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are of moderate elevation, and in their natural state, covered with forests, among which are magnificent timber-trees. Rocky islands are scattered over the Gulf of Anud, most of which are inhabited ; Quinchao and Lemuy are populous. The inhabitants of the settlements of Calubco and Carelmapú are chiefly Indians, few in number, and occupied chiefly in cultivating timber. The majority of the inhabitants of Chiloe and of the adjacent islands are aborigines. The whole population of the province of Chiloe in 1832 amounted to 43,000. They export timber, wheat, hams, &c. The shores and bays abound in varieties of excellent fish. The shellfish is described as delicious.
San Carlos is the capital of the province of the same name, with a good harbor, and about 4,000 inhabitants.
Commerce. The editor of the Merchants' Magazine is indebted to an official source for the subjoined summary of the Commerce of Chili in the years 1850 and 1851;Imports into Chili for home consumption in 1850....
$11,788,193 Imports into Chili for home consumption in 1851In the first six months of 1851..
$6,542,795 In the second six months..
Increase in 1851...
tures in 1850
$6,126,545 Second half-year.
Decrease in 1851.......
$897,456 In second six months
Increase in 1851......
$1,446,220 From the preceding statements it appears that the gross value of the foreign Commerce of Chili in 1851 was $28,031,363, which, compared with that of 1850, shows an increase of $3,816,901. Thus :
1850. 1851. Increase. Imports for home consumption..... $11,788,193 $15,884,972 $4,096,779 Exports of home produce and manufactures.... 11,392,452 9,666,354
$1,726,098 Exports of imported merchandise ..
1,033,817 2,480,037 1,446,220 Total .......
$24,214,462 $28,031,363 $5,442,999 Deduct decrease
1,726,098 Increase in 1851......
$3,816,901 Calculating the population of Chili at 1,400,000 inhabitants, and dividing the foreign Commerce among them, there falls to the share of each in 1850, $177, and in 1851, $207, which is greater than many European States can show.
The foreign Commerce of Chili was distributed, both in 1850 and 1851, among twenty-six countries. In order to show the relative degree of importance of our Commerce with each country in these two years, the following comparative table has been prepared:
COUNTRIES, THE COMMERCE OF WHICH WITH CHILI HAS INCREASED IN 1851.
Exports. 1850. 1851.
1850. 1861. France and her colonies.... $1,342,733 $1,705,929 $1,098,580 $851,113 Belgium.
27,296 2,495 Holland..
347,025 402,059 72,783 65,739 Austria ..
1,016 England and her colonies 4,169,160 4,319,864 4,129,201 4,643,290
59,811 74,410 33,694 21,309 Russia.
5,360 United States..
1,032,324 1,211,487 1,566,744 1,447,632 California..
879,165 3,382,724 2,445,868 2,067,603 New Grenada..
288,141 624,877 184,651 513,898 Peru.
936,125 1,616,644 1,022,638 1,179,247 Bolivia..
477,609 436,988 166,127 209,902 Polynesia
4,472 58,910 1,080 59,362
$20,568,071 $25,314,129 $4,766,058 COUNTRIES, THE COMMERCE OF WHICH WITH CHILI DECREASED IN 1851.
Exports. 1850. 1851.
1850. 1851. Germany.
$976,069 $1,089,853 $883,604 $469,155 Denmark ..
3,208 1,390 Sweden and Norway
2,194 Spain and her colonies
114,909 145,510 165,720 74,582 Portugal....
338 China ....
236,223 229,348 207,938 42,547 Mexico ...
884 7,532 Central America ..
121,787 42,241 75,676 103,513
213,859 120,732 42,671 42,774 Uruguay
49,565 10,352 96,358 61,216 Argentine Republic..
219,077 170,586 112,214 46,624 Total......
$2,077,549 $1,855,708 $1,578,842 $851,526
Imports and Exports. Decrease.
1850. 1851. 1851. Germany...
$1,859,673 $1,559,008 $300,665 Denmark
5,148 1,390 3,768 Sweden and Norway
5,397 Spain and her colonies..
270,629 220,092 50,537 Portugal
19,526 18,168 1,358 China..
444,161 271,895 172,266 Mexico.
113,425 31,369 82,056 Central America.
197,413 145,754 51,659 Ecuador
256,530 163,506 93,024 Uruguay
145,923 71,567 74,356 Argentine Republic
331,291 217,210 114,981 Total.......
$3,856,391 $2,707,234 $949,157 The foreign Commerce of 1851 yielded to the public treasury $2,724,718, from the various custom-houses, as follows :Valparaiso .... $2,426,631 | Valdivia ...
$1,387 Coquimbo 87,036 Ancud.
26,429 Santa Rosa de los Andes .. 11,708 Copiapo..
145,494 Talcahuano 21,867 Total. ...
256 Of the imports there were
$2,132,333 $4,935,814 Privileged..
352,942 663,866 With specific duties
237,474 343,710 With duties levied at various valuations.
$11,788,193 $15,884,972 The exports werem Of home productions...
$11,392,452 $9,666,354 Of foreign productions..
1,033,807 2,480,037 Total.......
$12,426,269 $12,146,391 The amount and value of merchandise received in 1851 at the various ports of Chili, in transitu for other countries, are as follows:
Quantity. By sea .
pkgs. 2,236,705 $25,467,578 By the mountains.
24,109 214,249 Total.......
2,260,814 $25,681,827 The amount in transitu warehoused at custom-house. 881,242 $16,360,329 Private warehouses .
1,014,195 6,470,421 Forwarded at once on landing, permission being refused to warehouse...
865,877 2,951,067 Total.....
2,260,814 $25,781,867 Of these goods thus warehoused for other countries, there were forwarded in 1851
Value. From customs warehouse..
..pkgs. 172,144 $5,848,043 From private warehouse.
Owing to the civil war with which the republic was afflicted in 1851, the ports of Coquimbo and Talcahuano were closed against all Commerce, both foreign and domestic, from the 7th September to the end of December in
The exports of these two ports, consequently, fell off, as compared with the preceding year, $279,878 in value ; and the number of vessels which entered and sailed were only 517 in 1851.
In spite, however, of these drawbacks, the amount of imports for home consumption has steadily progressed; since, comparing 1850 with 1851, there has been an increase of $4,096,779 in the last named year.
The custom-house returns show a corresponding increase in the amount of duties received :In 1850 they were......
$97,762 MANUFACTURES. The facility with which foreign manufactured goods can be imported into Chili has wisely discouraged the establishment of any important manufactures. A large portion of the population, however, wear home-made stuffs, especially woolen; the importation of British manufactures is increasing; steamboats from England ply along the coast of Chili; but under the Spanish rule the coasting trade was discouraged.
In 1810, the population of Chili rose against Spain, they were defeated in 1814, at Rancagua, by General Osorio, and obliged to submit to their former rulers. In 1817, San Martin, with an army from Mendoza, gained the battles of Chacabuco (1817) and Maypú, (1818,) the result of which was the independence of the country. The constitution then adopted is still considered the fundamental law, and formed on the principle of a centralized government. The executive power is vested in a supreme director. The Legislature is composed of a Senate and a House of Representatives. The Senate consists of twenty members at the most, and every 15,000 inhabitants sends a member to the House of Representatives.
DESCRIPTIVE SKETCHES OF CHILI AND VALPARAISO : SANTIAGO COPPER
Valparaiso has increased in population, extent, and importance within the last twenty years, and has become the great sea-port of Chili
and the western coast. Its harbor is inferior to others on the coast, yet it is the nearest and most convenient port to Santiago, the capital.*
Captain Wilkes says :
Captain Wilkes observes :-" The northers are greatly dreaded, although I think without much cause. One of them, and the last of any force, I had myself experienced in June, 1822, (whilst in command of a merchant vessel.) In it eighteen sail of vessels were lost. But since that time vessels are much better provided with cables and anchors, and what proved a disastrous storm then would now scarcely be felt. I do not deem the bay so dangerous as it has the name of being. The great difficulty of the port is its confined space, and in the event of a gale, the sea that sets in is so heavy, that vessels are liable to come in contact with each other, and to be more or less injured. The port is too limited in extent to accommodate the trade that is carried on in it. Various schemes and improvements are talked of, but none that are feasible. The depth of water opposes an almost insuperable obstacle to its improvement by piers. The enterprise of the government, and inhabitants of Valparaiso, is, I am well satisfied, equal to any undertaking that is practicable.
“From the best accounts, i am satisfied that the harbor is filling up, from the wash of the hills. Although this may seem but a small amount of deposition, yet, after a lapse of sixteen years, the change was quite perceptible to me, and the oldest residents confirmed the fact. The anchorage of the vessels has changed, and what before was thought an extremely dangerous situation, is now considered the best in the event of bad weather. The sea is to be feared rather than the wind, for the latter seldom blows home, because the land immediately behind the city rises in abrapt hills, to the higbt of from 800 to 1,500 and 2,000 feet."
“ I have had some opportunity of knowing Valparaiso, and contrasting its present state with that of 1821 and 1822. It was then a mere village, composed, with but few exceptions, of straggling ranchos. It has now the appearance of a thickly-settled town, with a population of 30,000, five times the number it had then. It is divided into two parts, one of which is known by the name of the Port, and is the old town; the other by that of the Almendral, occupying a level plain to the east. Its location is by no means such as to show it to advantage. The principal buildings are the custom-house, two churches, and the houses occupying the main street. Most of the buildings are of one story, and are built of adobes or sun-dried brick. The walls of the buildings are from four to six feet thick. The reason of this mode of building is the frequent occurrence of earthquakes. The streets are well paved. The plaza has not much to recommend it. The government-house is an inferior building. Great improvements are now making, and many buildings on the eve of erection.
• They are about bringing water from one of the neighboring springs on the hill, which, if the supply is sufficient, will give the town many comforts. On the hills
are many neat and comfortable dwellings, surrounded by flower-gardens. These are chiefly occupied by the families of American and English merchants. This is the most pleasant part of the town, and enjoys a beautiful view of the harbor. The ascent to it is made quite easy by a well-constructed road through a ravine. The hight is 210 feet above the sea. The east end of the Almendral is also occupied by the wealthy citizens. The lower classes live in the ravines. Many of their habitations are scarcely sufficient to keep them dry during the rainy season. They are built of reeds, plastered with mud, and thatched with straw. They seldom contain more than one apartment.
“ The well-known hills to the south of the port, called the Main and Fore Top,' are the principal localities of the grog-shops and their customers. These two hills, and the gorge (quebrada) between them, seem to contain a large proportion of the worthless population of both sexes. The females, remarkable for their black eyes and red .bayettas,' are an annoyance to the authorities, the trade, and the commanders of vessels, and equally so to the poor sailors, who seldom leave this port without empty pockets and injured health.
“It was difficult to realize the improvement and change that had taken place in the habits of the people, and the advancement in civil order and civilization. On my former visit, there was no sort of order, regulation, or good government. Robbery, murder, and vices of all kinds, were openly committed. The exercise of arbitrary military power alone existed. Not only with the natives, but among foreigners, gambling and knavery of the lowest order, and all the demoralizing effects that accompany them, prevailed.
“I myself saw, on my former visit, several dead bodies exposed in the public squares, victims of the cuchillo. This was the result of a night's debauch, and the fracas attendant upon it. No other punishment awaited the culprits than the remorse of their own conscience.
“Now, Valparaiso, and indeed all Chili shows a great change for the better; order reigns throughout; crime is rarely heard of, and never goes unpunished; good order and decorum prevail outwardly everywhere ; that engine of good government, an active and efficient police, has been established. It is admirably regulated, and brought fully into action, not only for the protection of life and property, but in adding to the comforts of the inhabitants."
The Chilians, when compared with other South Americans, love their country, and are fond of their homes. The people are attached to agriculture, and the lower orders are better disposed towards foreigners than in the other Spanish republics. Schools and colleges have been established, and a desire to extend the benefits of education throughout the population is evinced.
The shops are well filled with articles of English, American, and French