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into divisions or things, fides, and mizmaze, &c.' The omission was owing to mere ignorance and ofcitancy on our parts; and not, as the Author seems to suspect, to our joining in the general dread and alarm whick, it seems, has seized our · Gram, marians and Lexicographers,' our · Booksellers' and our • Seminaries,' left there his most momentous discoveries « pould overturn the present systems of things.' ART. XIII. An Esay on the Nature and Circulation of the Blood, in . Two Parts. I. On its. Nature and Uses. If On its Circulation, · By Marmaduke Berdoe, M. D. 8vo. 1 s. 6 d. Robinson, 1772. Art. XIV. Theory of the Human Sensations. By Marmaduke Berdoe, .
M.D. 8vo. 15. Lowndes. 1773. N R. Berdoe writes fo frequently, and on so many subjects,
that he must excuse us for taking the liberty of lumping his two tracis together; elpecially as we a&tually find ourselves unqualified to give any clear, diftinet, or confiftent account of their contents. We really can seldom discover what he would be at; anıl, though conversant in his writings, are still in a great measure ignorant of the language in which he wraps up his new and mysterious doctrines. We are utterly unacquainted, for instance, with the animating atherial eljince,' which, he tells us, the arteries convey • in mucuai ft:eams to the different organs ;' though we have read and studied his explanatory note on this passage, in which he informs us that the ætherialif fenie means the fixed air, or the air, or aerial particles contained in the blood," which is supposed to be the same with what is called elementary fire.' This note, however, conveys to us no other information than what we were already poffelled of; that the Doctor has an excellent knack at playing off a set of newfangled phrases, of dealing out his æiber plentifully, and of jůmbling the elements together by a dash or two of his pen.
We have indeed, by this time, learnt that his exterior organ' -a grand and active agent in the Doctor's physiology, is neither more nor less than what we and others simply call the skin ;but as to his phrenic centers? - his centers,' and his points, of appuy'—which are continually occurring in the second of these tracts,—and his disgregations in the organical forces—together with many other choice and recondițe terms and phrases they surpass our comprehension nearly as much as his brother Jones's
quaternion of elements,' or his burning bush in Prait lines, expanding an infinite circle in a triad,' recorded in the preceding article. All these phrases, we doubt not, have ideas tacked to them, in the congenial heads of these two writers: but though Dr. Berdoe's exterior organ;' mucual streams,' and 'disgregations,' doubtless ferve many important purposes in his Theory of Human Sensations ; an account of them, or of their mystic agency
and powers *, cannot be expected from our sober and unenlightened pens.
And yet these and the Author's former and future publications, it seems, contain a System that will speedily astonish the world, by its stupendous magnitude and power. 'In the concluding paragraph of the first of these two fracts, the fond fa. ther of it accuses us of having exerted our weak endeavours ini fike this young Hercules in its cradle ; and gives us fair warning to make quick dispatch, if we expect to succeed in our defperate attempt to check the rapid growth of this strapping youngster.- Hear what the Doctor himself fays on the subjea. Our representation might, perhaps, be thought exaggerated :
These opinions,' says he,' will be confirmed by future publications, particularly by an Enquiry into the Nature of the Human Pulse, and the Motion of the Arteries. But if the Reviewers are determined to destroy Our System in the bud, they should not lose the present opportunity, as by length of time it may grow into so powerful a Colossus, as to bid defiance at last to all the artillery of their genius.'
We appeal, on this occasion, to the judgment of the impartial Public ; not doubting but they will acquit us of the dark design here imputed to us by this unaccountable mortal. We have indeed more than once diflented from the Doctor's opinions, when we have understood them; and in particular acknowledge that, in March 1773, juftly provoked to see the rays of light violently twisted and joftled out of their natural and lawful course by this bold innovator, we stoutly defended the good old laws of vision, against the Doctor's New System of seeing :-but from dates and other circumstances, it is evident that this cannot be the growing Colossus above referred to t.
• It was well judged in the Doctor to give the skin, that humble covering of the body, the high sounding title above mentioned. The phrenic centers, and even the brain, it seems,. yield in power to the exterior organ.'
+ The Doctor breeds so faft, and brings forth so many new fyftems and theories, that we proteit we have overlooked a capital one indeed promulgated in this very essay. Here, if we rightly com. pisheld him, he demolishes the old Harveian circulation,-dethrones the heart—and portions out its hitherto undisputed, universal dominion over the circulating fluids, into numerous principalities, under the government of the spongiform substance of the cellulary-membrane,' dispersed over the various parts of the body. These heptarchies, (though we know not their precise number) are the principal agents in the circulation, and each part of the body has a circulation pea culiar to itselfi'-Where will this man ftop!-If he be suffered to go on long at this violent rate, we must e'en shut our books, and all go to school again :-a mortifying step, to be obliged to take at our age!
It appears, however, that by our rough treatment of the new optical system, we had nearly, though unwittingly, deprived the world of the present new Theory of the Human Sensations, We will recite the alarming tale in the Doctor's own words.
Every thing, it seems, was prepared for the promulgation of the new theory, when a friend brought him the Monthly Review for March 1773, to let him see how severely he had been criticised, by the learned body of the Monthly Reviewers.' .
· Tortured and vexed, I was going to throw all this theory into the fire, if it had not occurred to me, that two heads are of. tentimes better than one.—Pleased with the thought, I called up my cookmaid, and bid her run her eye very carefully over the whole,'-(the very identical eye, we suspect, in which the Doctor saw the erect image-See the aforesaid Review, page 218, where he slyly calls it the eye of a friend) · She liked it, and approved of my publishing:
. Under the fanction then of her great authority I boldly venture once more to request your great decision': I Batter myself I shall please you, for though my cookiaid is not so learned as a Reviewer, she is as excellent an old woman as the best- i'.
What could induce this wench to relish the Doctor's theory, where he principally derives our pleasurable and other sensations from the Midriff, is best known to herself. But are there, Dr. Berdoe, your clinical and practical observations, that you · promited us when you commenced Author +? Viewing yourself in your cookmaid's pupil-and communing with her on the true feat of pleasurable senfations I? Fie upon you !---By way of screen, you would pass her off to us and the world for an old woman, like ourselves.-But a set of elderly matrons, as we are, are not to be so taken in.-She is a young wanton baggage, we'll warrant her, and no better than she thould be.
+ See M. Review, vol. xlvi. April 1772, p. 443.'
I These, says the Doctor, p. 35, are produced by all those causes that' forcibly enchain as in the pobellion of those obječts which may be called the idols of human happiness. Here we have the fair sex plainly designed. She liked it,' says the Doctor. They are his very words. See above. ....
ART. XV. Chirurgical Qbfervations and Cafes. By William Brom-'
field, Surgeon to her Majesty, and to St. George's Hospital. ll
lustrated with Copper-plates. 8vo. 2 Vols. 145. Cadell, 1773. M A NY new, pertinent, and useful remarks are contained
IV in this work, which is however unnecessarily enlarged by a confiderable number of trite and insignificant observations, that seem to answer no other purpose than that of swelling the matter, which might with ease have been contained in one vo
lume, into two. The Author seems to have entertained the same apprehensions with Martial, that his works would be in danger of being lost, were they not eked out, and expanded into a larger bulk, by the addition of supplementary materials, no matter of what quality:
Edita ne brevibus pereat mihi charta libellis,
De Libro Suo' Lib. i. Epigr. 46. The disposition of this matter likewise is frequently such as to incline the Reader to suppose that the Author had emptied his whole common-place book, and given its heterogeneous contents to the Public, just as the different articles stood there; without selection, and with very little regard to form, language, or method. Of this inexcusable inattention to order we shall give the two following very striking instances.
In the 2d chapter of his first volume, where the Author in the title of it profesies to treat of Amputation, the Reader will, at the beginning of it, meet with an enumeration of some of the complaints that seem to indicate, or that require, the removal of a limb. From this subject however he will soon find him sliding away to another, that bears indeed some affinity to the operation ;---the nature, causes, and signs of a mortification. He now begins to lose sight of the original object, for he must next accompany the Author starting into the doctrine of inflammation; discussing the various theories that have been formed on that subject, and finally proposing his own opinion. Have ing got over this litigated matter, the Author next treats of perspiration. He then proceeds to the sea and the land scurvy; and from thence to the pox, where he gives us his sentiments on the powers of corrosive sublimate in venereal complaints. From thence he leads the Reader to Harwich, and treats of seabathing, and the utility of warm fea-baths, first proposed by himself about hfteen years ago. Returning once more to inHammation he sticks to it pretty closely, to the end of the chapter;- like Montaigne and Tristram Shandy, leaving his companion at leisure to look about him, at the end of it, for the subject he first set off with. After a pause, the reader proceeds to chap. 3, where he finds him treating of Tumours; in chap. 4, of the Erysipelas ; in chap. 5, of the Anthrax or Carbuncle. Here, and under this unpromising title, he at length unexpectedly meets with a large number of observations or remarks, some of them new and important, on the subject of amputation; particularly on that of the arm at the articulation of the shoulder.
The next instance of the neglect of order in this work, presents us likewise with a fingular example of the want of a good understanding or correspondence between its different parts. In chap. 4, of the 2d volume, On Fractures,' we were surprised
got to find our Author keeping pace at least with his cotempo. raries, in the fimple and efficacious improvements that have been Jately introduced into that branch of practice*, At page 59, indeed, we have one transienë glimpse afforded us, in about four words, of a part of the new treatment; where in the case of a considerable tumefaction of the limb, preventing iis reduction, we are told that while the surgeon is using means to bring down the swelling, as well as afterwards when he attempts the reduction of the broken bone, if the fracture is of the tibia or fibula, " the knee bould be bent.' But throughout the rest of this chapter, scarce a vestige of the improved practice is to be traced : on the contrary, we find the Author itill retaining the use of plaifters, the endless circumvolutions of a long single-headed roller, and the leg box ;-parts of the inconvenient and noxious trumpery of our forefathers.
Proceeding onwards however to chap. 7, we are again, equally, furprised to find our Author there not only warmly recommending the placing the fractured leg, for instance, in a bent position, in order to relax the muscles, both in the case of simple and of compound fractures, and not only during but after reduction ;-suffering the patient to lie at his ease, on his fide.or otherwise, with his leg unconfined, on a soft pillow ;-and ftrongly approving the use of the eighteen-tailed bandage, on account of its evident advantages above the circular :--but we find him likewise putting in his claim to a considerable share in the discovery of these late improvements, and contending that it is now near 30 years since he first recommended and inculcated them to his auditors, in his public lectures. This claim we thall not contravert; but it is fingular, and certainly favours our idea of the Author's having huddled together the materials of the present work from his old and new common place books; to find him observing nearly a total silence with respect to certain modern improvements, in a part of his work where he is professedly treating of the subject to which chey immediately relate : while in another part of it, he insists on the great advantages derived from them, and contends for the honour of have ing long ago inculcated them.
Though the titles of the chapters into which this work is divided, do not, as the Reader already perceives, every where accurately specify their contents; we shall enumerate them, in order to give the Reader some information concerning the subjects that are created of in these two volumes.
The first is divided into fix chapters. In the first, which has no title, the Author, on too flight grounds, in our opinion, re
* We have formerly given a popular account of these improvements, and their rationale, in our 40th volume, June 1769, p. 465;