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him look like a fool. But a man who has du monde, seems not to understand what he cannot or ought not to resent. If he makes a slip himself, he recovers it by his coolness, instead of plunging deeper by his confusion, like a itumbling-horse. He is firm, but gentle ; and practises that most excellent maxim, fuaviter in modo, fortiter in
The other is the volto sciolto e pensieri Aretti. People, unused to the world, have babbling countenances ; and are unkilful enough to show, what they have sense enough not to tell. In the course of the world, a man must very often put on an easy, frank countenance, upon very disagreeable occasions ; he must seem pleased, when he is very much otherwise ; he must be able to accost and receive with smiles, those whom he would much rather meet with swords. In courts he must not turn himself inside out. All this may, nay muft be done, without falsehood and treachery: for it must go no farther than politeness and manners, and must stop short of assurances and profesions of simulated friendlhip. Good manners, to those one does not love, are no more a breach of truth, than your humble servant at the bottom of a challenge is; they are universally agreed upon and understood, to be things of course. They are necellary guards of the decency, and peace of society: they must only act defensively; and then not with arms poisoned by perfidy. Truth, but not the whole truth, must be the invariable principle of every man, who hath either religion, honour, or prudence. Those who violate it, may be cunning, but they are not able. Lies and perfidy are the refuge of fools and cowards. Adieu !'
In our last Review we gave Lord C.'s letter in recommendation of Lord Bolingbroke's works. As some of our Readers may not be sufficiently attentive to the date of that letrer, or may not know in what year that noble Author's pofthumous works appeared, it is but justice to the memory of Lord Chesterfield, to give here a transcript of a note which we meet with, referring to a paffage in a letter dated 1752, wherein his lordfhip recommends Lord B.'s Letters on the study and use of history, viz.
We cannot but observe with pleasure, that at this time Lord Bolingbroke's Philosophical works had not appeared; which accounts for Lord Chelterfield's recommending to his fon, in this as well as in some foregoing passages, the study of Lord Bolingbroke's writings.'
We propofe to finith our Review of Lord Chesterfield's Letters in a subsequent article.
Art. VI. A new System, or, an Analysis of ancient Mythology:
Wherein an Attempt is made to divest Tradition of Fable; and to reduce Truth to its original Purity. In this work is given an History of the Babylonians, Chaldeans, Egyptians, Canaanites, Helladians, Ionians, Leleges, Dorians, Pelasgi: also of the Sey. thæ, Indoscytha, Ethiopians, Phenicians. The whole contains an Account of the principal Events in the first Ages, from the Deluge to the Dispersion : Allo of the various Migrations, which en
Tued, and the Settlements made afterwards in different Parts: Cir. cumitances of great Consequence, which were subsequent to the Gentile History of Mofes. By Jacob Bryant, formerly of King's College, Canıbridge; and Secretary to his Grace the late Duke of Mariborough, during his Command abroad ; and Secretary to him as Matter General of his Majesty's Ordnance. Vols. I and Il. 21. 45. Boards. Payne, &c. 1774.
E have formerly had occasion to mention this * Author
wich peculiar honour, as one of those men who, in our own day, are masters of the profoundest erudition, and who do not come behind the most distinguished names of the last century, for their attention to every the minuteft circumstance that may be the means of elucidating the darkness of the earliest ages. The character we then gave of Mr. Bryant is still more strongly and copiously confirmed by the present work. The learning with which it abounds must, at once, excite the notice of the most cursory Reader. Nothing in the ancient Greek and Roman literature, however recondite, or wherever dispersed, seems to have escaped our Author's sagacious and diligent investigation.
But depth of erudition is far from being Mr. Bryant's fole praise.
The elaborate production before us is equally distinguished for its ingenuity and novelty. In point of novelty, it is, indeed, singularly striking. It departs from the commonly received systems, to a degree that has not yet been attempted, or thought of, by any men of learning; and even those who may entertain the greatest doubts, concerning the truth and solidity of some things which are here advanced, will be ready to allow that several parts of the Author's scheme are highly probable, and that other parts of it have a very plausible appearance. His hypothesis is, therefore, undoubtedly deserving of an attentive examination.
It must, at the same time, be acknowledged, that the subject undertaken by Mr. Bryant is uncommonly difficult. It is one of the most abstruse and intricate subjects which antiquity presents to us; and it lies so open to conjecture, that it must necessarily be involved in no smail degree of uncertainty. The information concerning it, must be collected from a vast number of incidental passages, observations, and assertions scattered through ancient Authors, who were themselves imperfectly acquainted with what they wrote about, and whom it is almost impossible to reconcile.
Perhaps the greatest light that can be thrown upon some of the enquiries Mr. Bryant is engaged in, is that which is
See our account of his Observations and Enquiries relating to vasious parts of ancient Hiftory, in the 37th vol. of the Review.
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afforded by Etymology. The method of proceeding by Etymology is, indeed, not a little hazardous. The ablest men have frequently failed in the application of it, and persons of weak judgment have rendered it the source of the most abfurd and groundless fancies. Hence some have been induced wholly to disregard it, and have even treated it with the utmost contempt. But this has arisen from the want of a proper acquaintance with the subject. Those who have such a knowledge of the oriental tongues, as to be capable of tracing them through the Greek, and Latin, and other languages, and who have attended to the names of things, which, in almost every country, carry the marks of being derived from the East, must be fensible that a judicious use of the science of Etymology greatly tends to the elucidation of antiquity, and that it often leads to very important discoveries. The service which has been rendered to Mr. Bryant by this science, is apparent in every part of his work,
Notwithstanding the difficulties attending our Author's defign, and the uncertainty his subject might be expected to be involved in, even after the best use that could be made of Ety. mology, and the scattered passages of ancient writers ; fuch are the fagacity and diligence with which he has applied these helps, that he is firmly persuaded of his having been fuccessful in clearing up the history of the remotest ages, and in throw. ing light upon objects which have hitherto been furrounded with darkness and error. Indeed, his scheme is so great, and the discoveries he proposes to make are so extraordinary, that we shall be excusable in laying the contents of his preface somewhat at large before our readers; that by this means they may have a more complete view of his intention, and be the better enabled to judge hereafter of the feveral steps by which he has conducted his undertaking.
• It is my purpose, fays Mr. Bryant, in the ensuing work, to give an account of the first ages; and of the great events, which happened in the infancy of the world. In confequence of this, I shall lay before the reader what the Gentile writers have said upon this subject, collaterally with the accounts given by Moses, as long as I find him engaged in the general history of mankind. By these means I shall be able to bring furprizing proofs of those great occurrences, which the facred penman has recorded. And when his history becomes more li. mited, and is confined to a peculiar people, and a private difpensation; I shall proceed to Thew, what was subsequent to his account after the migration of families, and the dispersion from the plains of Shinar.
Our Author aflerts, that when mankind were multiplied upon the earth, eaca great family had by divine appointment a
particular place of destination, to which they retired ; and in confirmation of this affertion, he refers to the testimony of Eufebius, which is too late a testimony to be confidered as deci. five.
However, though we may not be so fully assured, as Mr. Bryant seems to be, that in this manner the first nacions were conftituted, and kingdoms founded, we entirely agree with him, that great changes were foon effected, and that colonies went abroad without any regard to their original place of allotment. New eftablishments were foon made ; from whence ensued a mixture of people and languages. There are events of the highest consequence : of which we can receive no intelligence, but through the bands of the Gentile writers.'
. It has been observed, continues our ingenious Author, by many of the learned, that some particular family betook themselves very early to different parts of the world ; in all which they introduced their rites and religion, together with the customs of their country. They represent them as very knowing and enterprizing; and with good reason. They were the first, who ventured upon the feas, and undertook long voyages. They fhewed their superiority and address in the numberless expeditions which they made, and the difficulties which they furmounted. Many have thought that they were colonies from Egypt, or from Phenicia; having a regard only to the settlements which they made in the West. But I shall Thew hereafter, that colonies of the same people are to be found in the most extream parts of the East : where we may observe the same rites and ceremonies, and the same traditional histories, as are to be met with in their other settlements. The country called Phenicia, could not have fufficed for the effecting all that is attributed to these mighty adventurers. It is necessary for me to acquaint the reader, that the wonderful people, to whom I allude, were the descendants of Chus; and called Cuthites, and Cureans. They stood their ground at the general migration of families ; but were at last scatiered over the face of the earth. They were the first apoftates from the truth ; yet great in? worldly wisdom. They introduced, wherever they came, many useful arts; and were looked up to; as a superior order of beings : hence they were stiled heroes, dæmons, heliadæ, macarians. They were joined in their expeditions by other nations; especially by the collateral branches of their family, the Mizraim, Caphtorim, and the sons of Canaan. There were all of the line of Ham, who was held by his pofterity in the highest veneration. They called him Amon: and having in process of time raised him to a divinity, they worshipped him as the sun : and from this worship they were stiled Amonians. This is an appellation which will continually occur in the course of this work: and I am authorized in the use of it from Plutarch ;
from whom we may infer that it was not uncommon among the fons of Ham.'
Mr. Bryant informs us, that he should be glad to give the reader a still farther insight into the system he is about to pursue, • But such, says he, is the scope of my inquiries, and the pure port of my determinations, as may possibly create in him some prejudice to my design: all which would be obviated, were he to be carried step by Itep to the general view, and be made partially acquainted, according as the scene opened. What I have to exhibit, is in great measure new: and I Ihall be obliged to run counter to many received opinions, which length of time, and general alient, have in a manner rendered sacred. What is truly alarming, I shall be found to differ not only from some few historians, as is the case in common controversy ; but in some degree from all: and this in respect to many of the most effential points, upon which historical precision has been thought to depend,
to depend. My meaning is, that I must set aside many supposed facts, which have never been controverted; and dispute many events, which have not only been admitted as true ; but have been looked upon as cercain æras, from whence other events were to be determined. All our knowledge of Gentile history must either come through the hands of the Grecians; or of the Romans, who copied from them. I shall therefore give a full account of the Helladian Greeks, as well as of the Tönim, or lonians, in Asia: also of the Dorians, Leleges, and Pelasgi. What may appear very presumptuous, I Shall deduce from their own histories many truihs, with which they were totally unacquainted ; and give to them an original, whidrhey certainly did not know. They have bequeathed to us noble materials, of which it is time to make a serious use. It was theicamisfortune not to know the value of the data, which thor transmitted, nor the purport of their own intelligence.'
Ou learned Author goes on to acquaint us, that it will be one part of his labour to treat of the Phenicians, whose history has been much mistaken; and also of the Scythians, whose original bas been hitherto a secret: and he hopes that many good confequences will ensue from such an elucidation. He intends to say a great deal about the Ethiopians, the Indi, and the Indo-Scythæ ; and to exhibit an account of the Cimmerian, Hyperborear, and Amazonian nations, as well as the people of Cholchis. There is no writer, who has written at large of the Cyclopians. Yet their history is of great antiquity, and abounds with matter of consequence. He proposes, therefore, to treat of them very fully, and of the great works which they performed; and to subjoin an account of the Leftrigons, Lamii, a Sirens.