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manufacture. The markets are abundantly supplied. There are no market-gardens in the vicinity of Valparaiso, and most of the vegetables are brought from the valley of Quillota, in panniers, on the backs of mules ; grass or clover is brought to market on horseback, which almost covers both horse and rider.

SANTIAGO. The elevation of Santiago above the sea is 1,591 feet, and stands on the third step or plain from the coast. Its entrance is through avenues between high adobe walls.

The Cordilleras have at all times an imposing aspect when seen from the neighborhood of Santiago, and their irregular outline is constantly varying under the effects of light and shade. Santiago is surrounded by orchards, gardens, farms, and grazing-grounds. The city being inclosed by high adobe walls, gives it a gloomy appearance until entered, when the streets have a fresh and clean look-it is laid out in squares. The streets are paved, and have side-walks. The clean appearance is owing to a law obliging the inhabitants to whitewash their houses and walls once a year, and to the white contrasting with the red-tiled roofs. The houses are mostly one-story high, built round a court or square, from twenty to forty feet wide, round which the rooms are situated. The roof projects to form a kind of piazza or covered way. The gateway is usually large, and the rooms on each side of it are not connected with the rest of the building, but rented as shops. Opposite to the gateway is the center window, guarded by a light and ornamental iron frame, painted green or richly gilt. The court is usually paved with small pebbles from the bed of the Maypocho, arranged fancifully; in many cases, the courts are laid out in flower-plats, with roses and geraniums.

The River Maypocho runs through one portion of Santiago, and supplies it with water. In the center of the city is the great plaza, where the public buildings are situated. These are built of a coarse kind of porphyry from the mountains: the cathedral and palace each occupy one side ; in the center is a fountain, with several small statues of Italian marble. All the public buildings are much out of repair, having been damaged by earthquakes.

The cathedral is a large edifice-its altar is decked with gold and silver. There are within it paintings and hangings, among which is a large number of trophies, taken in the wars. The niches are filled with wax figures of saints, and there are also " the remains of two martyrs of the church, in a olerably good state of preservation."

The palace, originally built for the viceroy, is now appropriated to the accommodation of the president and the public officers. On the side opposite to the palace is a colonnade, not yet finished, intended to occupy one whole side of the plaza. Under its portico are fancy and dry goods shops, and between the columns various trades, or lace and fringe makers' work. In the evening it is resorted to by females, with large flat baskets, vending shoes, fruit, and fancy articles; others are cooking cakes, and the whole portico is lighted up, and much resorted to.

The mint occupies a square; it has never been completed, and has suffered from earthquakes. The operation of coining is in the rudest form. Both rolling and cutting are done by mule power.

The public library contains several thousand volumes, which formerly belonged to the Jesuits, and many curious manuscripts relating to the Indians.

The markets are well supplied; there is one near the banks of the Maypocho which covers an area of four or five acres, and is surrounded by a low

building with a tile roof, supported by columns, under which meats of all kinds are sold. In the center are sold vegetables, fruits, flowers, poultry, and small wares ; the market-women are seated under awnings, screens, and large umbrellas, to keep off the sun. The market is clean.

The average price of a horse is twelve dollars, but some that are well broken are valued high.

The climate of Chili is justly celebrated, that of Santiago is delightful ; the temperature is usually between 60° and 75o. The country round is extremely arid, and were it not for its mountain streams, which afford the means of irrigation, all Chili would be a barren waste for two-thirds of the year. Rain falls only during the winter months, (June to September,) and after they have occurred the whole country is decked with flowers; the rains often last several days, are excessively heavy, and during their continuance the rivers become impassable torrents. At Santiago the climate is drier and colder, but snow rarely falls; on the ascent of the Cordilleras, the aridity increases with the cold; the snow was found much in the same state as at Terra del Fuego, lying in patches about the summits. Even the high peak of Tupongati was bare in places, and to judge from appearances, it seldom rains in the highest regions of the Cordilleras, to which cause may be imputed the absence of glaciers.

Art. II.-COMMERCIAL CITIES AND TOWNS OF THE UNITED STATES.

NUMBER XXXIII.

THE CITY OF NEW YORK.-PART III.

Area.

sq. feet.

eq. feet.

mile.

In the statement following, is given the approximate measurement, in feet, of the several wards of the city, deducting public and other reserved grounds, below Fourteenth-street, which may be considered the limit of dense population—the number of square feet per head to the inhabitants, upon the census numbers of 1850—the side of the square of the same area -and the rate of population to the square mile in each ward, and in the city, aggregately :Sq. feet. Side of Pop, to

eq. feet Side of Pop.to Wards.

per square.
square Wards.

Area. per square. square head. Feet. mile.

head. Feet. I. 6,800,000 344 181 81,042

X.

4,800,000 206 14+ 135,332 II. 2,900,000 436 21 63,941

XI.

8,575,000 196 14 142,237 III. 3,700,000 357 19 78,090 XIII. 3,450,000 122 11 228,511

3,250,000 140 114 199,131 XIV. 4,650,000 184 13 151,513 V. 6,050,000 266 164 104,806 XV. 10,350,000 426 211 61,137 VI.

3,500,000 141 114 197,719 XVII. 12,850,000 293 17 95,148 VII. 8,900,000 272 164 102,531 VIII.

7,800,000 225 16 123,904 Total . 100,225,000 249154-5111,961 IX. 12,700,000 312 17 3-5 89,354

The density of the lower wards is really much greater than here appears, as a large part of their area is occupied by stores, warehouses, &c. Thus in the First Ward, it is probable that the dwelling houses do not occupy above one-half of the ward, including all the upper parts of store-buildings used as such.

IV.

!:

Nearly the whole body of the population in this ward, is, in fact, com-
pressed within about one-third of its area, and it would be nearer the actual
case to state the square feet per head, within the districts occupied by dwel-
lings, at 100, the side of the square being 10 feet, and the population, per
square mile, 275,000.
The following is a similar statement for the city of Boston, embracing all
that part of the city within the peninsula, or all the portion north of Beach
and Boylestone streets, and comprised within the first nine wards, excluding
the islands attached to Ward IV.:

Square feet Population, Population to
Wards.
Square feet. per head

square mile.
I.

2,452,500

239

10,280 111,646 II

2,111,750 230 9,167 121,210 III

3,267,000 298 10,972 93,552 IV

4,861,250 533 5,371 52,305 V

1,989,250 200 10,002 139,392 VI..

2,725,000 304 8,967 91,705 VII

2,588,750 431 6,002 64,683
VIII.

2,111,750 208 10,166 134,030
2,588,750 245 10,506 113,789

Area.

1850.

IX.

22,696,000 279 81,433 99,923 The measurement of the ward we have calculated from an accurate map of the city, and although the result can be only an approximation, yet it is sufficiently precise for the purpose, as the aggregate obtained varies very slightly from the estimated area of this portion of the city, given by Dr. Shattuck. We may add, also, that the same circumstances exist in several of these wards, noticed in the case of the First and Second, and other lower wards in New York, a great part of them being occupied by stores and warehouses, and the population being thus crowded into much narrower limits than is apparent from the table.

In comparing the two cities, it will be seen that the densest ward in Boston (the Fifth) has 200 square feet to the inhabitant, or equal to 139,392 inhabitants to the square mile, while the densest of New York (the Thirteenth) has 122 square feet to the individual, equal to 228,511 inhabitants to the

square mile. In the whole area of dense population, New York is also more compact than Boston; but it is probable that Boston has quite as dense or even denser localities. Dr. Shattuck mentions a section of Ward . VIII., of Boston, which in 1845 contained one individual to every seven square yards, and an average of thirty-seven persons to a house. In New York, a portion of Ward I., and one or two other small localities, may equal this rate, or if they do not, will not fall greatly behind. The comparison of these two cities with Philadelphia and London, is as

follows ;

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Area. Sq. feet Population to Cities.

Sq.mi's. Acres. to person, square mile. New York, 1850...

3 381

249

111,961 Boston, 1860.

621 279 99,923 Philadelphia, 1850...

2 122 503 55,405 London, 1700, within the walls.

370 115 242,421 1700, without the walls

230 145 192,265 1700, within and without..

600 123 227,654 1841, within the walls.........

370 295

94,503 1841, without the walls

230 138 202,018 1841, within and without........

600

207 134,678 By which it will be seen that the American cities have less than one-half

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the compactness of the ancient city of London, (the city proper,) and are still much below her density, greatly as it has decreased since the first period named, by the absorption of the territory within the city for business purposes.

The statement next given presents a view of New York, in its whole area, compared with a similar view of Boston, the city and county of Philadelphia, London, with its proper suburbs, other European cities, &c., &c.

Area.

Pop. to
Cities, &c.
Population. Sq.mil's. Acres.

89. mile. New York, 1850

615,545

22

23,567 Boston, 1850.

138,788

8 420 37,703 Philadelphia, 1850.

408,815
120

3,409 London, 1851

2,363,141

98

24,114 Dublin City, 1851

232,726

5 500 40,255 Cork City, 1851...

80,720

4 123 17,019 Waterford City, 1851..

23,316

1 29 20,715 Galway Town, 1851...

17,275

628 17,605 Middlesex County, Eng., 1851.

1,576,636
297

5,309 Lancashire County, Eng..

1,667,054 1,806

923 Ireland, 1851

6,516,794 32,513

217 Massachusetts, 1850...

994,499 7,800

126 Middle States, 1850...

2,467,915 111,796

59

1....

12...... 13.....

PROPORTION OF HOUSES TO INHABITANTS. The number of dwelling-houses in New York, with the average number of occupants to each, has been at different periods as follows :Year.

Dwellings. Av. occupants. 1656.

120

8 1-3 1756.

2,000

5 1-5 1850.

37,730

13 2-3 The number of houses in each ward, in 1850, and the average of families and persons to a house were :Families to Heads to

Families to Heads to Wards. Houses. a house. a house. Wards.

Houses, a house. a house.
995 2 4-5
19 7-8

1,052
12-7

10 2. 431 2 16 3-7

1,787 3 3-11 15 4-5 3. 704 16-7 14 5-7 14.

1,691 2 7-8 16 4. 1,223 3 1-2 19 15.

2,245 1511 10 5. 1,957 2 1-8 11 3-5 16.

4,002 2 3-5 13 1-5 6. 1,403 31-3 17 4-7 17

2,836 8

15 4-9 7. 2,271 2 1-2 14 2-5 18.

2,689 2

11 3-4 8. 2,743 22-5 12 3-5 19....

1,772 1 1-2

10 1-2 9. 3,545 2

11 4-5 10. 1,993 2 1-2 11 7-10 Total....

2 1-2 13 2-3 11...

2,391 3 2-3 18 3-10 In Boston there were, in 1742, 1,719 houses, with a population of 16,382, or 9individuals to a house; in 1810, there were 8} persons to a house ; in 1830, 9 to a house ; in 1850, the statement for that city, and its several wards, is as follows:Families to Heads per

Families to Heads per Wards. Houses. a house. house. Wards,

Houses, a house.

house. 1... 1,080 2.01 9.51 8.

480 4.05 21.18 2 666 2.34 13.76 9.

986 1.90 10.67 3 1,081 2.01 10.14 10.

1,568 1.83 9.45 4 2,375 1.27 6.49 11

2,325 1.60 8.33 5 1,228 1.52 8.22 12

1,701 1.42 7.82 6

1,037 1.27 8.64 7.

647
1.24

9.27 Total.... 15,194 1.70 9.16

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NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS PER HOUSE IN SEVERAL OTHER CITIES, STATES, AND OOUNTRIES. No, to a

No, to a
Place,

house,
Place.

house. Philadelphia, 1793, (city proper.) 6 1-3 London, 1851....

2 2.3 1850, 71-2 Liverpool, 1841

7 Charleston, S. C., 1848.. 5 1-3 Edinburg, 1841

6 Savannah, Geo., 1848 7 Manchester, Eng., 1841.

5 2-3 Massachusetts, (ex't Boston,) '40 71-3 England, 1851...

51-2 Pennsylvania, 1815... 8 Scotland, 1851.

7 2-3 New York State, 1815 9 Ireland, 1851.,

6 1-5 The excess of occupants to each house in the case of New York city, is, however it may be in certain localities, less the effect of overcrowding the tenements than would be inferred from the statement. The houses in New York are higher, generally, than in perhaps any other city, and while with reference to territorial area, or availability of ground-room to the population, the fact is just what the figures indicate ; yet by elevating a large portion through successive stages to a very considerable altitude, in the upper strata, although new evils arise, a great many of the worst ones, that would otherwise result, are avoided.

PROGRESS OF BUILDINGS. The subjoined figures show the number of buildings erected in the city of New York, of all descriptions, in each year, from 1834 to 1850 :Years. Buildings. Years. Buildings. Years.

Buildings. 1834 877 1840..

850 | 1846..

1,910 1835 1,259 | 1841..

971 | 1847..

1,846 1836 1,826 1842..

912 1848..

1,191 1837 840 1843.. 1,273 1 1849..

1,495 1838 781 1844.. 1,210 | 1850..

1,912 1839 1,838 1845..

1,980

MATERIAL OF THE POPULATION.

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As has been often remarked, New York has, of all cities of the American Continent, the greatest diversity of population. Almost every nation of the earth, and race and sub-division of the general family, is represented in the motley assemblage. According to the census of of 1845, the leading components of the mass were of Persons born in the State of New York

194,916 New England...

16,079 other parts of the United States.

25,572 Mexico and South America... ...

508 Persons born on this continent

237,075 Persons born in Great Britain and dependencies..

96,681 Germany

24,416 France.

3,710 other parts of Europe.

3,277 Persons born in Europe.. ....

127,984 Of the foreign population, 60,946, or about one-half, were unnaturalized. There were of colored people, in 1850, 13,724; an increase of only 811, or 41 per cent from 1845; and a decrease of 2,034, or 13 per cent from 1840.

FOREIGN IMMIGRATION. The following table shows the number of passengers at New York, from foreign ports, betwen the years 1840 and 1851 :

66

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