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• VI. It takes off fever in fome infrances.

< VII. It stops immoderate excretions. . VIII. It sometimes promotes sweat.

• IX. It frequently keeps the body open, and fortetimes even purges.

X. It often does not sensibly affect any fecretion or excretion.

• XI. It immediately procures better nights in the kinkcough. 1.: XII. It immediately abates the vomiting, and generally carries it off in a few days. ... XIII. The phlegm is daily diminished during the use of this medicine; for less and less is thrown up while the vomiting continues.

« XIV. The kink daily abates in force and frequency, and is generally removed, together with all its concomitant symptoms, except a slight cough, in the space of a week: and this is often the cafe, even in some instances of complication with other diseases; as dentition, or worms.

• XV. Thus hemlock is a specifick in the kinkcough accordo ing to the most proper interpretation of that word; for it acts on all the symptoms at once, or rather on the proximate caufe: and so by diminishing the irritation, all the symptoms must of course diminish in the fame proportion, till at length they are entirely removed, that is, till the disease is cured.

XVI. Hemlock is not only a successful and expeditious cure for the kinkcough, but it is a medicine that can always be administered; for we cannot fuppose an instance where the most froward child will refufe it, as it can be disguised in so many Ihapes, on account of the smallness of the quantity requisite, as well as the mildness of its sensible qualities.

· XVII. Finally, hemlock cures the kinkcough safely, certainly, expeditiously, and pleasantly: which are all the requisites of the most desirable and complete cure.'

Dr. Butter's general manner of exhibiting the hemlock, was as follows : 'Take of spring water, two ounces and a half; fyrup of pale roses, half an ounce ; 'hemlock-pill, one grain: mix them.' This mixture was taken at several doses, fo as to be finished in the 24 hours : and the quantity of hemlock was gradually increased from one grain to ten or twelve grains, according to the age of the patient, or the effects of the medicine.

But for these and other particulars, we must refer our Readers to the treatise itself.


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Art. XI. 1 Defcription of the Human Eye, and its adjacent Parts; to

gether with their principal Diseases, and the Methods proposed for relieving them. By Joseph Warner, F. R. S. and Senior Surgeon to Guy's Hospital. 8vo. 2$, 6d. fewed. Davis. 1773.

HE following treatise, says Mr. Warner, is intended for

the information and improvement of those young gentiemen in the profeffions of phyfic and surgery, whose ages and employments have not yet furnished them with fufficient opportunities of acquiring such a degree of knowledge, as long experience in private pradice, and the advantages of many years attendance upon an hospital, are capable of affording:

This description of the eye, we apprehend, is drawn up in such a manner, as to fulfil the Author's intention : the anatomical parts, and the descriptions of the diseases, are clear and concise ; and the means of relief well adapted to the respective complaints.

As a specimen of the work, we shall give our Readers Mr. Warner's account of the Glandule Ciliares and their diseases.

GLANDULÆ CILIARES, Otherwife called Glandula Sebaceæ Meibomii, together with their orifices termed Puncta Ciliaria, are situated in regular rows, parallel with the borders or internal edges of the palpebræ, formed by the tarfi. The tarsi are thin cartilages, composing the greatest portion of the edge of each eye-lid; which, from their texture and situation, seem deligned by nature to keep the edges of the eye. lids properly smooth, and uniformly extended. by this wise contrivance the ciliary glands, with their respective orifices, or excretory duets, are preserved at equal and proper distances from each other'; and the latter are kept open, to admit of the oily fuid being dircharged occasionally through them. The ciliary glands are often attacked with inflammation, enlargement, pain, and impofthuma. tion, arising in different subjects from very different causes. . Sometimes these effects are produced from common colds, attended with confiderable inflammations of the tunica conjunctiva. Under these circumstances the complaint gives way to bieeding, purging, and a temporary confinement from the air and light; aliited by emollient fomentations, such as wart cow's milk, or milk mixed with warm soft water, warm barley water, warm water-grael, or warm water alone, or to the steams of either of these directed to the part, and repeated several times a day, as may be found necessary. Sometimes emollient cataplasms applied warm to the eye-lids, and occasionally repeated, joined with purging phyfick administered at proper intervals of time, will be found expedient. By-this treatment the parts become foftened, and relaxed; the ciliary pun&ta are enlarged, and a discharge isues through them resembling matter ; woich discharge should be encouraged till the turgidness of the eye-lids is removed : then, and not before, if at all necessary, astringent washes, and oinements, may with propriety be used to the eye-lids and conjun&ive coat ; os it may without rifque be sometimes left to the course of na:


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ture alone, whose efforts we shall often find, in these and many other instances, to answer the purpose most effectually. But as these glands are often diseased from venereal causes, scrophulous causes, or such as are generally, though perhaps improperly, denominated, fcorbutic habits of body, we shall find that the simple methods alone whichi are above prescribed, will prove ineffectual ; unless aflitted by proper regimen in diet, joined with alteratives of different kinds, adapted to the nature of the disease ; to wit, Mercurius Dulcis Merc. Calcin. Pil. Plum. the Extractum Cicutæ, alkaline absorbents, decoctions of the woods prepared in lime water, or common water, decoctions of the Peruvian bark, prepared in the like manner as we have recommended for the woods, or the Peruvian bark in substance. Two kinds of preparations of the woods are ordered in the London Dira pensatory, under the appellations of Aqua Calcis magis composita, and Agua Calcis minus compofita ; the efficacy of which may be sometimes asisted by proper doses of the Vinumn Antimoniale, as occasion may require; observing at all times to prevent costiveness ; and, if necessary, to divert the humour from the eyes, by blisters apo plied to the neck, head, or betwixt the shoulders, which act not only as stimulant and evacuants, but as alteratives, by the salts of the Cangharides being copiously absorbed into the circulation, and speeda ily mixing with the mass of blood, by means of the absorbent or inhaling vessels of the cutis. ffues also are adviseable, made by incision, or caustic.'

This gentleman is likewise author of a volume of Cases in Surgery, which was mentioned with respect, in our Review, vol. xi. p. 157




Art. XII. Account of Leland's History of Ireland, concluded.
E are now come to a very busy and important period of

the Irish history; a period peculiarly interesting to Englishmen, on account of its intimate connection with the affairs of Great Britain, and the infuence it had upon them. From the feveral objects which here present themselves, we shall select some of those that may be deemed worthy of being particularly distinguished.

Of there, the first we shall notice, is the administration of Lord Wentworth, afterwards Earl of Strafford. It is well known that the conduct of this celebrated statesman, in Ireland, formed a priocipal part of his political life; and furnished many of the articles on which his impeachment was grounded. He assumed his government with a mind and affection fixed on one lingle object, the immediate interest of his toyal master : and happily the service of the crown obliged him to study the improvement of the realm. He had heard of the turbulence and disorders of this country; and hence inferred the necessity of that severe and rigorous administration which suited bis own austerity and arrogance. Ireland he regarded as a conquered


kingdom in the stricteft fenfe. He avowed and defended the opinion, under all the terrors of impeachment, when it was charged againft him as a traitorous principle; and from this crude conception be deduced a consequence at once ridiculous and deteftable, that the subjects of this country, without dirtinction, had forfeited the rights of men and citizens; and for whatever they were permitted to enjoy, depended solely on the royal grace.

The conduct of Lord Wentworth was suitable to thefe fentiments and dispositions. His arbitrary spirit appeared in almoft every measure pursued by him, whether the measure in itself was right or wrong. He treated the most distinguished of the Irish subjects with a contempt and insolence scarcely to be pa, ralleled ; and all who were not readily disposed to comply with the greatest stretches of the prerogative, were held by him in the utmoft deteftation.

' Lord Wentworth, at the moment of his inauguration, disgusted those he was to manage, by an incident, fays Dr. Leland, not wors thy to be noted, but that incidents apparently trifling ferve to discos ver men's tempers and difpofitions. When he had visited the late Lords Justices, with an affected attention, which the proudest are the most ready to thew to their immediate inferiors; and had been for. mally inveited with his office, he fummoned a council; but agreeably to the usage of that court, in which he had been trained to business, but which was utterly unknown in Ireland, he fummoned only a particular number, to the utter mortification of those who were omitted. And those who were collected, among whom were the late Justices, he was so careless or so infolent, as to offend by a wanton indignity. They assembled at the hour appointed ; but the Deputy, either from an affectation of state, or from a more agreeable engagement with a Lady, whom he met in Dublin, and had just declared to be his wife, neglected them for some hours; and when he at length appeared, infiead of conferring on the businefs for which they had been fummoned, only charged the judges' to represent in their circuits the favour which the King offered to such as would repair their defeative grants ; and to satisfy the Protestants with regard to the new imposicion for maintainance of the army, as a charge necessary in itself, and intended chiefly for their defence. Thus, with an air of careless insolence, he dismissed the council, declaring that they lhould be again speedily convened, to deliver their opinions on the means of Japplying the King's immediate neceflties.'

Both the excellencies and demerits of Lord Wentworth's goo vernment are placed, by our ingenious historian, in a clear and ftriking light. It must be acknowledged that the measures of this nobleman were, in several respects, wise and salutary, and that they have greatly contributed to the preient affuence and prosperity of Ireland.' This has been especially the cale, with regard to the beginning and encouragement which he gave to the establishment of the linen manufactory. Nevertireless, his Rev. Jan. 1774



private oppressions were so enormous, and his public conduct to arbitrary, illegal, and unconstitutional, that Dr. Leland appears to us to have carried his candour to an excess, in the following display of the merits of the Lord Deputy's administration :

But however individuals were aggrieved by the imperious feverity of the present government, the nation, which had never known a ttrict and fcrupulous administration of Englih law, cleared from every thing arbitrary or oppresive, was abundantly cònsoled by the advantages derived from the administration of Lord Wentworth. The army, which had long proved an odious and intolerable burden to the inhabitants, yet scarcely of essential service to the crown, was well disciplined, duely paid, preserved in good condition, innoffenfive to the peaceable subjects, and formidable to the enemies of government. The revenue was unencumbered, and a large fum lay rcady in the exchequer, to answer any sudden emergency. The ecclefiaftical. establishment was protected, the revenues of the church improved, and abler and more respectable teachers generally pro: vided for the people. The Scottish puritans were indeed sometimes offended at the indulgence shewn to recufants; but in the present situation of the kingdom, where far the greater number of inhabit. ants, and those posle sled of power and consequence, were of the Ro. mish communion, the most obvious maxims of policy forbad any rigorous execution of penal statutes. It was sufficient to confine recusants to a less public and offensive exercise of religion, so as to preserve the authority of government, without provoking violent and dangerous discontents. Peace, order, obedience, and industry, dirtinguished the present period from that of any former adminiftration; the value of lands was encreased ; commerce extended; the customs amounted to almost four times their former sum; the commodities exported from Ireland were twice as much in value as the foreign merchandize imported; and shipping was four.d to have increased even an hundred fold. Such were the benefits derived from the ad: ministration of Lord Wentworth, however in many instances juftly unpopular, odious, and oppresūve.'

Another object, too important in every view to be passed over unnoticed, is the Irish rebellion of 1641. The causes and circumstances that led to this dreadful event, and the views of the several parties concerned in it, are well explained by our Author, whofe account of the powerful operation of religious principles and prepossessions we shall lay betore our Readers.

Far the greater number of inhabitants were obstinately devo:ed to Popery, provoked and mortified by the penal statutes of Elizabeth, and impatient of the odious disqualifications imposed upon them. These fiatates indeed had not been generally enforced in their full rigour. Sometimes, however, the insolence of popish ecclefiaftics provoked the execution of them ; sometimes the terror of them was used as a political engine to extort concessions from the Popish party, and in either case, there was pretence sufficient for exciting popular clamour. The Romilh clergy had that influence even over the gentry of their communion, with which they are invested by the tenets of their religion ; the ignorant herd of Papifts they governed at their


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