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and the tasks which confront them are largely determined by those great events.

Beginning now our survey with a look at savage Savage life, we note that we do not have to go back so life very far into the past. It is not many centuries since most of our forefathers, if they were British, or German, or Scandinavian, or Slav, lived as savages or at least as barbarians. A little longer ago Greeks and Italians, and still longer ago Jews, lived likewise a savage or roaming life. Some had no iron tools, but used stone for axes as well as for arrow heads. In this they were like the American Indians. Like the Indians, most of them hunted and fished; like the Indians, too, they lived in clans or tribes and had customs of blood revenge. We can use many features from Indian life to help us imagine how our own ancestors lived and what their customs were.

One point we do well to keep in mind. When we speak of savages or indeed of people who lived long ago we are likely to think that they were very different from ourselves and perhaps quite inferior. must remember that our own ancestors lived as savages; so we cannot assume that the savage is necessarily inferior to the civilized man in his ability. And as regards the actual fact, to discover fire and how to use it, to make a bow and arrow, to make the first pottery, to weave the first cloth, and to make the first iron tools were as great achievements as man has since performed

The great difference between early men and civilized men today is not in their brains. The reason why the American or European today is able to make so much better a showing is because he has inherited so great

But we

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a stock of ideas and ways of doing things. These

inherited ideas come to us not only through books and The great through the teaching of our parents, and of skilled difference workmen, but also in our tools, our grains, plants, between

and fruits, our written language, our knowledge of savage and civilized

numbers, and in fact the copies or patterns for all men

kinds of arts which are all about us. These stimulate
the mind of the little child as soon as he opens his eyes,
and a large part of the life of all of us consists in just
walking up the stairs which our forefathers have built
ready for us. Many of us never build a single new

stair. The best of us build only a few stairs.
Getting a In studying the life of early man it is natural to
living in

begin by asking how he got his living. We may conearly times veniently approach the answer by repeating the question

in a more personal form and contrasting early with
present life: What would a young man in early times
expect to do for a living? What occupation would he

The boy of today who leaves school, especially if he
lives in a city, or goes to the city to seek his fortune,
sees a great many kinds of factories, shops, and offices.
But very likely he has to look a good while before he
finds a place. A clever artist has sketched in a series
of cartoons the history of a young high school grad-
uate, going from office to office, and keeping up a
plucky search for work for week after week. The
difference between this condition and that of the boy
in early society is that now there are many occupations
but no sure place for any particular boy; then, there
was only one occupation, but every boy or girl was
sure of a place.

There was only one occupation-rather there were two main sets of occupations, one for men and one for

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women. The man in general had to protect the women and children, and to capture the game. As an Australian put it, “A man hunts, spears fish, fights, and sits about.” The women gathered roots or seeds, ground them, cooked, wove, made baskets or pottery, carried water, cared for the children. And both men and women had to make the weapons or tools they needed. In many cases men and women were very careful not to have anything to do with the tools or weapons of the other sex.

These were

“ taboo ”; it was regarded as dangerous for the other sex to touch them. A man might become weak if he meddled with woman's things. But practically all men in the same tribe did the same kind of work.

The other interesting fact was that every boy was sure of a place. This was because the family or clan or tribe all hung together. As the children grew up they stayed with their family or clan. They did not go off to the city to seek their fortune. They might stray away in search of food but they seldom dared to get far from the main group, for fear of their enemies. This might sometimes make it hard for the family or tribe to find enough food for all. But if so they shared their plenty or their want. As Dr. Eastman, himself a Sioux, says, “A whole tribe might starve; a single Indian never." One reason why this sharing was more possible than it is in civilized countries was that land was not all divided up and owned by individuals as it is now. The tribes of Indians had their range of forest or plain, and knew that if they went beyond certain bounds they would get into the territory of other tribes who would very likely attack them. But within the tribe the separate Indians did not have their own private land. So when a boy grew

up he simply went with the rest to hunt or fish, or ranged about for small game by himself.

The day's work

A workman of today expects to work eight, nine, or ten hours a day. A few years ago his day would have been much longer. The farmer began work about five and kept at it until after dark. The stores and factories had similar hours. The writer was told the other day by an acquaintance that as a boy he worked in a woolen mill where he went to work at five in the morning and stayed until seven in the evening, stopping a half hour each for breakfast and dinner. Indeed, even schools kept early hours. At the academy where the writer's father prepared for college, the students rose for morning prayers at half past four in summer and at five the rest of the year. Now in savage life our ancestors kept no such regular hours. The men, especially, seemed to “ sit about” a good deal, as the Australian said. And if you think of it, the work of the men was largely what civilized people call sport. It was hunting or fishing. There was a good deal of excitement about it and it necessarily came at irregular times, depending on the habits of game, or the sudden outbreak of war. When they did such steady work as rowing or carrying burdens, or hammering, men were very likely to sing and so relieve the monotony. The women, on the other hand, had much less exciting tasks. Most of what we call drudgery was done by them. For such work as grinding seeds or grain, kneading, weaving, washing clothes, they too had songs, and the rhythm helped them to keep steadily at their task.

This docs not necessarily mean that savages were lazy, or cruel to women, as it is often charged. Some savages were no doubt both. But the chief reason for

the division of labor was that the man had to do the fighting and hunting because he was the quicker and stronger. If he was to do this he must keep ready for it. On the march he must be able to repel attack. Hence he carried his weapons and the woman the other belongings.

The materials out of which the savage made his tools Tools and utensils varied considerably, but the beginning seems to have been with stone, bone, shell, and wood. Think for a moment what this meant in cost of time and energy. On my table lies a stone axe with which I suppose Indians may have worked in the very spot where a sawmill is now whirring. Think what it would mean to cut trees with such a tool.

To be sure, a savage did not attempt to cut down an entire tree. He burned the base of the tree and used the axe to help the work of the fire. So in hollowing out a log for a canoe, fire did the main work; the edges were kept wet to confine the fire to the mid part, and the axes or knives finished the task. But even so, it was a slow process. Or think of grinding in a stone mortar or with a hand mill all the grain to be used.

In early society no one could plan to be a merchant Gifts as a or trader, because there was no such vocation. No mode of one made a business of purchasing wares in order to sell

trade them again at a profit. The early method of exchanging something that one man had for something that some one else had was by making a present, and then getting a present in return. Notice, however, that in savage life a man would not need to exchange presents with some one in the same tribe or household. For as regards food, all would share. “It is looked upon as a theft (or at least as a mean act) if a herd of

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