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TOLLS ON JAMES RIVER AND KANAWHA CANAL. TARIFF OF TOLLS PER TON OF 2,000 LBS. PER MILE, TO BE CHARGED ON THE JAMES RIVER

AND KANAWHA CANAL, ADOPTED THE BTH DAY OF FEBRUARY, 1852, TO GO INTO OPERATION ON THE FIRST DAY OF MARCH, 1852.

ARTICLES AT 4 CENTS PER TON PER MILE, Anvils, ale, beer, bellows, books, burr-blocks, butten candles, carpenters' work, carriages, crackers, cheese, Chinaware, confectionary, copper, copperas, cordage, cotton, cotton yarn and cotton bagging, cutlery, drugs, dry goods, dyestuffs, eggs, fancy articles, furniture, (household,) furs and peltry, fruits, foreign articles not otherwise designated, glass and glassware, hair, (curled,) hardware, hats, caps, &c., hides and skins, (dry,) honey, hops and herbs, joiners' work, leather, lemons, licorice, liquors, machinery, mechanics' tools, metals not otherwise designated, millstones, oil of all kinds, oranges, oysters not in the shell, paints, paper, pink-root, porter, poultry, powder, putty, raisins, rice, saddlery, saltpeter, stationery, seed of all kinds not otherwise designated, cigars, steam-engines, steel, spices, spirits turpentine, shoes and boots, snuff

, sulphur, tallow, teas, tin and tinware, venison, vices, wrapping paper, woodware, zinc.

ARTICLES AT 3} CENTS PER TON PER MILE. Bacon, beef, (salted and fresh,) coffee, groceries not otherwise designated, hempen yarns, lard mutton, pork, (salted and fresh, sugar, wool.

ARTICLES AT 3 CENTS PER TON PER MILE. Beeswax, cider, earthen and queensware, hemp, mahogany, moss, nails and spikes , soap, tobacco of all kinds, vinegar.

ARTICLES AT 2} CENTS PER TON PER MILE. Agricultural products not otherwise designated, ashes, (pot and pearl,) apples and other dried fruits, chalk, feathers, fish, (salted and fresh,) ginseng and other roots, logwood, molasses, snake-root.

ARTICLES AT 2 CENTS PER TON PER MILE. Agricultural implements, barley, beans, buckwheat and buckwheat flour, castings, (iron,) flax and flaxseed, flour, grindstones, hides, (green) iron, (bar and railroad,) lead, (bar and pig.) marble, (dressed,) peas, pitch, potters' and stoneware, rosin, rye, stone, (dressed,) shot and shells, (cast iron,) shot, (lead,) tar, tobacco, (stems and scraps,) turpentine, wheat.

ARTICLES AT 11 CENTS PER TON PER MILE. Apples and other green fruits, bark, (ground and unground,) barrels, casks, and boxes, (empty,) bloom-iron, caps, sills and dressed timber, salt.

ARTICLES AT 1 CENT PER TON PER MILE. Bran and other mill offal, charcoal, coal-tar, coal and coke passing down the canal, corn and cornmeal, fruit trees and other shrubbery, hay, fodder, shucks, straw, &c., passing up canal, live-stock; ores, (except iron,) oats, (clean and sheaf,) oysters in shells, pig-iron, potatoes of all kinds, rags and waste cotton, scrap-iron and old castings, shingles, vegetables.

ARTICLES AT CENT PER TON PER MILE. Cement, clay, earth, and gravel, coal and coke passing up canal, ice, hay, fodder, and sheaf-oats, coming down canal, lime passing up canal, limestone, marble, (rough,) mineral water, posts for fencing, slates for roofing, staves and heading, timber of all kinds, (undressed,) tiles for roofing.

ARTICLES AT 1 CENT PER TON PER MILE. Stone, (rough.)

ARTICLE AT 1-5TH CENT PER TON PER MILE. Bricks, iron-ore, lime passing down canal, oyster-shells.

ARTICLES PAYING 12} CENTS PER TON FOR ALL DISTANCES. Coke and coal for burning lime for improvement of the soil, wood for fuel, manures of all kinds and articles used as manure, rails for fencing.

Hoop-poles and laths, 25 cents per ton for all distances.
Paving-stone and sand, 5 cents per ton for all distances.
Corn and cornmeal, from Foushee's Mills to Richmond, 1 cent per bushel.

Pig-iron transported from Richmond upwards to any point short of Maiden's Adventure, for the purpose of being manufactured into nails and other manufactured articles, 25 cents per ton of 2,000 lbs. per mile, instead of that now charged under the tariff of the Old James River Canal.

All articles transported only on the lower level of the canal, will be charged with one-half the tolls charged on the Old Canal, except in cases provided for by special resolutions of the Board of Directors.

No rough stone transported on the canal to pay for a less distance than 20 miles.

On all articles, except coal, mill offal, manures of all kinds, and articles used as manure, hoop-poles and laths, rails for fencing, lime for the improvement of the soil, paving.stone, sand, and wood for fuel, transported on any portion of the enlarged Old Canal, (between Richmond and Maiden's Adventure,) the tolls shall be equal at least to those charged on the Old Canal.

TOLLS ON PASSENGERS.

On white persons, 12 years old and upwards, 1 cent per mile.
On white persons, between 12 and 5 years old, 1 cent per mile.
Oo colored persons, 5 years old and upwa cent per mile.

Toll on passengers, two mills per mile in favor of any boat that carries passengers, at a rate not exceeding $3 50 per passenger, exclusive of meals, from Richmond to Lynchburg, and vice versa, and in that proportion for the way travel along the line of the canal." The former discrimination shall be made for children and servants. Tolls on passengers on all other boats than packet-boats shall be the same as shall be exacted from the latter for each passenger.

BOSTON AND WORCESTER RAILROAD. The Boston and Worcester Railroad Company was incorporated in 1831, and the road opened July 4th, 1835. Its length (from Boston to Worcester, is 45 miles,) including branches is 69 miles. The present fare is $1 15. It has a double track between Boston and Worcester. The cost of the road Jan. 1, 1852, was $4,862,700.

The following table has been compiled by George A. Foxcroft, Esq.; it exhibits the operations of the road during the last ten years, its cost, and the market price of the stock at the beginning of each year. The item of “interest” is deducted from the receipts and expenses :

Value of

Gross

Running Net
Year.
Cost. stock.

receipts. expenses. income. Dividends. 1842.. $2,374,500 $109 per sh,

$168,510 $180,697 7 per cent. 1843.. 2,764,400 107

206,641 176,726 1844. 2,836,200 114

8413 233,264 193,139 77 1846... 2,914,100 120

487,455 249,729 237,726 8 1846..

116

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554,712 283,876 270,836 8 1847.. 3,485,200 112

722,170 381,986 340,184 10 1848.. 4,113,600 115

716,284 381,917 334,367 85 1849.. 4,650,400 106

703,361 405,551 297,810 6 1850.. 4,908,300 93

757,947 377,041 380,906 61 1851.. 4,882,600 102

743,923 392,687 350,000 7

5,844,839 3,083,212 2,702,627 7 9.20 avg.

RAILROADS IN CALIFORNIA. The Alta California predicts, at no distant day, the whizzing of locomotives, as they are rushing with lightning speed over the plains of California, and expresses at the same time the hope that she may be the first to claim the honor of constructing a railroad of any note on the coast of the Pacific. Of the railroad character of the State, the Alta California remarks :

" It is a mistaken idea, which has been entertained by some, that the character of

our State, its lofty hills and deep valleys, will prevent it being ever a railroad coun. try. Although it would be a difficult task to run a train of cars along the coast range of mountains, or pierce the fastnesses of the Sierra Nevada, yet from the great central points of our State to nearly all the prominent towns in the mining region, the character of the country is such as to afford the greatest facility for the laying of rails. The great valleys of the Sacramento and San Joaquin, capable of supporting, from their agricultural products, a vastly greater population than now inhabit the whole State, and on whose sides are scattered the riches which have made California the cynosure upon which the world's eyes are gazing, are broad and level, and in every way adapted for railroads. That the northern portion of our State is to be the thickly settled portion, there can be scarcely a doubt; and as it fills up with permanent settlers, the descendants of the Anglo-Saxon race, greater facilities for travel than at present exist, must be afforded, and if obstacles are found in the way they will be removed. But what is to prevent the construction of a railroad track from Sacramento City, to the great mining regions of the Yuba, the Middle and North Forks of the American, and the various settlements in the immediate vicinity of these rivers ? Or from Stockton to the Mokelumne, Stanislaus, and the mining settlements south of them? Or from San Francisco and Monterey to both? True, at present the price of labor is an obstacle, but this will gettle down, ere long, to a proper standard. We have, in our own borders, extensive quarries of stone, and noble oaks, and lofty pines, which could be used in construction; and there is little doubt that, ere long, discoveries of coal will be made, as hundreds, if not thousands, throughout our State, are searching in every nook and corner for the riches of the earth in some form.',

JOURNAL OF MINING AND MANUFACTURES.

AFRICAN ARTS AND MANUFACTURES. The Christian Statesman, furnishes an interesting statement of African Arts and Manufactures, as follows :

Travelers in Africa all coincide in one important particular, namely, that the natives of that continent exhibit a remarkable degree of gedius, and display in their numerous manufactured articles such a knowledge of mechanics as to agreeably surprise all who have heard of or been privileged to behold their handiwork.

Iron ore of superior quality is found in immense quantities, and from it are made, by the untaught natives, ornamental and useful articles, such as spears, arrows, rings, chains, hoes, bracelets, &c. A small but regular amount of this material, made into a peculiar shape, is called a “bar,” and appears to be the standard of value by which their currency is regulated.

They are exceedingly skillful in the tanning and manufacture of leather. Their amulet cases, spears and dagger-sheaths, whips, bridles, pouches, powder-flasks, sandals, boots, &c., are made with remarkable neatness.

In addition to these may be named their war-horns made from the tusks of elephants and other animals'; their musical instruments—the strings of the “banjo" being formed from the fibres of trees. Their bags for carrying materials, and baskets of all sizes and descriptions, are wrought with great symmetry and beauty from seagrass, and the leaves of their innumerable and useful trees, plants, &c. The palm tree, says a traveler, “is applied by them to three hundred and sixty-five uses. Huts are thatched with palm leaves ; its fibers are used for fishing tackle, ropes, sieves, twine, &c.; a rough cloth is made from the inner bark; the fruit is roasted, and is excellent;

the oil serves for butter ; and the wine is a favorite drink.” In some portions of Africa, they are exceedingly skillful in making canoes. These are dug out of trees, and are amazingly large. Some are capable of carrying from fifty to one hundred and fifty persone, besides ten or twelve hands to pull. Mats in abundance, of all kinds, sizes, and qualities, are manufactured, chiefly by the women, These mats are used for many purposes—to sleep on, partition off rooms, for bedcurtains, bags, carpets, &c.; the fine ones make nice table covers, and are used for clothing. They look as if they were woven-are sometimes eight feet wide, and fifteen or twenty feet long.

Clothes are made in abundance ; they are spun (without any wheel) from the da tive cotton, and woven in a strip from five to ten inches wide, then cut to the length they want the cloth, and sewed together. Various figures are made in weaving. The

colors handsome and permanent. Pottery made of clay is very common, and stands the fire as well as any other; the vessels are of all sizes, from a quart to twenty gallons. Hats, similar to the American palm-leaf summer hats, are made in various styles, and are much superior to the American article-more durable and fine.

In making clothes, the Mandingoes are very expert to cut and sew shirts and other kinds of garments, and in makiog their caps and robes.

Wooden spoons of a neat, fine quality, are also produced; and bowls, fine and su perior, from a pint to a half-barrel, neat and cheap. Wooden fish-hooks are made, and much used ; large fish-baskets, also, for catching fish. Many of their gree-grees display much skill in their manufacture. Soap, good and cheap, is abundant. Jugs, bottles, bowls, are made, (earthen,) and a multitude of other little things we cannot now mention, very ingenious and skillful.

The native African, it is to be understood, is naturally indolent; and although the various articles of labor here mentioned would perhaps convey the impression that they are an industrious people, yet the contrary is the fact.

What a market is here opened for the sale of our manufactures ? Who can rightly calculate the amount of employment it would afford the operatives and workmen of our land to clothe her unnumbered inillions, and the enormous trade that she could atford us in the luxuries, and what we consider the necessities, of life, from her prolific tropical soil ? Well might the poet, speaking of Africa, exclaim :

** Regions immense, unsearchable, unknown,

Bask in the splendors of the solar zone ;
A world of wonderg-where creation seems
No more the work of Nature, but her dreams."

THE EARLY MANUFACTURE OF IRON IN PENNSYLVANIA. SAMUEL HAZARD, Esq., now in the employment of the government of Pennsylvania, in collecting materials from the colonial records for official publication, furnishes some interesting statistics of Iron from 1749 to 1756, which we here subjoin :AN ACCOUNT OF IRON MADE AT THE SEVERAL FORGES IN THE PROVINCE OF PENNSYL

VANIA, FROM CHRISTMAS, 1749, TO THE 5TH OF JANUARY, 1756; AS THE SAME WAS RETURNED TO THE HON. WM. DENNY, ESQ., LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR OF THIS PROVINCE, BY THE RESPECTIVE OWNERS OF THE SAID FORGES.

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PINE FORGE.

Tons. Cwt. Qrs. Lbs. Tons. Cwt. Qrs. Lbs. From Christmas, 1749, to 25th Dec., 1750.. 103 5 0 0 25th Dec, 1750

1751.. 122

0 0 1751

1752.. 109

3 016 1752

1753.. 112

4 1 18 1753

1754.. 161 1754

1755.. 135 10 0 0 1755 to 5th Jan,, 1756.. 3 15

0

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STRENGTI OF IRON. For railway service, especially for railway axles and other material portions of the running gear, it is very essential that great strength should be obtained. The Lowmoor Iron deservedly stands high in the estimation of our railway managers. The following result of an experiment on coupling chains lately made at Manchester, in England, by the London and North-Western Railway company, will be interesting to the consumers of iron :

Best Staffordshire Iron-first experiment-diameter of chain 1 1-8 inch; stretched 3 3-4 inches ; broke with 27 tons, 10 cwt.

Best Staffordshire Iron-second experiment-diameter of chain 1 1-8 inch; stretched 4 1.8 inches; broke with 25 tons, 0 cwt.

Lowmoor Iron-diameter of chain 1 1-8 inch ; stretched 7 inches; broke with 55 tons, 16 cwt.

The Staffordshire Iron was made expressly for the trial, and when great strength is desired, it is proper so to state, as there is a wide difference in the preparation of the different qualities. The New York Herald contains an account of several highly interesting experiments which have recently been made, with a view of testing the strength of iron manufactured from the Franklinite ore of New Jersey. The following table exhibits the strength of this iron, compared with the best manufactures of other countries :

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