uniform, hapless Kuwaiti refugees with tales of persecution, plucky pilots with high-tech wizardry, and a defiant American president, ringing Churchillian as he drew a line in the sand. But this characterization of the war is greatly oversimplified, a one-dimensional portrait, lacking in context and nuance. In War in the Gulf, 1990 91, eminent scholars Majid Khadduri and Edmund Ghareeb paint a very different picture, one that brings historical depth to the portrait, and displays the actions of many of the participants in a new and revealing light. Khadduri and Ghareeb offer a far more accurate and complex portrait of the Iraq-Kuwait conflict, providing a wealth of background information not readily available before. They made a distinction between the differences between Iraq and Kuwait over frontiers, territory, and sovereignty and the method pursued by Iraqi leaders to resolve those differences. They explore, for instance, the history of relations between Iraq and Kuwait, revealing that Kuwait had once been a part of Basra (in southern Iraq) during the Ottoman rule, and only became a separate country while under British control (it was the British in fact who drew the much-disputed boundary line between Iraq and Kuwait). Khadduri and Ghareeb describe the many decades of struggle to resolve the boundary issue, examining the repeated attempts by other Arab states to mediate according to Islamic traditions of consultation and peaceful resolution within the faith. The authors also show how Saddam Husayn's war with Iran exacerbated the boundary tensions. Because of the decade-long war, Iraq badly needed oil revenue to repay wartime loans and to rebuild, but Kuwait persisted in pumping far beyond its OPEC quota, driving down prices, and costing Iraq billions of dollars of revenue. The book reveals how Kuwait spurned Arab attempts to mediate this clash over oil prices as well as the longstanding boundary dispute, frustrating efforts to resolve this crisis by peaceful means. In one particularly interesting section, the book examines the diplomatic talks during the early summer of 1990, both among various Arab nations (most notably, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and Kuwait), and with Saddam Husayn and the United States (they show how messages from Washington and a visit by a congressional delegation lead by Senator Dole convinced the Iraqi leaders that they would be allowed to settle their problems with Kuwait without outside interference). Khadduri and Ghareeb carry us through to the present, exploring the war and its aftermath, from the uprisings against Baghdad, to the continuing U.N. sanctions, to the recent defections from Saddam's inner circle. War in the Gulf is a balanced, eye-opening account of one of the central events of recent years. It corrects the Western views of most reporting, explaining the frame of mind of the participants as no one has done before and causing us to examine anew such questions as who was responsible for the conflict, and what might have happened if the United States had not intervened so rapidly.

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Iraqs Historical Claims to Kuwait
Disputes over Status Territory and Frontiers
Kuwaits Attempt at Unity with Iraq
Proposals for Unity by Means Short of War
Impact of the IraqIran War on Iraqs Relationship with Arab Gulf Countries
Drives and Events Leading to the Invasion of Kuwait
Iraq under the Aegis of the United Nations
and Kurdish Uprisings
Demarcation of the Frontiers
Standards of Responsibility
Arab Responsibilities
Western Intervention and Its Rationale
Conclusion Was the War Inevitable?

The Invasion of Kuwait
The Role of the United Nations
The Coalition War
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Страница 92 - An attempt by any outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as an assault on the vital interests of the United States of America, and such an assault will be repelled by any means necessary, including military force.
Страница 282 - Nothing in the present Charter precludes the existence of regional arrangements or agencies for dealing with such matters relating to the maintenance of international peace and security as are appropriate for regional action, provided that such arrangements or agencies and their activities are consistent with the Purposes and Principles of the United Nations.
Страница 160 - ... to establish conditions under which justice and respect for the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of international law can be maintained...
Страница 22 - Certain communities formerly belonging to the Turkish Empire have reached a stage of development where their existence , as independent nations can be provisionally recognized subject to the rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a mandatory until such time as they are able to stand alone.
Страница 229 - While the state was exhausted by the Persian war, and the church was distracted by the Nestorian and Monophysite sects, Mahomet, with the sword in one hand, and the koran in the other, erected his throne on the ruins of Christianity and of Rome.
Страница 171 - I've told the American people before that this will not be another Vietnam, and I repeat this here tonight. Our troops will have the best possible support in the entire world, and they will not be asked to fight with one hand tied behind their back.
Страница 70 - Iraq recognized the independence and complete sovereignty of the State of Kuwait within its borders as specified and accepted in the letter of the Prime Minister of Iraq dated 21 July 1932, and as accepted by the Ruler of Kuwait in his letter dated 10 August...
Страница 64 - has the sole responsibility for the conduct of Kuwait's internal and external affairs". The note continued : "The following conclusions were reached in the course of these discussions : "(a) The Agreement of the 23rd of January 1899, shall be terminated as being inconsistent with the sovereignty and independence of Kuwait.
Страница 136 - Demands that Iraq withdraw immediately and unconditionally all its forces to the positions in which they were located on 1 August 1990; 3.
Страница 30 - Kuwait to the following description of the existing frontier between the two countries :"From the intersection of the Wadi-el-Audja with the Batin and thence northwards along the Batin to a point just south of the latitude of Safwan; thence eastwards passing south of Safwan Wells...

О аутору (2001)

Majid Khadduri is University Distinguished Professor Emeritus and founder of the Center for Middle East Studies at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies, and the author of The Gulf War, on the Iran-Iraq war. Edmund Ghareeb is Adjunct Professor of History at George Washington University and a specialist on media affairs.

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