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them for a limited time, for breaking such rules or orders, or omitting anything required by the same, or for acting in any manner contrary thereto; and if any of the said pilots so suspended or deprived, during the time of their suspension or deprivation, shall take upon himself to pilot or conduct any vessel, such pilot shall forfeit and pay one hundred dollars for every such offense.

Sec. 7. And be it enacted, That if any of the said board of examiners shall die, resign, refuse to act, or remove from the city of Baltimore, or be otherwise rendered in. capable to act, the remaining examiners, or a majority of them, shall fill up such vacancy, provided they shall so regulate their appointments as to have at least one member of the board a person skilled in the business of piloting.

SEC. 8. And be it enacted, That all persons now holding license to act as pilots in the waters of this State may renew the same according to the provisions of this act, as if the several acts of Assembly relating to pilots and pilotage, beretofore passed were still in force.

Sec. 9. And be it enacted, That any pilot who may be licensed to act as such agreeably to the provisions of this act, may charge and recover for his services, such reasonable compensation as may be contracted for by such pilot, and the owner, master, agent, or consignee of any vessel which may be piloted by him.

Seo. 10. And be it enacted, That the act passed at November Session, 1803, chapter 63, entitled “ an act to establish pilots and regulate their fees,” and all the acts supplementary, thereto, relating to pilots and pilotage, are hereby repealed, provided that nothing herein contained shall be so construed as to compel any master, owner, or agent to pay any pilot except he be employed as pilot.

REDUCTION OF ANCHORAGE DUTIES BY BRAZIL. The following translation of a decree of his Majesty the Emperor of Brazil, interesting to those concerned in the trade to that country, has been officially communicated to the Department of State, at Washington.

DEOREE NO. 928, of MARCH 5, 1852. Pursuant to the provisions of the 28th article of the law No. 369, of September 18, 1845, I think it proper to decree :

ARTICLE 1. From and after 1st July, 1852, the anchorage duty upon vessels trading between foreign ports and the ports of the empire will be reduced to three hundred reis the ton; and the same class of duty now levied upon coasting vessels shall be abolished.

Art. 2. That part of the provisions of April 26, July 20, and November 15, 1844, which has not been altered by this decree, will continue in force.

Joaquim Jose Rodrigues Torres, of my Council, a Senator of the Empire, Minister and Secretary of State for Financial Affairs, and President of the National Exchequer Court, will so understand the above, and cause it to be executed.

Palace of Rio Janeiro, March 5, 1852, the thirty-first of the independence of the Empire. By his Majesty the Emperor.


ACT TO REGULATE THE SALE OF COTTON IN ALABAMA. The following Act passed at the last Session of the Legislature of Alabama, and approved February 10th, 1852, is now in force :

AN ACT TO REGULATE THE SALE OF COTTON BY COMMISSION MERCHANTS. SECTION 1. Be it enacted, &c., That from and after the passage of this act, all cot. ton sold by commission merchants to brokers or buyers shall not be considered as delivered and the ownership given up, until the same is fully paid for; any order for the cotton, law, custom or usage to the contrary notwithstanding.

Seo. 2. And be it further enacted, That any cotton broker engaged in the business of buying cotton, either on his or their own account, or for others, who shall buy or engage to buy, cotton from a planter or commission merchant and shall fail or refuse to pay for the same at the time agreed to, and shall make way with, or dispose of any cotton purchased and not paid for, shall be deemed guilty of fraud and embezzlement, and shall be liable to be imprisoned, on conviction, in the penitentiary not less than one nor more than five years, at the discretion of jury trying the case.

BRITISH COMMERCIAL AND NAVIGATION TREATIES. The Gazette of London gives the following list of potentates &c., with whom commercial treaties bave been made by Great Britain.

The Emperor of Austria, the King of the Belgians, the Republic of Bolivia, the City of Bremen, the Republic of Costa Rica, the King of Denmark, the Dominican Republic, the Republic of the Equator, the French Republic, the City of Frankfort, the King of Greece, Republic of Guatemala, the City of Hamburg, the King of Hanover, the Republic of Liberia, the City of Lubeck, the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg Schwerin, the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg Strelitz, the Mexican Republic, the King of the Netherlands, the Republic of New Grenada, the Grand Duke of Oldenburg, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, the Republic of Peru, the Queen of Portugal, the King of Prussia and the other States forming the German Commercial Union, viz : Bavaria, Saxony, Wurtemburg, Baden, the Electorate of Hesse, the Grand Duchy of Hesse, the States forming the Customs and Commercial Union of Thuringia, Nassau, and Frankfort ; the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, the Emperor of Russia, the King of Sardinia, the King of the Two Sicilies, the King of Sweden and Norway, the Grand Duke of Tuscany, the United States of America, the Oriental Republic of the Uruguay, the Republic of Venezuela.


OF LIGHT VESSELS AS A GUIDE TO MARINERS. The following notice to mariners, dated Trinity-house, London, 6th January, 1852, has been received for publication in the Merchants' Magazine, from an official source :

Notice is hereby given that this corporation has issued directions to the masters and mates of their several Light Vessels to the following effect, namely:

In the event of any Light Vessel being driven from her station, the master or mate, whichever be in charge, is carefully to consider whether she has driven to such a distance, or in such a direction, as to make it dangerous to shipping to continue to show her lights, and if the distance or direction be not such as to endanger the safety of vessels running on their course, the Lights and Balls are to be continued in the usual manner. But should the Light Vessel have driven so as to be of no use as a guide to shipping, the usual Lights and Balls are, in that case, to be discontinued, and two Red Lights substituted, one at the end of the davit forward, the other op a stanchion beside the ensign staff; and a Red Flare Light shown every quarter of an hour during the night.

And further, when vessels are observed from a Light Vessel to be in distress, or to require assistance:

If in the day time, two guns are to be fired on board such Light Vessel, each at an interval of five minutes, and repeated every half-hour until assistance be observed approaching. If in the night time, two guns are to be fired on board such Light Vessel, at similar intervals, each followed by a white rocket thrown in the direction of the vessel in distress, and these signals are to be continued until the required assistance has been rendered.

Masters of vessels, pilots, and other persons are earnestly requested to take such necessary note of these regulations as may be useful both for the avoidance danger to themselves, and for aiding their endeavors to render assistance to others. By order

J. HERBERT, Secretary..


HYDROGRAPHIC-OFFICE, ADMIRALTY, April 19th, 1852. Her Majesty's Government has been officially informed that on the 28th of last November, a Fixed Light was established by the Netherland Government, on Fourth Point, in the Strait of Sunda. The Tower, which is built of stone, stands on the sea beach nearly 3 miles from Anjer, in 6° 4' 60" south, and in 105° 56' 35" east of Greenwich. The Light is displayed at an elevation of 94 feet above the level of the sen, and may be seen in all directions from the deck of a vessel at the distance of 16 miles.

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REVOLVING LIGHT ON THE SOUTH POINT OF BARBADOS, We are indebted to the Department of State at Washington, for the subjoined official notice to mariners, touching the revolving light on the South Point of Barbados.

HYDROGRAPHIC-OFFICE, ADMIRALITY, March 24, 1852, Notice is hereby given, that her majesty's government has established a revolving light on the South Point of the Island of Barbados; and that it was to be displayed on the first of this month.

The base of the tower is 56 feet above the sea, from which it is 200 yards distant, and stands in latitude 13° 2' 45" N., and longitude 59° 33' 30" W. of Greenwich. The tower is 90 feet high, and is painted in alternate red and white bands, each being 74 feet in depth.

The light is thus 145 feet above the level of the sea, and rerolves once in every minute; after an eclipse of 14 seconds it again appears, gradually increases for 24 seconds to its greatest brilliancy, and then in 24 seconds more is eclipsed.

From the light, Seawell Point bears about N. E. by E. E., and Needham Point W.N. W. W.; and except from between the opposite bearings the light is visible in all directions from the deck of a vessel within the distance of 18 miles.

Vessels approaching the island from the eastward are recommended not to run down their longitude to the northward of 12° 55' N.; and as soon as the light is discovered to bring it to bear west, steering from thence W. by S. and not passing it at a less distance than 2 miles.

If coming from the north eastward the light will not be visible until it bears to the westward of S. W. by W., being concealed by the high land forming Seawell Point; and if kept in sight well open of that point, it will lead clear of the Cobblers, a group of dangerous reefs which extend some miles from the eastern side of the island. Mariners are advised to give them a wide berth, on account of the prevailing current to the westward.

When the light is brought to bear N. E. a course may be shaped for Needham Point; but in hauling up into Carlisle Bay, that point should be kept at the distance of a third of a mile.

THE SOUTHERN COAST OF FLORIDA. The Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey has communicated to the Secretary of the Treasury, under date, Coast-Survey Office, Washington, May 11, 1852, the subjoined information, compiled from official records of the last survey, respecting the Southern Coast of Florida, which are placed on record in this department of the Merchants' Magazine for the benefit of navigators :

A series of signals (fifteen in number) have been erected by one of the Triangulation parties of the Coast-Survey along the line of the reef, indicating dangerous points, and so distributed that vessels may in rafety make the intermediate run between any two of them. Navigators will find them highly useful. They are suffi. ciently remarkable always to secure attention in the day.time, and may be seen some two or three miles with the naked eye, or from six to ten with ordinary glass. Each signal consists of a mangrove pole from thirty to forty feet high, fixed in an iron screw pile, which bas been sunk in the solid material of the reef, and surmounted by a barrel painted black. It is stated that with these guides there can be no difficulty in the way of steamers keeping close in and running in smooth water. The Isabel (Charleston, Key West, and Havana packet,) always hugs the reef close, to avoid the easterly current, and take advantage of the eddy setting westward.

The following list shows the reefs upon which signals have been placed as described :

1. Fowey Rocks. 2. Triumph Reef. 3. Long Reef. 4. A shoal, (coral formation,) without a vame, interior to Triumph and Long reefs, described as extending from. Cesar's creek, about seven miles noriheard, and lying midway between the line of Keys and main Florida reef. The waters inside the reef are here divided by these shoals into two main and well-defined channels; the outside being the deepest, and the inside of sufficient depth for vessels drawing less than ten feet. Small vessels may pick their wny through in various directions ; but these are believed to be the only well-marked channels. The screw.pile has been placed at the northern extremity of the shoals. 6. Ajax Reef. 6. Pacific Reef. 7. Turtle Reef. 8. Triangle Reef or

Grecian Shoals, 9. French Reef. 10. Pichile Reef. 11. Conch Reef. 19. Crocus Reef. 13. Alligator Reef. 14. The Washerwoman Sboal. 15. The American Shoals, near Key West.

One of the most experienced navigators of this coast, Captain Rollins, of the Isabel, who passes along the reef four times monthly, has already appreciated and handsomely acknowledged the aid of these signals.

The points have been designated, and the erection of the signals directed by Lieutenant James Totten, United States Army, assistant in the Coast-Survey.

ELECTRICITY APPLIED TO THE CAPTURE OF THE WHALE. The New Bedford Mercury gives an account of some interesting experiments, illustrating the effect of electricity to facilitate the capture of the whale. The most promident features of this new method are thus described :

"Every whale at the moment of being struck with the harpoon is rendered powerless, as by stroke of lightning, and therefore his subsequent escape or loss, except by sinking, is wholly impracticable; and the process of lancing, and securing him, is entirely unattended with danger. The arduous labor involved in a long chase in the capture of the whale, is suspended, and consequently the inconvenience and danger of the boats loosing sight of or becoming separated from the ship, is avoided. One or two boats only would be required to be lowered at a time, and therefore a less nunber both of officers and seamen than heretofore employed, would be ample for the purposes of the voyage.

"The electricity is conveyed to the body of the whale from an electric galvanio battery contained in the boat, by means of a metallic wire attached to the harpoon, and so arranged as to reconduct the electro current from the whale through the sea to the machine. The machine itself is simple and compact in construction, inclosed in a strong chest weighing about 350 pounds, and occupying a space in the boat of about three and a half feet long by two in width, and the same in hight. It is capable of throwing into the body of the whale eight tremendous strokes of electricity in a second, or 950 strokes in a minute, paralyzing in an instant the muscles of the whale, and depriving it of all power of motion, if not actually of life.”

Pondicherry, by the run .....
Sandwich Islands, by the run.
Batavia, China, and back, by the montb..
Oregon, Humbolt, and back, by the month..
San Diego and South, and back, by the month
Batavia, by the run......
China, by the run...
Manilla, by the run
East Indies, New York, and Boston, by the month.
Calcutta, by the run .
United States vin Cape Horn, by the month..
Valparaiso and Callao, there discharged, by the month
Harbor, by the month..


45 85 40 40 140 130 130

36 150 40

45 50 to 60


STETTIN, 101h April, 1852. Pursuant to a new regulation of the Prussian Government, dated 2d of March, all ships bound for Stettin can be cleared at Swienemunde on and after the 1st of May, under sail, and without any detention, if provided with a double set of manifests, containing as follows: Ship Captain

from Number Namo Number Mark Descrip Gross Weight of bills of of


tion of Lading. Consignee. Packages. Number. Goods. Measure.

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STATISTICS OF THE POPULATION OF HUNGARY. Dr. SCHUTTES, in his Ungarn, puts down the population of Hungary in 1850 at about 15,600,000; of which 5,278,665 are Magyars; about 5,000,000 Sclavacs, Croats, Ruthen, Raizen, and Schokazen; Wallachs 2,908,876; Germans 1,377,484, and smaller tribes about 400,000. The entire population of Hungary in 1842, according to Fenyes, was 12,880,406. Fenyes is a Hungarian, and the most reliable statistician wbo has ever written on Hungary. Haeunfler, an Austrian statistician, puts down the population in 1842 at 13,876,170.

CIRCULATION OF THE LONDON PRESS. The returns of the English stamp office, published in the London Times of the 1st inst.

, give some extraordinary statistics relative to the London newspaper press. By these returns it appears that the circulation of the Times exceeds by over four-and-abalf millions of copies, the aggregate circulation of all the other London newspapers put together. Here is a full comparative list:

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1,098,500 893,312 873,000 834,500 Express.

888,018 964,000 776,960 Globe.

852,000 720,000 630,000 585,000 Standard..

846,000 652,500 539,000 492,000 The circulation of the whole of these papers, exclusive of the Times, in 1850, (tested by the number of stamps issued at the stamp office) was not quite seven-andà balf millions, while the number of stamps paid for by the Times was precisely 11,900,000, thus exhibiting the fact of the Times possessing a positive average circa lation of over 38,000 copies per diem. As the Times has no free list, and sells only for cash, this result is the more surprising. It is understood that the circulation in 1852 is over 40,000 copies a day. By the returns alluded to, it appears that while the Times has been gaining ground for the past seven years, all other newspapers, both morning and evening, bave been rapidly sinking. In 1845 the Times cireulated 8,100,000 papers, and all the other journals upwards of 9,000,000; but in 1850 the circulation of all the other papers had fallen to under seven-and-a half millions, while that of the T'imes has risen to nearly 12,000,000, and is constantly augmenting. It is, in fact, conceded that most of the London morning newspapers are published at a loss, while the profits of the Times are known to exceed $500,000 a year. The Times pays for stamp advertisements and excise duty, about $500,000 a year to the government. The daily circulation of the London papers is now about as follows: Times....

40,000 Morning Advertiser.

5,000 Daily News...

3,000 Morning Herald....

3,000 Morning Chronicle.

2,900 Morning Post...

2,800 Most of the papers are falling off in their circulation yearly, and the evening journals are in a still worse position.

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