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VEGETABLE FOOD,

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1849. 1850. 1851. Kour .......

.bbls. 16,315,435 16,280,425 13,436,542 Wheat.

.bushels 2,993,160 3,937,763 3,051,110 Lye

187,545 315,928 198,099 Corn.

2,970,482 2,000,890 4,447,682 Corn meal

.bbls.

35,949 20,172 Barley..

.bushels

868,115 1,417,827 1,484,541 Oats.

868,084 1,014,678 1,363,352 Bran and shipstuffs. lbs. 242,755 927,863

366,691 Peas and beans,

.bushels 160,234 89,382 143,299 Potatoes.

117,918 123,269 342,275 Dried fruit

78,007 132,019 214,108 ALL OTHER AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS. Cotton.....

lbs. 29,240 163,239 25,580 Domanufactured tobacco.

237,007 159,005 813,712 Hemp....

4,960 75,469 Clover and grass seed

148,746 92,106 41,817 Flax seed.

30,536 27,745

3,130 Норз

162,893 159,647 146,380

MANUFACTURES. Domestic spirits

.gallons 526,938 394,301 632,489 Beer..

475

816 Linseed oil..

.gallons

691

66 Oil meal and cake.

lbs.

79,859 85,165 Starch

144,054 135,734 Leather

885,080 1,148,063 1,230,572 Furniture...

111,631 110,180 105,672 Agricultural implements..

777 15,840 Bar and pig lead......

503
4,300

820 Pig iron.......

96,362 62,769 67,568 Castings.

47,428 74,350 Machines and parts

27,895 16,331 Bloom and bar iron

658,120 442,508 668,985 Lrop ware ...:

62,131

111 Domestic woolens.

895,991 891,204 725,419 Domestic cotton

698,816 658,532 589,312 Domestic salt. ....

73,666 62,612 56,975 Foreign salt..

5,311 1,196

OTDEB. ARTICLES Live cattle, bogs, and sheep..... . lbs.

47,349 26,100 Stone, lime, and clay...

74,060 118,482 139,882 Gypsum.

5,742 14,949 19,339 Eggs

197,544 220,945 Minerai coal,

56,633 90,951 102,289

14,319 12,547 Copper ore,

15,747 62,667 Flint enameled ware

240 Sundries ....

2,183,548 1,823,914 2,205,495 STATEMENT SHOWING THE AGGREGATE VALUE OF THE PROPERTY WHICH CAME TO THE

HUDSON RIVER, ON ALL THE CANALS, DURING THE YEARS 1849, 1850, 1851, UNDER
TRE DIVISIONS AS SPECIFIED IN THE ABOVE TABLE,

1849.
1850.

1851. The forest

$7,192,796 $10,316,117 $10,380,259 Agriculture...

38,455,456 38,311,546 36,520,296 Manufactures.

3,899,238 3,960,854 4,355,907 Merchandise

808,048
563,616

406,711 Other articles

2,319,983 2,323,495 2,789,257

Fish ...

Total

$52,375,521

$65,474,637

$64,462,430

GALENA AND CHICAGO UNION RAILROAD. The Galena and Chicago Union Railroad now extends from Galepa to Cherry Valley, & distance of 84 miles, and bas two branch roads. It is among the most profitable roads in the west, from an advertisement in the Chicago Democrat we learn that this road has declared a half-yearly dividend of eight per cent on the capital stock paid in of the first division of the road. This makes the entire dividend for the fiscal year 1851-2, equal to fifteen per cent, beside leaving a large surplus of cash on hand.

The following table shows the earnings of the entire road and branches for the past three fiscal years. In the month of May, 1849, are included the earnings of March and April preceding. The cars commenced running in March, 1849.

1849-60. 1860–51. 1851-52. May

$1,231 83 $10,826 01 $16,122 14 913 35

9,953 40 18.886 20 July...

1,602 62

9,715 62 19,096 68 August...

2,743 13

7,777 28 14,360 96 September.

4,267 43 14,058 85 19,443 26 October

7,106 03 17,641 40 24,918 14 November..

5,899 48 12,653 11 19,301 10 December...

6,008 21 12,520 96 18,632 48 January..

5,356 46 11,693 39 18,667 38 February..

5,132 62

6,172 34 21,859 16 March...

4,985 81 14,523 66 24,559 50 April..

6,008 67 13,096 96 20,825 35

June ...

[blocks in formation]

Alexander's

Lock.

Tons delivered at
tide-water from

Erie Capal.

of buat.

Buffalo,

Cents,

Total, tolls.

41

1844....

60

TOLLS, TRADE, AND TONNAGE OF THE CANALS. The following statement, condensed from the late report of the Auditor of the Canal Department, presents an exhibit for several years of the average tonnage of the boat, of the time necessary to make a passage, and the cost to bring a barrel of four from Buffalo to Albany, of the lockages at Alexander's lock, and the total tons delivered at tide-water from the Erie Canal, and of the total tolls, is as follows:

Average Days betw'n Frit on a Lockages at Years.

tonnage Albany & bbl.flvur, 1841....

9

71 30,320 532,520 $2,034,882 49

28,219 790,816 2,446,374 1847.

67 101 77 43,957 1,431,262 3,639,381 1848. 71

68 34,911 1,184,337 3,262,219 1849..

68

84 66 36,918 1,266,724 3,268,226 1850...

58 38,444 1,554,675 3,273,896 1861.... 78 81 49 40,396 1,507,677 3,329,787

A comparison of the results of the last year's business with that of 1841, ten years ago, shows that while the boat has nearly doubled its capacity, the time necessary to make a passage from Buffalo to Albany is diminished balf a day, transportation is cheapened 30 per cent, or 22 cents on a barrel of flour; and that while the lockages at Alexander's Lock have increased only 33 per cent, the tons arriving have increased 200 per i ent. And that though the tons arriving from the Erie Canal last year are 77,000 more than in 1847, the lockages are 3,600 less.

76

THE PHILOSOPHICAL RAILROAD ENGINEER. George Stanford, an engineer on the Michigan Central Railroad, at the time of a late accident on that road, bad bis head cut badly and his back bruised. Before the collision took place, but when it was too late to obviate it, be exclaimed: “This is all carelessness, and if I am killed, it will serve me right- I will not jump off.” That engineer was an honest man, and an intelligent believer in that beautiful Providence that works no miracle to save men from the consequences of transgressing wise laws. MAINE LAW CONCERNING RAILROADS. The following act concerning railroads passed by the Legislature of Maine, was approved by the Governor on the 13th of April, 1862, and takes effect from and after October 13th, 1862.

AN ACT CONCERNING RAILROADS. Sec. 1. It is hereby declared that no railroad company has or shall have the right to assign its charter or any of its privileges, immunities or franchises, without the express authority of the legislature therefor; nor shall any railroad company, without such express authority, lease its road or any portion thereof, or grant the use and enjoyment thereof or any portion of the same, to any other person or corporation, or in any way grant the use, possession or control of the same to any other party or corporation, or in any way place the control and management of the said road in the hands of any other officers or parties than those contemplated by the charter. And any such lease, contract, agreement, assignment or transfer, heretofore or hereafter made, is hereby declared to be null and of no effect; and it shall be the duty of the Attorney General, on suggestion or request of any person complaining of a violation of the provisions of this act, by any, such corporation, to file an information, in the nature of a quo warranto, against eaid corporation before the Supreme Judical Court; and said court is authorized to pass such judgment, order, or decree, as to justice and equity may appertain in all such cases. And provided, that nothing in this act shall extend to any agreement for the lease of the Somerset and Kennebec Railroad to the Kennebec and Portland Railroad, on the terms mutually agreed on by the stockholders in both of said companies; nor to effect any mortgage made for securing the debts of any corporation, or with any portion of the Atlantic and St. Lawrence Railroad which lies within the States of New Hampshire and Vermont.

Sec. 2. This act shall take effect in six months from and after its approval by the Governor.

A PROFITABLE RAILROAD IN GEORGIA. The last report of the Georgia Railroad Company gives the same encouraging assurance of the value of the railway system, that all their previous reports have done.

Their road is 171 miles long, with 48 miles of branches, and they declare dividends on a capital stock of $4,000,000. They also have a debt, created by subscriptions to other railroad companies. These subscriptions amount to $570,890, and consist of the stocks of the Georgia and East Tennessee, Nashville and Chattanooga, Montgomery and West Point, Atlanta and Lagrange, and Rome Railroad Companies, and the Augusta and Nashville Telegraph Company. After paying interest on these debts, $52,691 55, the net profit remaining was $451,087 93, or 10.78 per cent on the capital. The company paid a dividend of 7 per cent, and devoted $151,087 93 to the payment of the debts. It is evident that without this debt created to aid other works calculated to benefit their road, the company might have declared a dividend of nearly 13 per cent. In fact, the business of this road has exhibited an actual profit of about 13 per cent for years past. The company have pursued the policy of subscribing to the stock of other roads, leading from their road to the interior. The debt created by these subscriptions will be paid off out of the profits of their road, in less than four years, and the company will enjoy largely increased profits, while their markets will command the tribute of Alabama and Tennessee.

THE FIRST AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVE. The Charleston Mercury says the first locomotive built in this country was constructed for and used on the South Carolina railroad.

“ This engine would be a curiosity if placed alongside of one of Norris's or Baldwin's last improvements. It was named the 'Best Friend,' and was built under the direction of Mr. E. L. Miller, of Walterboro, at the West Point Foundry of Messrs. Kemble, New York. The engine had no tender, but carried its own wood and water. The wheels were of wood, with spokes like a wayon, and the wheel armed with a wrought-iron tire.

“The engineer who ran the first locomotive that was used on this or any other road in the United States, was N. K. Darrell, an apprentice brought up in Dotterer's Ma-* chine shop. He is now, and has been for many years past, the well-known and efticient master of the company's workshops in Charleston.

" After a few trips, the wooden wheels of the 'Best Friend' gave way, and were replaced by cast iron ones, the pattern for which was made, and the wheels cast by apother of Dotterer's apprentice boys, J. D. Petsch, then the foreman of that well known establishment. These, it is believed, were the first cast-iron wheels used on railroads in this country.

“ The Best Friend blew up after a brief career, and from its wreck another engine was built by Mr. Petsch, at the company's workshop, of which he was then in charge. It was called the “ Phenix.” Previous to this the crank axle had been used; but in the reconstruction of this engine, Mr. Petsch introduced the straight axle with outside connections, and also wrought iron tires on the cast-iron driving wheels, neither of which, it is believed, had before been tried in this country. Mr. Petsch is now the able and efficient superintendent of the motive power and transportation department of the South Carolina railroad, in which important position he has rendered valuable service, by the many improvements he has embodied in the plan and construction of locomotives, machinery, workshops, etc.”

HAMILTON, EATON, AND RICHMOND RAILROAD. From a recent statement of the president of this company, it appears that the cost of the road from Hamilton to Richmond, Ind., 44 miles, including water and other stations, will be $713,103 35, of which the sum of $632,767 has been provided, requiring only $280,336 35 to finish the whole line. The estimate of the work remaining to be done is $178,548 11. The road is to be finished as a first class road in every respect, and will open a great thoroughfare into Indiana. Arrangements have been made with the Cincinnati

and Hamilton Company to run the road as soon as ready; and it is supposed cars will run out some distance to Eaton, the middle of the present month, (June, 1862,) and to Richmond in the fall of 1852.

THE RIGHT OF WAY OVER LAND BELONGING TO THE STATE. Judge Hurd, of the Supreme Court of Ohio, has decided that the State of Ohio, by granting a charter for a railroad from Columbus to Zanesville, very clearly granted the right of way over the canal, which, of necessity, must be crossed in making the road. The judge held that if the legislature had the power to grant the right of way for a railroad over the lands of private individuals who derived their title from the United States government, they had the power to grant the same right of way over the land belonging to the State. It will be recollected that the Board of Public Works of Obio enjoined this road from proceeding with the work on the ground of the unconstitutionality of the charter which authorized it to cross the canal.

VALIDITY OF A PATENT FOR IMPROVEMENT IN CARS.

An action was recently brought before the United States District Court (Judge Kane) by Ross Winans vs. the York and Maryland Railroad Company, to recover damages for the infraction of a patent granted to the plaintiff for an improvement in the construction of cars, rendering them better adapted to American railroads.—The object of the invention is, among other things, to make such an adjustment of the wheels, axles, and connection with the body as shall cause the car to pursue a more smooth, even and safe course, than it does as they are ordinarily constructed. It was proved to be indispensable to comfort and safety at the speed now run by passenger trains. The jury brought in a verdict for $5,400 damages and costs.

PROFITABLE RAILROAD STOCKS.

The Utica and Schenectady Railroad Company have probably done the most profitable business of any railroad corporation in the world. This road, seventy-eight miles in length, was constructed and put into operation for a million and a half of dollars. The total receipts in about fourteen years have been $6,856,046. Expenditures for the same period, $2,637,842. Excess of earnings over current expenses during that time, $4,218,204-reimbursing the whole cost of the road and yielding a clear net profit of $2,718,204 or over 184 per cent per annum.

COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS.

COMMERCIAL TREATY BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND COSTA RICA. The following is a correct copy of the “ Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation between the United States of America and the Republic of Costa Rica," concluded and signed in the city of Washington on the 10th of July, 1851, and duly ratified on both parts, and the respective ratifications exchanged at Washington on the 26th day of May, 1852:TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP, COMMERCE, AND NAVIGATION BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF

AMERICA AND THE REPUBLIC OF COSTA RICA,

In the name of the Most Holy Trinity :-Commercial intercourse having been for some time established between the United States and the Republic of Costa Rica, it seems good for the security as well as the encouragement of such commercial intercourse, and for the maintenance of good understanding between the United States and the said republic, that the relations now subsisting between them should be reg. ularly acknowledged and confirmed by the signature of a treaty of amity, Commerce, and navigation.

For this purpose they have named their respective plenipotentiaries, that is to say: The President of the United States, Daniel Webster, Secretary of State ;

And his Excellency the President of the Republic of Costa Rica, Senor Don Felipe Molina, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of that republic to the United States;

Who, after having communicated to each other their full powers, found to be in due and proper form, have agreed upon and concluded the following articles:

Art. i. There shall be perpetual amity between the United States and their citizens, on the one part, and the government of the Republic of Costa Rica and its citizens on the other.

Art. 2. There shall be, between all the territories of the United States and the 'territories of the Republic of Costa Rica, a reciprocal freedom of Commerce. The subjects and citizens of the two countries, respectively, shall have liberty freely and securely to come with their ships and cargoes to all places, ports, and rivers in the territories aforesaid, to which other foreigners are or may be permitted to come; to enter into the same, and to remain and reside in any part thereof respectively; also to hire and occupy houses and warehouses for the purposes of their Commerce; and generally the merchants and traders of each nation, respectively, shall enjoy the most complete protection and security for their Commerce, subject always to the laws and statutes of the two countries respectively.

In like manner the respective ships of war and post-office packets of the two coudtries shall have liberty freely and securely to come to all harbors, rivers, and places to which foreign ships of war and packets are or may be permitted to come; to enter into the same to anchor there and refit; subject always to the laws and statutes of the two countries respectively.

By the right of entering the places, ports, and rivers mentioned in this article, the privilege of carrying on the coasting trade is not understood; in which trade national vessels only of the country where the trade is carried on are permitted to engage.

Art. 3. It being the intention of the two high contracting parties to bind themselves, by the preceding articles, to treat each other on the footing of the most favored pation, it is hereby agreed between them that any favor, privilege, or immunity whatever, in matters of Commerce and navigation, which either contracting party has actually granted, or may hereafter grant to the subjecte or citizens of any other State, shall be extended to the subjects or citizens of the other high contracting party gratuitously, if the concession in favor of that other nation shall have been gratuitous ; or in return for a compensation, as nearly as possible of proportionate value and effect, to be adjusted by mutual agreement, if the concession shall bare been conditional.

Art. 4. No higher or other duties shall be imposed on the importation into the territories of the United States of any article being of the growth, produce, or manu. facture of the Republic of Costa Rica, and no higher or other duties shall be imposed

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