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formerly were, would be truly ridiculous. The lustre of the late war will be urged to the contrary; but there are many reasons why the entire credit of the war should not be given to English bravery. Its fuccess was, in a great measure, owing to the extraordinary ex. pepce attending it, by which it was so perfectly served in every quara' ter of the globe; it was owing to the extensive genius of the man who planned its operations ; it was owing to the great numbers of Germans, of Scotch, of Irish, and of Americans, who ferved in our fleets and armies, paid indeed by English money, but English money is neither English frength nor courage : if we add to these conlide. rations the wretched incapacity of the French ministry, under the direction of a weak woman, the war, on their fide, ftrangled in its very birth by the want of an immediate conjunction of the houses of Bourbon, the one disabled before the other moved, which could then, do little more than give additional splendor to the triumphs of Britain ; these things considered, from the uncommon luftre of the war we speak of, a superior courage of the present English, to their çourage at former periods, cannot by any means be inferred, nor, even an equality.
Europe seems to have a strong tendency into states of a respectable size, and however salutary this may be to the purposes of ge. neral tranquillity, I shall be pardoned if, from the love I bear to my own country, I should wish that no powerful prince may be able to poffefs himself of those ports which lie upon the German ocean; because such a neighbour must be dangerous to this part of the island, which never was attacked by a northern people without being subdued. The Normans had such a contempt for the people of Neur. tria, that they would not be called, but by their old name, and I consider them as a northern people at the conquelt ; since that time, no enemy out of Britain, of a Gtuation more northern chan ourselves, hath attempted us; the French and Spaniards were inferior in Arength of body and in courage ; of their numbers our situation prevented them from availing themselves; the French never gave marks of an enterprizing spirit beyond the limits of the Rhine, and the inhabitants of this island have a preseriptive right of superiority over those of Gaul, the only praise as I recollect which the ancients have given them; but had we a northern prince for our enemy, master of that number of ships which must naturally attend a well regulated trade to the ports in the German ocean, and of those great rivers which, running through Germany, discharge themselves into that ocean; of men who feel not the terrors of any element, who living poorly at home, may be stimulated, like their brave ancestors, to Thare in the spoils of a richer and more coltivated country than their own ; should this prince look with a mixture of indignation and of contempt upon a people, who prized themselves for an imaginary wealth, a shadowy credit, chilled at the most diftant found of the blast of calamity, an apparition, which, upon the first rough touch, is found to be unfubftantial; if he should leize the opportunity of attacking this people, how should England be protected ? The all-fufficiency of the British fleet presents itself forthwith to the imagination of my indolent and high-fed countrymen, miraculously surrounding a coal of two thousand miles; upon this they beltow omnipresence, and Every attribute of the Deity; upon this they reft secure in the gratification of every sense, and in the practice of almost every vice. I affirm that no expedition has been ever conducted against this country with any degree of wisdom, or even of plausibility, which did not fuccced; since the conquest, that of Philip the Second of Spain was the moft tremendous in its apparatus, but this expedition could not succeed; the alarm of invasion was spread so long before the embarkation, that every man in England had time to become a fol. dier; and when the army was embarked, the procession of the Spanith fleet along our fouthern coast, in order to take on board the Prince of Parma and his troops then waiting at Dunkirk, was so very flow, and pompous, that every English port and creek fent out its whole force to annoy them, so that they were expared to the increase of enemies every moment, as well as to the dangers of a tema pestuous fea; nor is it to be forgotten that the Spaniards, from the inAux of American riches, were at this time departed from their rigour of discipline, and had much abated of their former valour ; let
not therefore the impracticability of invading England be drawn from the failure of such random expeditions, if expeditions they can be called, which are embarrassed by such blundering delays.
I am well convinced that the chief military Itrength of this nation ought to be that of our fleet; but feets have failed, fleets may fail, and will fail again ; nothing is more natural than that the wind, which is favourable to the invading feet, máy keep the fleet that fhould oppose it in harbour: when Allectus políefled himself of the province of Britain and was master of the feas, Constantine failed over, under the cover of a thick mift, and landing his troops overcame the usurper; the Prince of Orange landed his army at Brixham in Torbay, having past the English feet then lying in the Downs; but nothing proves the insufficiency of a fleet so forcibly, as the transportation of Cæsar's army from Brundufium to Dyrrachium in his pursuit of Pompey, at two embarkations : although the coast of Epirus was guarded by a much superior naval force, under the command of Bibulus and Pompey's other lieutenants, an army was randed with the toss of only two transports, sufficient to decide the greatest contelt for empire that time hath yet produced : much will be attributed of Cæsar's success to Fortune ; Cæsar himself hath actributed much to that goddess, in the second embarkation under Antony ; but good troops, good officers, and the terrifying dispatch with which that great destroyer of Roman liberty animated all his military operations, are to me fufficient causes for his success, without any interposition of Fortune.
• In thefe circumstances of Europe, where the small German ftates, whose troops we were used to pay, are probably soon to be annexed to great monarchies, and no longer to be hired out for slaughter; when the French, unequal to Britain in commercial contest, are will. ing to leave us without a rival, and give no interruption to our eagerness for remote, unnatural acquifitions; we ourselves should bridle that avarice which is wafting our vigour in the burning heats of India, and leaving the center of the empire without defence: whilft other states are strengthening themselves at home, England is sending forth her strength, and bringing home the materials of her Rev. Apr. 1774
own destruclion; but, as I have observed before, we fall probably have the French and Spaniards no longer for our enemies, who have ing submitted in the conteft of trade, no subject of dispute now remains, unless we should renew our old claims upon the French monarchy; with fome northern nation or confederacy, therefore, we áre likely to contend for the future, against whom hardiness, strength, courage, and public spirit will be necessary, which afford a more certain protection than either fleets or armies without them. Let us now see in what condition we are to receive fuch encounters as we have reason to expect; but in discusing this matter, I shall not enter into a state of the national debt, the amount of our revenue, nor enquire what fums can be spared to the support of armies and of fleets, by the mercenary vultures, who have so long preyed upon the vitals of their country, I mean placemen and pensioners of every denomination ; but I will ask what stock of national virtue remains wherewith to oppose a brave and an enterprizing people, for we shall be then engaged in wars which it will be imposible to carry on by bills of exchange.'
In the remaining part of the work the Author enters into a kind of declamatory estimate of manners and principles, in which he displays no depth of abilities; his own observation, with the remarks of others, enable him indeed to cenfure what is bad in a superficial manner, but he seems very deficient, either as a philosopher, which we expected to find him, or as a politician,-a character that he labours bard to support.
If however we meet with very little to the purpose relating to the power of climate, we find, toward the latter end of this tract, Some good hints relating to the power of a justice of peace ; and we intirely agree with the Writer, that a vigorous discharge of that important office, would operate to the prevention of crimes, a duty of much more importance to the public, whatever it may be to the justice, than the punishment of them.
ART. IV. Letters written by the late Right Honourable Philip Dormer
Stanbope, Earl of Chesterfield, to his Son Philip Stanhope, Efq; late Envoy Extraordinary at ibe Court of Dresden : Together with several other Pieces on various Subjects. Published by Mrs. Eugenia Stan. hope, from the Originals now in her Poffeffion. 4to. 2•Vols. 21. 2 s. Boards. Dodsey. 1774. EW characters, among the nobility of this age, and na
tion, are better known than that of the late ingenious and witty Earl of Chesterfield ; who was alike distinguished in the polite, the political, and the learned circles. He was not, perhaps, what some one has ftyled a “ deep genius,” but he certainly had a great portion of good sense, and lively parts ; he had a perfect knowledge of mankind; he was a complete gentleman, and a delightful companion. In fine, he pofsessed those rare talents and amiable qualities which could not
fail of procuring him the admiration and the love of all who had the happiness of enjoying his friendship, or sharing his conversation. To his gaiety of disposition, bis engaging manneras his happy tenour of life, and chearful old age, we may not unaptly apply, (with a slight variation of a word or two) hiş friend Pope's verses on Mons. Voiture :
Who, wisely careless, innocently gay,
As smiling infants sport themselves to reit. Of his Lordship’s literary talents, the world hath bad various specimens, in those fugitive performances, which, though ano. nymous, have been ascribed to him on sufficient authority : but these talents are more amply displayed in the collection of Letters now before us.
These Letters are very properly introduced to the Reader's attention, by the Lady * to whom the Public is obliged for their publication
• The death of the late Earl of Chesterfield, says the Fair Editor, is so recent, his family, his character, and his talents so well known, that it would be unnecessary to attempt any account of his Lordfhip’s life. But, as these Letters will probably descend to pofterity, it may not be improper to explain the general scope of them, and the reason that induced him to write on the subject of Education.
It is well known, that the late Earl of Chesterfield had a natural fon, whom he loved with the most unbounded affection, and whole education was, for many years, the chief engagement of his life. After furnishing him with the most valuable treasures of ancient and modern learning, to those acquisitions he was desirous of adding that knowledge of men, and things, which he himself had acquired by long and great experience. With this view were written the following Letters ; which, the Reader will observe, begin with those dawno ings of instruction adapted to the capacity of a boy, and rising gra. dually by precepts and monitions, calculated to direct and guard the age of incautious youth, finish with the advice and knowledge requisite to form the Man, ambitious to shine as an accomplished Coure tier, an Orator in the Senate, or a Minister at foreign Courts.
• In order to effect these purposes, his Lordship, ever anxious to fix in his son a scrupulous adherence to the strieteit morality, appears to have thought it the first, and most indispensable object-to lay, in the earliest period of life, a firm foundation in good principles and found religion. His next point was, to give him a perfect knowledge of the dead languages, and all the different branches of folid learning, by the study of the best ancient Authors; and also such a general idea of the Sciences, as it is a disgrace to a gentleman, not to possess. The article of instruction with which he concludes bis Syftem of Education, and which he more particularly enforces throughout the whole work, is the study of that useful and extensive
This Lady is, we are informed, the widow of the Gentleman to whom Lord Chesterfield's Letters were addressed.
science, the Knowledge of Mankind : in the course of which, appears the nicelt investigation of the human heart, and the springs of human actions. From hence we find him induced to lay lo great a stress on what are generally called Accomplishments, as most indispensably requisite to finish the amiable and brilliant part of a compleat character.
• It would be unnecessary to expatiate on the merits of such a work, executed by so great a matter. They cannot but be obvious to every person of sense ; the more, as nothing of this fort has (I believe) ever been produced in the English language. The candour of the Public, to which these Letters appeal, will determine the amusement and instruction they afford. I Aatter myself, they will be read with general fatisfaction ; as the principal, and by far the greater part of them, were written when the late Earl of Chesterfield was in the full vigour of his mind, and possessed all those qualifications for which he was so juftly admired in England, revered in Irea land, and esteemed wherever known.
• Celebrated all over Europe for his superior talents as an epifto. lary writer, for the brilliancy of his wit, and the folidity of his extenfive knowledge, will it be thought too presumptuous to assert, that he exerted all those faculties to their utmost, upon his favourite subject-Education ? And that, in order to form the mind of a darling fon, he even exhausted those powers which he was so universally allowed to possess ?
• I do not doubt but those who were much connected with the Author, during that series of years in which he wrote the following Let. ters, will be ready to vouch the truth of the above assertion. What I can, and do ascertain is, the authenticity of this publication ; which comprises not a fingle line, that is not the late Earl of Chesterfield's.
• Some, perhaps, may be of opinion, that the first letters in this Collection, intended for the instruction of a child, then under seven years of age, were too trifling to merit publication. They are, however, inserted by the advice of several gentlemen of learning, and real judgment; who considered the whole as abfolutely neceffary, to form a compleat fystem of education. And, indeed, the Reader will find lis Lordship repeatedly telling his fon, that his affection for him makes him took upon no instruction, which may be of service to him, as too trifling or too low; I, therefore, did not think myself authorized to suppress what, to so experienced a man, appeared requisite to the completion of his undertaking. And, upon this point, I may appeal more particularly to those, who, being fathers themselves, know how to value instructions, of which their tenderness and anxiety for their children, will undoubtedly make them feel the necesity. The inftructions scattered throughout those Letters, are happily calculated,
“ To teach the young idea how to shoot," To form and enlighten the infant mind, upon its first opening, and prepare it to receive the early impreslions of learning, and of morality. Of these, many entire letters, and some parts of others, are loit; which, considering the tender years of Mr. Stanhope, at that time, cannot be a matter of surprize, but will always be one of regret. Wherever a complete fense could be made out, I have ven. fured to give the fragment.