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The enemy without was less formidable than the foe within. The garrison had worse dangers than shot and shell to contend with, but "against them all they fought like heroes, and did their duty cheerfully. Several buildings were burned by the enemy's shells, among which was the mill, entailing a loss of two or three thousand bushels of corn.

"About the 29th or 30th of June, the garrison's supply of meat gave out, when General Gardner ordered the mules to be butchered, after ascertaining that the men were willing to eat them. Far from shrinking from this hardship, the men received their unusual rations cheerfully, and declared that they were proud to be able to say that they had been reduced to this extremity. Many of them, as if in mockery of famine, caught rats and eat them, declaring that they were better than squirrels."

Such was the condition of the garrison when, on the 7th of July, salutes fired by the Union gun-boats and batteries, loud cheering along the whole line of the besiegers, and other boisterous tokens of joy, reached the ears of the famished defenders of Port Hudson. The besiegers, whose approaches had brought them within conversing distance of the besieged, were quick to announce the cause of their jubilation. Vicksburg had fallen!

On that night (July 7), about ten o'clock, General Gardner summoned "a

council of war, consisting of General Beale, Colonels Steadman, Miles, Lyle, and Shelby, and Lieutenant-Colonel Marshal J. Smith, who, without exception, decided that it was impossible to hold out longer, considering that the provisions of the garrison were exhausted, the ammunition almost entirely expended, and a large proportion of the men sick, or from exhaustion unfit for duty."

A correspondence was accordingly opened by the enemy with General Banks, which resulted in the unconditional surrender of Port Hudson. July The capture and its results were thus announced by General Banks to the commander-in-chief, General Halleck:

8.

"SIR-I have the honor to inform you that with this post there fell into our hands over 5,500 prisoners, including one major-general and one brigadier-general; twenty pieces of heavy artillery, five complete batteries, numbering thirty-one pieces, of field artillery; a good supply of projectiles for light and heavy guns, 44,800 pounds of cannon powder, 5,000 stand of arms, and 150,000 rounds of small-arm ammunition, besides a small amount of stores of various kinds. We captured also two steamers, one of which is very valuable. They will be of great service at this time."

At the very moment that the surrender was completed, the enemy requested 6,000 rations, as "the garrison had eaten its last mule."

CHAPTER III.

The Operations of the Fleet before Port Hudson.-Its good services. -Gallant Exploits.-Farragut attacks the Batteries.—The Result.—The Hartford and Albatross pass the Batteries.-The rest repulsed.—The Loss of the Mississippi. -Enemy's Account of Farragut's Attack upon Port Hudson.-The Cruise of the Hartford and Albatross above Port Hudson.-Passing the Batteries at Grand Gulf.-At Warrenton.-Communicating with Admiral Porter and General Grant.-Relief sent to Farragut.-The Passage of the Switzerland and Lancaster.-The Wreck of the Vicksburg.Return of Farragut and Fight with the Warrenton Batteries.-Off the Red River.- Blockading the Red River.-Communications cut off.-Bold attempts to renew them.-Adventures of a Party.-The Cruise of the Albatross on the Red River.-A Fight.-The Hartford and Albatross co-operating in the attacks by Banks upon Port Hudson.-Fall of Port Hudson.-Return of the Steamers to New Orleans.-Clearing the Mississippi.—The Enemy's Discouragement. -What they had lost by the fall of Vicksburg and Port Hudson.

DURING the protracted operations of General Banks, which resulted in 1863. the capture of Port Hudson, a fleet of armed steamers and gun-boats, under the command of Admiral Farragut, was constantly co-operating with the land forces. The service of the navy, though subordinate to that of the army, in the accomplishment of the final result, was of great assistance in securing it. Not only during the siege of Port Hudson, but in the movements which preceded it, the navy was rendering active and efficient assistance. In the course of the naval operations, many acts were performed which, if not always successful, were of a character which illustrate the heroic valor of our sailors, and claim the record of the chronicler.

Having aided in clearing the enemy from the country bordered by the lakes and bayous in the immediate neighborhood of New Orleans, the fleet was free to operate upon the waters of the Mississippi and its tributaries. Admiral Farragut, who had already given proof,

in his daring passage of the forts below New Orleans, of his taste for bold expedients, now determined to confront the formidable batteries of Port Hudson. The land forces were placed in such position as to co-operate if required, and to take advantage of any success that might be achieved by the navy. Baton Rouge, which had been abandoned by General Butler, had been reoccupied by General Banks, and General Weitzel had advanced with his brigade to Berwick Bay.

Admiral Farragut, having previously sailed from New Orleans to Baton Rouge, weighed anchor off this latter place at nine o'clock on the night of March 14th, and proceeded to the attack of the batteries of Port Hudson. His squadron was composed of the Hartford, the Albatross, the Richmond, the Genesee, the Monongahela, the Kineo, the Mississippi, and the Sachem. Before moving, the Albatross was lashed to the port side of the Hartford, the Genesee to that of the Richmond, and the Kineo to that of

HEART OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER FROM THE OHIO RIVER TO GULF OF MEXICO

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CONSTRUCTED AND ENGRAVED TO ILLUSTRATE THE WAR WITH THE UTH

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the Monongahela. The squadron now sailed up the river in the following order the Hartford towing the Albatross; the Richmond towing the Genesee; the Monongahela towing the Kineo; followed by the Mississippi and the Sachem. The iron-clad Essex and a fleet of mortar boats had been sent in advance, and were already moored within range of the enemy's batteries.

"Our progress was necessarily slow," wrote one* who was on the Richmond, as our rate of speed had to be regulated by that of the flag-ship. We soon passed the head of Prophet Island, however, and arrived abreast of the mortar boats, which were headed by the Essex and the Sachem. Presently the gleaming lights, which had been on our starboard beam, shone on our quarter, and anon they were sparkling astern. And

we were nearing the point of danger. Signal lights were seen flashing from the direction of the batteries, the entire distance along, and were answered from the opposite shore. Right ahead, too, lights were seen from the rebel boats, as was afterward ascertained. It was evident the rebels were prepared to give us a warm reception.

"Presently a large fire was seen on the Port Hudson side of the river, a little below the town. This fire was kindled right in front of the most formidable of the fortifications, in order that the gleam thrown across the river should reveal every vessel as it passed. The plan was an admirable one, and succeeded to a charm.

*

Correspondent of N. Y. Herald.

*

*

"We had left the mortar boats well astern, when a sulphurous light was seen gleaming on the shore, on our port side. Flashing up for a moment, a dull explosion followed. It was evidently an imperfect rocket. Another was essayed; but, instead of ascending, it ran along the surface of the river close to the bank. A little farther up a third was tried, and with complete success. It ascended high in the air, where it burst in the usual manner. Instantaneously it was answered by a field piece from the opposite shore, aimed at the Hartford. The Admiral was not slow in returning the compliment. Three or four guns fired from the flag-ship in rapid succession testified to the alacrity with which the wager of battle was accepted.

"The return of the rebel fire by the Hartford was promptly followed up by a hot fire from the artillery pieces of the rebels, and quite a brisk action ensued between them. The scene, as viewed from the Richmond, was both brilliant and spirited. The flashes of the guns, both on shore and afloat, were incessant, while the roar of cannon kept up a deafening and almost incessant sound. Great judgment was here necessary to prevent the Richmond from running into the Hartford, and, in fact, to keep the war vessels generally from running into each other.

"And now was heard a thundering roar, equal in volume to a whole park of artillery. This was followed by a rushing sound, accompanied by a howling noise that beggars description.

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