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art. Then the master gentleman takes it, and makes it perfect by blowing it. In the little glass houses, where they make coach glasses, drinking-glasses, crystals, dishes, cups, bottles, and such like sort of vessels, the gentlemen labor but six hours together, and then more come and take their places, and after they have labored the same time, they give places to the first, and thus they work night and day, the same workmen successively, as long as the furnace is in a good condition.”

Every glass-maker will perceive from the foregoing description, that the same system prevails at the present time, as to the division of labor and period of labor, so far at least as “ blown articles " are concerned. The names, too, then given to glassmakers' tools are retained to the present day, and, with slight difference, the shapes of the various tools are the same.

At the best, the manufactures of glass in France were for a long period much inferior to the Venetians and Bohemians; but after the introduction of window.glass from Venice, the making of crystal-glass greatly extended, and correspondingly im. proved.

In the year 1665, the government of France, desirous of introducing the manufacture of window-glass, offered sufficient inducement in money and privileges to a number of French artists (who bad acquired the process at Murano, at Venice,) to establish works at Tourtanville. At these works the same system of blowing was followed as that used in the Venetian glass-works. A workman under this system, named Thevart, discovered the art of casting plate-glass, and obtained from the government a patent for the term of thirty years. He erected extensive works in Paris, and succeeded in what was then deemed an extraordinary feat, casting plates 84 inches by 50 inches, thereby exciting unbounded admiration.

The credit of the invention of casting plates of glass belongs to France, and the mode then adopted exists at the present day, with but slight variation. France monopolized the manufacture over one hundred years before it was introduced into any other country.

Writers generally agree that the manufacture of glass was introduced into England in the year 1557. "Friars' Hall," as stated by one writer, was converted into a manufactory of window.glass--other writers say, for crystal-glass, (called by the English " flint," from the fact of the use of flint-stones, which by great labor they burnt and ground.) In 1575, Friars' Hall Glass Works, with forty thousand billets of wood, were destroyed by fire.

In 1635, seventy-eight years after the art was introduced into England, Sir Robert Mansell introduced the use of coal fuel instead of wood, and obtained from the Eng. lish government the monopoly of importing the fine Venetian drinking glasses, an evidence that the art in England was confined as yet to the coarser articles. Indeed, it was not until the reign of William III. that the art of making Venetian drinkingvessels was brought into perfection-quite a century after the art was introduced into England-an evidence of the slow progress made by the art in that country.

As France was indebted to Venice for her workmen, so also was England indebted to the same source. Howell, in one of his “ Familiar Letters," directed to Sir Robert Mansell, Vice Admiral of England, says :-"Soon as I came to Venice I applied myself to dispatch your business according to instruction, and Mr. Seymour was ready to contribute his best furtherance. These two Italians are the best gentlemen workmen that ever blew crystal. One is allied to Antonio Miotte, the other is cousin to Maralao.”

Although Sir Robert procured workmen from Venice, they were probably of an inferior character, and a space of fifty years elapsed before the English manufactories equalled the Venetian and French in the quality of their articles.

In the year 1670, the Duke of Buckingham became the patron of the art in England, and greatly improved the quality and style of the flint glass by procuring, at great personal expense, a number of Venetian artists, whom he persuaded to settle in London. From this period, i. e., about the commencement of the eighteenth century, the English glass manufactories, aided by the liberal bounties granted them in cash upon all glass exported by them

or sold for export, became powerful and successful rivals of the Venetian and the French manufactories in foreign markets. The clear bounty granted on each pound of glass exported from England, which the government paid to the manufacturer, was not derived from any tax by impost or excise previously laid, for all such were returned to the manufacturer, together with the bounty referred to; thereby lessening the actual cost of the manufacture from 25 to 50 per cent, and enabling the English exporters to drive off all competition in foreign markets. VOL. XXVII.NO. IV.

33

This bounty provision was annulled during the Premiership of Sir Robert Peel, together with all the excise duty on the bome consumption.

In 1673, the first plate-glass was manufactured at Lambeth, under a royal charter; but do great progress was made at that time, and the works for the purpose were doubtless very limited. One hundred years later, i. e., 1773, a company was formed under a royal charter, called the “ Governor and Company of the British Cast Plate Glass Manufactory,” with a capital of eighty shares of five hundred pounds each, their works being at Ravenshead, in Lancashire. These works have been very successfully conducted, and, according to a late writer, are rivaled by none, excepting those at “ St. Gobain," in France. Since the excise duty on plate-glass has been repealed, its manufacture has increased to a wonderful extent--the quantity used in the construction of the Crystal Palace for the World's Fair being probably many times larger than that manufactured, twenty years since, in the kingdom of Great Britain in any one year.

It is to many persons matter of great surprise that the manufacture of plate glass has never been introduced into this country. The whole process is a simple one. The materials are as cheap here as in England or in France. Machinery for the polishing of the surface is as easily procured, and water power quite as abundant, as in either country. The manufacture with the materials so ready to the hand, and these togetber with the skill, labor, and demand, increasing every year, is most certain to realize a fair remunerating profit, and steady sale. Besseman has lately introduced a new method of casting plate-glass, which, should it equal the inventor's expectation, will reduce the cost, supersede the old plan, and eventually of course increase the conEumption.

.90

.94

TABLE OF ALL FREIGHTS ON LACKAWANNA COAL, SHIPPED FROM BONDOUT TO NEW HAVEN, NEWPORT, PROVIDENCE, BOSTON, NEWBCRYPORT,

AND PORTSMOUTH, FROM THE YEAR 1844 TO THE YEAR 1851, BOTH INCLUSIVE ; SHOWING THE HIGHEST, THE LOWEST, AND THE ACTUAL AVERAGE RATE OF EVERY YEAR AND TO EACH PLACE, PREPARED BY ALFRED WRIGHT, OF PROVIDENCE, R. L, AND IS BELIEVED TO DESERVE ENTIRE CONFIDENCE.

1814.

1815. Highest Lowest

Average Highest Lowest Average From Rondont to

rate.
rate. rate.

rate.
rate.

rate. New Haven....

.75 .624 .72 .93 .75 .791 Newport..

1.25 .80 .903 .90 .90 .90 Providence.. 1.31 .871 .897 1.50

1.00 Boston..

1.12} 1.00

1.07% 1.374 1.20 1.244 Newbury port.

1.25 1.00 1.153 1.50 1.374 1.47 Portsmouth..

1.10 1.25 1.21 1.25 1.25 1.25 1846.

1817. New Haven....

.90 .75 .78 1.121 New port..

1.16 1.00 1.05 1.40 1.10 1.22 Providence.

1.00 1.00 1.00 1.50 1.121 1.311 Boston..

1.27 1.12 1.23 2.00 1.50 1.72 Newbury port..

1.50 1.25 1.36 2.00 1.62} 1.80 Portsmouth....

1.50 1.25 1.30 2 00 1.50 1.90 1818.

1819. New Haven...

.775 .77 .873 .75 .76 Newport...

1.00 .873 .90 .95 .90 .90$ Providence.. 1.00 .90 .93

1.121 .90 .91 Boston..

1.25 1.00 1.06 1.121 1:06 1.10g Newbury port...

1.30 1.20 1.21 1.30 1.15 1.214 Portsmouth.....

1.25 1.121 1.18 1.12) 1.124 1.12 1850.

.911 Newport...

1851. New Haven... 1.25 .70 .804 .95 .75

1.00 .85

.861 1.10 .85 1.011 Providence..

1.10 .90 .914 1.15 .871 1.084 Boston..

1.60 1.10 1.155 1.50 1.12 1.28 Newburyport 1.25 1.00 1.194 1.50 1.20

1.364 Portsmouth.. 1.16 1.121 1.131 1.40 1.15

1.321

.80

The Hudson River, since 1836, has ordinarily been first closed by ice from the 10th to the 23d December, and its navigation been first open again from about the 23d February to 20th March; but in 1843, the Hudson opened on the 18th January, and closed again the 4th February, remaining shut until the 8th April.

The Delaware and Hudson Canal, since 1836, has ordinarily closed its season of navigation about the first of December, commencing operations again about the first of May.

The production coal is necessarily light at Rondout, and the assortment of sizes imperfect on the opening of Canal, until the proper arrangements can be developed continuously, through the mines, railroads, and canal; which requires several days.

A knowledge of the depth of water at common tides, (in feet and inches,) with width of draw where there is a bridge, to the place of landing, is always desirable in engaging vessels. The difference in structure is such, that scarcely any two vessels, of the same burden, have the same draught of water, and a very large difference is

There is 11 feet of water, common tides, and more at full tides, on the bar at Rondout; vessels of larger draught have been laden within the bar to its then draft, and taken the balance of their cargoes outside without inconvenience. In delivering cargoes at New York, inconvenience has never been experienced in loading vessels, except from ice.

Procrastination of the shipment of coal from Rondout is generally a source of increased cost of consumers; and in the middle or latter part of the season, freights often advance with great rapidity, and the greater the advance the more difficult it has been to obtain vessels ; nevertheless, freights rule more uniformly, and much lower at all times to New England from Rondout than from any ports on the Delaware, Schuylkill, or Susquehanna Rivers, and the higher the freights have ruled the larger has been that proportional difference.

common.

COAL POR SEA STEAMERS. Freeman Hunt, Esq., Editor of the Merchants Magazine :

SIB:—In the progress which the world's affairs have made, there is no one thing that is contributing so much to the successful advancement of the many enterprises that are now rife, as the steam marine of the world; which seems to be concentrating towards the Equator. The golden lands of California and Australia are drawing towards and to them Commerce and the fluctuating business of the world ; the events of the past three years have changed and are changing the phase of the world's affairs; this is the natural sequence of the substitution of eteam marine for that of the sole dependence before, of sails and the winds.

On reviewing these facts, and their necessary concomitants, and taking a general and comprehensive view of the affairs and Commerce of the world, the question naturally arises what can be done to decrease the expense of steam marine; the item that forms the greatest expense is that of coal or fuel

, the cost of which is now enormous ; coal costs at Jamaica and Havana from $8 to $10 per ton, and the supply is very irregular; at Panama it is from $28 to $35; at San Francisco from $40 to $50 per ton.

Upon inquiry, it will be found that there are over forty steamers now running regularly between the ports of New York, New Orleans, Southampton, England, to Chagres, South America, and Central America, besides some three or four navigating the Orinoco River, South America, and a line running from England touching at the Windward Islands to Buenos Ayres, Rio Janeiro, Cape of Good Hope, and connecting with the Bombay and China lines.

The coal which all the steamers of the vorld use is either shipped from the United States or England, and when the cargo is insured the insurance doubles every 60 days that the vessels are out, thus increasing the cost of it. Each steamer is calculated to be at sea 265 days each year, and the average consumption is about thirty tons daily, thus, making the calculation for forty steamers, it will be as follows:Days each at sea.....

265 Steamers

10,600

80

Aggregate days at sea.
Tons of coal each day.
Aggregate amount of coal, tons....

318,000

One-half this amount, i. e., 169,000 tons, must be shipped from the United States or England to the ports of arrival for the steamers' return passages; calculating the cost, it will be as follows: Tons required.....

159,000 Cost in United States or England

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$477,000 Freight ....

$1,908,000 Three per cent for insurance....

572 40 Annual cost of coal for steamers...

$1,908,572 40 For South America, Central America, and the West Indies The steamer Georgia uses.

54 tons daily at sea.
Falcon

do....
Ohio
do.....

54
Cherokee do....

30 Illinois do.....

50 Golden Gate do...

35 Crescent City do.

30 United States do.

28 Prometheus do..

30 Daniel Webster do..

30 Northern Light do.

30 El Dorado do.....

28 Philadelphia do.....

30 This is the ordinary use, the Georgia, and others of that class, bave used as high as 80 tons daily.

From the above, it must appear to the candid and impartial inquirer, that not only the consumption of coal is large, but that there should and must be some means used to decrease its cost, and it follows, as a matter of course, if the expense is decreased the consumption will be greater, and suggest the inquiry of the existence of coal in the vicinity of the ports of arrival of the steamers.

It is with the view of bringing to notice, that the writer of this article has, of the existence of coal mines near the ports of arrival of the steamers, requiring capital and skill in the management thereof, by which a large amount of wealth may be accumulated, and also a vast amount of benefit accrue to the Commerce of this country.

There is, about 600 sailing miles from Chagres, a mine of coal, capable of furnishing at least 75,000 tons of coal annually, and one within 50 miles of Chagres, which could be made to yield some 50,000 tons annually; also on the Pacific there is a mine about 75 miles from Tigre Island, from which could be got at least 100,000 annoally; the cost of getting all these mines in operation will not exceed $500,000.

The cost of coal per ton from these mines will not exceed $350 a ton when landed at the ports of arrival of the steamers, and can be readily disposed of at $8 per ton and upwards.

The effect that the working of these coal mines would have on commercial affairs and the steam marine, is hardly to be calculated; the wants of Commerce now breaking through the great obstacles of the enormous expense would be largely increased, commensurate with the demands of business, and the necessary exigencies of Commerce would be answered without the stringent obstacles that now bar and obstruct the stream of Commerce from flowing as freely as it should.

To the United States it presents untold advantages, as this country, above all other nations, is now,

and the future presents better prospects, that we shall be in a better situation to reap the advantages from this new state of affairs, consequent upon an enlarging steam marine, than any other.

The writer of this article would be pleased to give any further information in his power to those who should feel disposed to become connected with enterprises of this nature, by addressing him through the New York Post-office.

JAMES D. STEVENSON.

FEES UNDER THE BRITISH NEW PATENT ACT. The following list of fees under the Patent Law Amendment Act, which will come into force on the 1st of October, 1852, appears in the schedule annexed to the statute.

On leaving petition for grant of letters patent, £5; on notice of intention to proceed with the application, £5; on sealing of letters patent, £5; on filing specification, £5 ; at or before the expiration of the third year, £40; at or before the expiration of the seventh year, £80; on leaving notice of objection, £2; every search and inspection, 18.: entry of assignment or license, 5s.; certificate of assignment or license, 6s.; filing application for disclaimer, £5; and caveat against disclaimer, £2.

The stamp duties to be paid, are as follow: On warrant of law officers for letters patent, £5; on certificate of payment of the fees payable at or before the expiration of the third year, £10; and on certificate of the fee payable at or before the expiration of the seventh year, £20.

STATISTICS OF POPULATION, &c.

SOURCES OF THE POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES. In alluding to a late article on this subject in the New Englander, a cotemporary takes occasion, from the valuable statistics of that article, to correct certain extravagant conclusions in regard to our population which have worked their way into the popular mind. Some time since the London Quarterly Review estimated our population as constituted in this strange proportion: Irish born, 3,000,000; Irish by blood, 4,600,000; German by blood or birth, 5,500,000; French or other Celts, by blood or birth, 3,000,000; colored, free or slave, 3,500,000: Anglo-Saxon, by blood or birth, 3,500,000; and the ridiculous speculation has been proclaimed in Congress. The article alluded to demonstrates the falsehood of these statements, and gives as nearly as practicable the facts. We quote from the New York Evangelist.

“ After a careful analysis of the original elements of our population, in which it is sbown conclusively, as it had been stated before by the Encyclopedia Americana, that of the thirteen colonies, at the time of the declaration of Independence, twelve were settled with colonists, who, with a few trifling exceptions, where Englishmen, the writer proceeds to estimate the relative proportions of which our composite population consists. Of the increase of population from the year 1701 to 1850, the date of the last census, estimated on the most careful grounds, not less than 15,000,000 are undeniably of the Anglo-Saxon race. If to these we add the 3,594,762 colored persons, whose increase of course, is easily ascertainable, it will leave 4,668,736 of our aggregate population of 23,263,498 to be divided between persons of Irish, German, French, and other descent—a result which accords with the estimate of Bancroft, and with the common sense view of the subject.

“ An analysis of this foreign population is then made with great candor and skill, the process of which we cannot present. The results arrived at are contained in the following table, which though evidently undeniable, will probably surprise many of our readers, and perhaps furnish a better estimate of the relative moral forces which are at work among us :Population of the United States in 1850..

23,263,488 Anglo-Saxon, by birth or blood..

15,000,000 African....

3,594,762 Irish.

2,269,000 German..

1,900,000 French &c...

499,636 Whole number of emigrants from all countries between 1790 & 1850. 2,759,329 Survivors of these in 1850...

1,511,990 Whole number of immigrants and descendants.

4,350,934 Survivors of these

3,103,094 Total of all our population exclusive of Anglo-Saxon blood.....

8,263,498 “Though emaller than generally supposed, this is a large element; for which it is hardly possible to do too much. It opens a field of comprehensive missionary labor to which the church has hardly begun adequately to address herself. Yet it is not, and never can become, the ruling, moulding element of the country. The institutions and opinions identified with our Puritan ancestry are high above all the influences which can be brought against them of foreign source. There is in these figures, enough to stimulate to Christian exertion, but not enough to intimidate or discourage us."

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