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branches of the same tree that were abroad, the blossoms were but just beginning to thew themselves. In short, none of these internal branches appeared to be in the least degree affected by the frost-nipt state of their trunks; but were as forward, as if the intire trees or shrubs had been in the hot-house.
The result will easily be conjectured of the converse of this experiment. The trees, &c. that were placed in the inside of the hot house, had their branches covered with leaves and flowers about the middle of May; while the fingle branch of each that was carried to the outside, was absolutely at this time in the very same state with those that grew abroad, exhibiting the same appearances that trees present during the winter, and deriving no advantages from the warm situation of their respective trunks and branches within the hot-house.
It seems evidently to follow from these experiments, that there is no regular or general circulation of the fap in trees between the trunk and the branches; as these last, which were admitted into the hot-house, vegetated vigorously, while their trunks and their other branches were in a state of torpidity or inaction, and covered with ice. They likewise prove, that each part of a tree is furnished with a quantity of fap, independent of any supply from the trunk or other branches, fufficient to effect the first production of buds, flowers, and fruits, provided that these juices are put into motion by heat.
An accident that attended the Author's course of experimonts, suggests a useful improvement in the treatment of fruit trees. A fuail having gnawed and destroyed the petals, and the Romina, or male flowers, of three of the flower buds of one of his apple trees, but without hurting the pitillum, he was surprized to find that they produced fruit, while the greater part of the other flowers, which had not been injured, did not bear any. Taking a hint from the fnail, the Author cut with his fcisfars the petals of different apple, pear, plum, and cherry blossoms, close to the calyx. Almost every one of the flowers, thus treated, bore fruit; while several of the neighbouring flowers miscarried. It will naturally be supposed that the destruction of the stamina would render the fruit barren, or that it would want those feeds that contain the germen that is to perpetuate the species. Accordingly, in cutting open the apples whose petals and stamina were eat up by the snail, he found the capsule formed as usual at the center of them ; yet they were entirely empty, without the least appearance of a pip.
In the 12th Article are contained fome circumstances communicated by Dr. Ducarel, relating to the early cultivation of botany in England; and particularly concerning the celebrated John Tradescant, a great promoter of that science, as well as of natusal history, in the last century. In the 22d article is given a description and delineation of a rare American plant of the • Brownææ kind,' by M. P. J. Bergius. Article 5th contains the catalogue of 50 plants presented annually to the Royal Society by the company of Apothecaries.
NATURAL HISTORY. In the 2d Article, Mr. Adam Walker briefly describes the petrefactions and other natural curiofities of the cavern of Dunmore Park, near Kilkenny in Ireland. In the 3d, Dr. Michael Morris gives a short account of some specimens of lead ore, containing native lead, found in a mine in Monmouthshire. The 19th Article is a table constructed by Dr. William Withering, ascertaining the principles of twelve different kinds of marle found in Staffordshire: And in the 21st Article, the Hon. Daines Barrington describes a foffil lately found near Chrifto Church in Hampshire.
PAPERS relating to ELECTRICITY and METEORS. The 6th Article is a short extract of a letter from Mr. Kinnerlley to Dr. Franklin; in which after taking notice of the remarkable conducting quality of some kinds of charcoal, and ob- , serving that a strong line drawn on paper with a black-lead pencil will conduct an electrical shock pretty readily, he mentions the effects of a late thunder storm in Philadelphia. A floop and three houses were, in less than an hour's time, all ftruck by it. The floop, and two of the houses, were considerably damaged ; but the third, which was provided with a cylindrical iron conductor, only half an inch thick, consisting of an assemblage of several rods strongly screwed together, the least of which was sunk 5 or 6 feet under ground, was preserved from all kind of injury, by means of the apparatus ; which had evidently sustained the shock, and conducted the lightning, with no other injury to itself than the melting of 6 inches and a half of the flenderest part of a brass wire fixed on the top of it. Captain Falconer was in the house during the accident, and observed the explosion to be an astonishing loud one.'' Article 8. A Report of the Committee appointed by the Royal Society,
to consider of a method for securing the Powder Magazines at
Purfleet. Article 9. Obfervations upon Lightning, &c. By Benjamin
Wilson, F. R. S. &c. Article 10. A Letter to Sir John Pringle, Pr. R. S. on pointed
Conductors. We have already given the substance of some of Mr. Wilson's objections, offered in the gth Article, to the report which forms the subject of the 8th, and to a part of which he had formally expressed his dissent in writing. [See our Review for last Month, page 386.] These objections having been maturely considered by the committee, they, in the roth article, declare that they
given the ductors
ftill find no reason to change their opinion, or to vary from their former report in favour of pointed conductors. The subfcribing members of this committee are the Hon. Mr. Cavendish, Dr. Watson, Dr. Franklin, and Mr. J. Robertson. Article 20.An Account of a firy Meteor seen on February 10, · 1772,' near Berwick; and of some new electrical Experiments.'
By Patrick Brydone, Esq;
Whether all the meteors that have been described and re. corded in the Philosophical Transactions have had any just pretensions to a place in that respectable collection, may perhaps be doubted. The present, however, seems justly intiiled to that rank, as well on account of its splendour and duration, as of its height; and still more on account of the data from which that height may be estimated. It appeared in the form of a fplendid flame of a conical figure, the light of which almost ex. tinguished that of the moon, then about half full; moving nearly horizontally through a space of about 30 degrees, at about the height of go degrees, and seemed to burst at the end of 10 or 12 seconds into a number of sparks, resembling the Itars in a sky-rocket.
The Author expe&ing a report, had the presence of mind to take out his watch, which had a second hand; but after stop. ping above 4 minutes without hearing any, be rode on. In about a minute afterwards, however, he was stunned by a loud and heavy explosion, resembling the discharge of a large mortar at no great distance, and followed by a kind of rumbling noise like that of thunder. On examining his watch, he found that the found had taken 5 minutes and about 7 seconds to reach him ; which, according to the common computation of 1142 feet in a second, gives a distance of at least 66 miles. At a place distant about 20 miles West, this meteor, the appearance of which was likewise followed by a loud report, was seen by two gentlemen, nearly at the same height as it was perceived by Mr. Brydone : so that its distance from the earth was probably greater than the sensible limits of our atmosphere, This phenomenon, we shall observe, as well as many others, furnishes a strong presumption that the air is not the only medium of sound : as the violent report occafioned by it originated probably in a region, where there was as near an approach to a vacuum as any that we can make with our best air pumps.
In the remaining part of this article, the Author relates some experiments in which he charged an insulated conductor, by rubbing the back of a cat. The animal, however, not patiently submitting to the experiment, the same effects were produced on a young lady's combing the hair of her sister's head, which, however, we should observe, had not, like the hair of most other young ladies, been matted together and defiled by a paste of
for the Year
me i lar 1773 479 pomatum and powder. On causing the pointed wire of a coated vial to follow the comb, the vial was highly charged, so as to give a smart lock, and set fire to fpirits.
In these experiments, the Author's disposition of the two ladies does not appear to us to have been perfectly scientific, The lady who performed the office of the rubber, ought not to have stood on wax; unless indeed to Chew occasionally that she likewise became elecrified, but with a contrary electricity, on the approach of any body communicating with the earth : and the lady whose hair was combed jould have been insulated, in order to produce the greatest effect.
In the 23d Article is given an account of some of the effects of a thunder storm, in which Mr. Heartly was killed in his bed. Mrs. Heartly, who lay on his left hand, was awakened by the explosion, and found her right arm stunned and benumbed, and a little painful. Not being alarmed, however, she fell asleep, and did not discover, till she awoke in the morning, that her husband had been killed by it. Though the bed poit was split into many thivers, one of which was found within his nightcap, no marks were discovered on any part of his body ; except that his right cheek was swelled, and his hair on that lide considerably singed, as was the inside of his nightcap on the same fide, while no such marks appeared on its outside.
The 13th Article contains only some thermometrical observations relating to remarkable degrees of cold observed on the Continent in 1767, 1768, and 1770, by M. J. H. Van Swinden.
CHE MISTRY. Article 16. Actual Fire and Detonation produced by the Contaet of
Tinfoil, with the Salt composed of Copper and the niticus Acid. By B. Higgins, M. D.
Before we give the substance of this curious experiment, it will be proper to premise a discovery of the Author's, relating to the metallic salt produced by a combination of the nitrous acid with copper ; which he found to posless the peculiar property of taking fire, and deflagrating in a degree of heat not greater than can be borne by the hand. This quality is most conveniently thewn by twice or thrice dipping a piece of soft bibulous paper into a saturated solution of copper in spirit of nitre, and alternately drying it with a gentle heat. If the paper, thus copionlly impregnated with the cupreous salt, be then held at a moderate distance from the fire, it will de?agrate and burn to a brown calx.
The success of the following experiment depends on the ready accensibility of this metallic falt. A sufficient quantity of it in a somewhat moist state, procured by putting several pieces of thin sheet copper into a weakened spirit of nitre, is to be beaten to the fineness of basket sea fali, and strewed to the
thickness of a shilling on a piece of 'tinfoil, twelve inches in length, and three in breadth. The foil is then to be instantly rolled up, so as to include the falt, as it lies, between the coils. The ends being pinched together, and the whole pressed flat and close, the following phenomena successively present themselves:
First, a part of the falt deliquesces, and, being imprégnated with the tin, a frothing is perceived at the ends of the coil, attended with a moderate warmth, and followed by a copious emision of nitrous fumes. The heat then increases fo as to be come intolerable to the fingers; and, at length, explosion and fire are perceived, which burst and melt the tinfoil, if it be very thin. Those who would repeat the experiment must consult the Author's own account of it, as the success in a great measure depends on an attention to some minute circumstances which we have not room to mention.
The Author's rationale of this process is principally founded on the abovementioned property of the cupreo-nitrous falt, or on its easy ignition in a slight degree of heat. Its acid is fupe posed in part to quit the copper, and to attack the tin *; in its commenstruation with which metal, a considerable effervefcence and heat are produced, sufficient to dry the remaining undecompounded cupreous sa't, and to set it on fire. The ignition may likewise, we imagine, be in some meafure the confequence of a nitrous fulphur extemporaneously formed, by the rapid combination of ihe nitrous acid with the phlogision of the tin, and which is instantaneously kindled and diffipated in the very act of its formation.
: ANTIQUITI E S. Article 4. Farther Remarks upon à Denarius of the Veturian Fa. mily, &c. By the Rev. John Swinton, B. D. F.R.S. &c.
In the 58th volume of the Philosophical Transactions Mr. Swinton informed us that NI. LUFIUS, whose name occurs on this denarius, was probably one of the Italian generals in the Social war. In the present article he haftens to acknowledge and rectify his mistake, in wrongly decyphering two or three crippled Samnite. Etruscan letters at the tail of the infcription; and now declares his opinion that this supposed old soldier was really the Merriss, Merrix, or Meddix, or at least one of the
* And yet the nitrous acid has a less degree of affinity to tin than to copper, the latter of which it diffolves, while it only corrodes the former ; perfectly dephlogisticating it, or reducing it to a compleat calx. Its violent action on the tin therefore, though already saturated with the copper, is, we apprehend, to be attributed to this circumstance; that though it has a very inconsiderable degree of af. finity to the metallic earth of the tin, it attacks this metal with violence on account of its very strong attraction of phlogistori; a principle which is known to adhere to tin very laxly.