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Living at Value of Logarithm of Logarithm of Annual Logarithm of Single Age. each age. annuity. annuity. 1+ annuity. premium. annual prem. premium. 52. 67,253 13.10705 1175048 .1494362 0417603 .6207634 85891152 53. 66,046 12.74668 .1054071 .1381978 .0436186 .6396717 .5996115 64. 64,785 12.38494 0928938 .1266164 .0455846 .6588182 .6101476 55 63,469 12.02099 .0799401 .1146437 .0476729 .6782716 .6207482 66. 62,094 11.65530 .0665419.1022896 .0498890 .6980048.6313846 67. 60,658 11.28968 .0626816 .0895405 .0522429 .7180272 .6420484 58. 59,161 10.92261.0383266 .0763713 .0547480 .7383683 .6527397 69. 57,600 10.55521 .0234664 .0627778 .0574148 .7590239.6634406 65,973 10.18785 .0080827 0487466 .0602565 .7800039

.6741403 61. 54,275 9.82178 0.9921902 .0342987 .0682800 .8012665 .6848026 62. 52,505 9.45747 .9757749.0194266 .0664992 .8228164 .6954136

50,661 9.09576 .9588391 .0041390 .0699253 .8446343 7059489 64. 48,744 8.73708 .9413665 0.9884287 .0735740 .8667244 .7163958

46,754 8.38226 .9233610 .9723074 .0774579 .8890657 .7267304

44,693 8.03184 .9048148 9557762 .0815932 .9116539.7369368 67. 42,565 7.68639 .8857222.9388393 .0859964 .9344803 .7469984 68 40,374 7.34661 .8660870 .9215101 .0906829 .9575254 .7568949 69 38,128 7.01276 .8458888 9037821 .0956748 .9807976 .7666187 70. 35,837 6.68490 .8250949.8856382 .1009991 -1.0043175 .7761680 71. 33,510 6.36359 .8037023 .8670896 .1066770 .0280707 .7855266 72. 31,159 6.04905 .7816869 .8481306 .1127368 .0520657 .7946879

28,797 6.74156 .7590299 .8287604 .1192074 .0763032.8036440
26,439 5.44124 .7356977 .8089695 .1261234 .1007957 .8123911

24,100 5.14841 .7116733 .7887628 ,1335174 .1255378 .8209202 76. 21,797 4.86315 .6869174 .7681298 .1414310 . 1505445 8292292 77. 19,548 4.58533 .6613707 .7470489.1499142 .1758426 .8373206 78. 17,369 4.31540.6350207 .7255357 1590066 .2014148 8451827 79. 15,277 4.05353 .6078332 7035947 .1687553 .2272574 .8528099 80. 13,290 3.79936 .5797102 .6811831 .1792350 . 2534228 .8602129

11,424 3.55255 .5505397 .6582544 .1905311 .2799659.8674047
9,694 3.31213 .5201078 .6346921 .2027776 .3070199.8744040

8,112 3.07681 .4881002 .6103200 .2161639 .3347831 .8512581 84 6,685 2.84560 .4541736 5849639 .2309113 3684451 .8879923

5,417 2.61704 .4178104 .5583533 2473429 .3932994 .8946494

4,306 2.39104 .3785863 .5303751 2657399 .4244567.9012223 87

3,318 2.16747 .3359529 .5007123 .2865833 .4572509.9077437 88 2,537 1.94615 .2891761 .4692547 .3103000 .4917818 .9141899 89 1,864 1.72827 .2376124 4358862 .3374124 .5281610 .9205360 90 1,319 1.51565 .1806001 .4006508 .3683848 .5663016 .9267286 91 892 1.30875 .1168572.3633772 .4040083 .6063903 .9327548 92 570 1.10925 .0450306 .3241287 .4449752 .6483358 9385655 93 339 .92084-1.9641852 .2834916 .4914788 .6915047 .9440527 184 .74781 .8737914 2424942 5480184 .7348145

.9490929 89 .59242.7726276 .2020568 .5988500 .7773181 .9536190

37 .46775 .6700174 .1666533 .6521868 .8148719 .95 72499 97. 13 .37124 .5696516 .1371125 7001424 .8451864 9600610

4 .24272 .3851026 .0943726 .7755616 .8896163 .9638044 99. 1 .00000 .0000000 .0000000 .8708738 .9871632

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Art. III.-TOBACCO: AND THE TOBACCO TRADE.

It is said that the name Tobacco was given by the Spaniards to the plant, because it was first observed by them at Tabasco or Tabaco, a province of Yucatan in Mexico. In 1560, Nicot, the French ambassador to Portugal, having received some tobacco from a Flemish merchant, showed it, on his arrival in Lisbon, to the grand prior, and on his return into France, to Catherine of Medicis, whence it has been called Nicotiana by the botanists. Ad

miral Sir Francis Drake having, on his way home from the Spanish Main, in 1586, touched at Virginia, and brought away some forlorn colonists, is reported to have first imported tobacco into England. But according to Lobel, this plant was cultivated in Britain before the year 1570; and was consumed by smoking in pipes by Sir Walter Raleigh and companions so early as the year 1584. The first time Sir Walter Raleigh smoked, as reported, it was in private; he had called his servant for a jug of water; when the man brought it in, he saw the smoke coming out of his master's mouth, and naturally supposing he was on fire, as naturally threw the jug of water over him, to put it out. Whether this anecdote be true or not is immaterial.

The introduction and use of tobacco form a singular chapter in the history of mankind; and it may well excite astonishment that the discovery in America of a nauseous and poisonous weed, of an acrid taste and disagreeable odor, in short, whose only properties are deleterious, should have had so great an influence on the social condition of all nations; that it should have become an article of extensive Commerce; and that its culture should have spread more rapidly than that of the most useful plants. At the time of the discovery of America, tobacco was in frequent use among the Indians, and the practice of smoking was common to almost all the tribes; and by it they pretended to cure a great variety of diseases.

Its introduction into the Eastern Continent was everywhere marked with ridicule and persecution. A book was written against it even by the king of Great Britain, James I., and perhaps a hundred others of the same character were published in various languages. Pope Urban VIII. excommunicated all who took tobacco in churches, and the empress Elizabeth also prohibited the use of it in churches. In Transylvania, an ordinance was published, in 1689, threatening those who should plant tobacco with the confistion of their estates. The Grand Duke of Moscow and the king of Persia forbade its use under penalty of the loss of the nose, or even of death.

At present, the aspect of affairs is so much altered, that all the sovereigns of Europe, and most of those of other parts of the world, derive a considerable part of their revenues from tobacco. Having been introduced into England by Raleigh and other young men of fashion, its use rapidly spread in that country, as it previously had done among the Portuguese, Spaniards, and French. During the reign of George III., the practice of smoking, which had previously been exceedingly prevalent, went out of fashion, and was nearly superseded, among the higher and middle classes, by that of snuff-taking. Latterly, however, smoking has been revived in that country. The practice of smoking has become so general, especially in Holland and Germany, that it constitutes a daily luxury with nearly all the peasantry of those countries, as well as with the more indolent and wealthy classes.

Tobacco is a powerful narcotic, and also a strong stimulant, and taken internally, even in small doses, it proves powerfully emetic and cathartic. The oil is celebrated for its extreme virulence, and when applied to a wound, is said, by Redi, to be as fatal as the poison of a viper. The decoction, powder, and smoke are used in agriculture to destroy insects. The article is not only used for smoking, but for snuff

. In the manufacture of the latter, various matters are added for giving it an agreeable scent; and hence the numerous varieties of snuff.

Virginia has been fainous for the, successful cultivation of the tobacco plant. It became the staple of that province, but it is now giving way to a much wider cultivation of wheat. The tobacco plant, when full grown, will rise to six feet in hight. The stem is pretty straight, rather hairy and clammy. The leaves are of considerable length, of a yellow green; those nearest the ground are the largest, but they make the coarsest tobacco. As the plants grow they require much attention, to keep the ground between the rows clear from weeds, and to pull off all the lowest and coarsest leaves from the plant itself, in order to feed more fully the upper ones. The laborious work is done by negroes. When the leaves turn brown the plant is ripe. The plants, as they ripen, are cut down, and laid in a heap to heat, after which they are hung up separately to dry, in houses built on purpose. The tobacco of Cuba, for smoking, is the best raised. Recently, the exportation of cigars from that island is said to have amounted to 200,000 boxes a year.

It is stated that as early as 1650, the fields, gardens, streets, and public squares of Jamestown, in Virginia, were planted with tobacco, which was used as a currency in that as well as many other of the Southern States. As a sample of this, in 1669, by enactment in Virginia, heinous social crimes were punished by a fine of from five hundred to one thousand pounds of tobacco. For the thirty years preceding 1775, the annual export of tobacco from the United States was 40,000,000 pounds. In the next seven years, which embraced the Revolutionary War, the entire export was 86,000,000 pounds, but 34,000,000 of this was captured by the British. In the three succeeding years the export was about 90,000,000 pounds. The whole crop of tobacco in the United States in 1847 was estimated at a little over 220,000,000 pounds, which, at the low price of five cents the pound, amounts to the sum of $11,000,000.

The use of tobacco has vastly increased in France since the last Duke of Orleans set the fashion of smoking in the streets, in order to lend a hand to government sales. Tobacco, a filthy weed, the vestibule of the drunkard's home, assaults one at every step here—not in the form of chewing, but in puffing bad cigars. Its sale is a rigid monopoly, and to retail it, is a privilege which requires a friend at court. Throughout France the little tobacco shops all look alike_boxes on the counter with separate lids, marked one sou and upwards-prices fixed for the cigars by the government, to which must be added snuff

, but never chewing tobacco. The profit the government derives from this borders on a hundred million francs. An attempt has been made to raise tobacco in Algiers, which may not be uninteresting, in the following details, to our growers :—In 1851, the number of planters was only 137, whereas, in 1852, it was 1,073. The number of hectares (a hectare is about 2 acres) under the tobacco plant was 446 in 1851, and 1,095 in 1852. The government has announced that it will purchase this year 720,000 kilograms of this tobacco, whereas the quantity last year was only 303,000. The total of the present year's crop is estimated at 1,780,000 kilograms, of which 700,000 have been grown by the natives, and the rest by Europeans.

There is a considerable increase in the product of Connecticut seed leaf, but in most of the other States, particularly Virginia aná Louisiana, there was a marked decline, corresponding with the exports of the following years, thus testing in some degree the accuracy of the census reports.

The census returns of the United States for 1840 and 1850 show in the latter period a considerable falling off in the production, as follows:

POUNDS OF TOBACCO RAISED IN THE UNITED STATES PER OENSUS.

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1840. 1850.

1840. 1850. Maine ..... .lbs.

30

Mississippi. . lbs. 83,471 48,349
New Hampshire

115
50 Louisiana

119,824 23,922 Vermont. ......

685
Texas.....

60,770 Massachusetts .. 64,956 119,306 Arkansas.... 184,439 224,164 Rhode Islond...

317

Tennessee. 29,550,432 20,144,380
Connecticut.... 471,657 1,383,932 Kentucky 53,436,909 55,765,259
New York

744
70,222 Ohio....

5,942,275 10,480,967 New Jersey

1,922
Michigan.

1,602 2,225 Pennsylvania... 325,018 857,619 Indiana

1,820,306 1,035,146 Delaware

272
Illinois....

564,326 844,129 Maryland 24,816,012 21,199,281 Missouri

9,067,913 17,038,364 D. of Columbia. 55,550 15,000 Iowa...

8,076 2,012 Virginia ... 75,347,106 66,516,492 Wisconsin

115

768 N. Carolina.. 16,772,359 12,058,147 California

1,000 S. Carolina..

51,519 73,235 Minnesota...,
Georgia..
162,894 420,123 Oregon......

325 Florida

75,274 982,684 Utah...
Alabama.
273,302 163,605 New Mexico....

1,118 Total.....

219,163,319 199,532,494 STATEMENT EXHIBITING THE NUMBER OF HOGSHEADS OF TOBACCO EXPORTED FROM THE

UNITED STATES FROM 1790 to 1833, INCLUSIVE, AND THE AVERAGE PRICE PER POUND, AND
GROSS VALUE FROM 1802 to 1835, INCLUSIVE ; ALSO THE NUMBER OF POUNDS OF MANU-
FACTURED TOBACCO AND SNUFF EXPORTED FROM 1791 to 1835, INCLUSIVE, AND GROSS
VALUE FROM 1817 to 1835, INCLUSIVE.
No. hhds. Average

Manufactured

Value of Years. leaf price

tobacco, Snuff, manufac'd tobacco. Total value.

lbs.

lbs. and snuir. 1790....

118,460
1791.
101,272

81,122
1792.
112,428

117,874
1793*
59,947

137,784
1794..
72,958

19,370
1795..
61,050

20,263
1796.
69,018

29,181
1797
58,167

12,805
1798
68,567

142,269
1799
96,070

406,076
1800.
78,686

457,713
1801.
103,758

472,282
1802.

77,721 65 $6,220,000 233,591 1803.

86,291 6 6,230,000 152,415 1804.

83,341 5} 6,000,000 298,139 1805.

6,341,000 428,460 1806,

per lb.

Not ascertained.

Unascertained.

Snuff and manufactured tobacco included.

Upascertained.

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71,251

83,186 61

6,572,000 381,733 1807+

62,236

5,476,000 274,952 9,576

838,000 36,332 1809

53,921 53 3,774,000 350,835 18109

84,134 5 5,048,000 529,285
35,828

2,150,000 752,553

26,094 3 1,514,000 688,618 1813.

6,314 5 319,000 283,512 1814.

3,125 67 232,000 79,377 1815.

85,337 8 8,235,000 1,034,045 1816,

69,241 153 12,809,000 676,246 1817.,

62,365 123 9,230,000 1,116,874 5,080 $281,509 1818.

84,337 10 10,241,341 1,486,240 5,513 373,876 69,427 104 8,874,167 926,833 13,710 237,192

18084.

1811. 1812

1819......

• French Revolution. + Berlin and Milan decrees. decreed. | War with Great Britain,

# Embargo.

$ Regie in France

per lb.

lbs.

1820.

1833.

1835.

1837...

1846.

[No. bhds. Average

Manufactured

Value of Years.

leaf
price

tobacco, Snuff, nanufac'd
tobacco.
Total value.

lbs. and snafi. 83,940 8 8,188,188 693,358 4,996 149,589 1821

66,858 77 5,798,045 1,332,949 44,552 149,083 1822.

83,169 65 6,380,020 1,414,424 44,602 157,182 1823.

99,009 58 6,437,627 1,987,507 36,684 154.955 1824.

77,883 55 5,059,355 2,477,990 45,174 203,789 1825*

75,984 67 5,287,976 1,871,368 53,920 172,353 1826.

64,098 6} 5,347,208 2,179,774 61,801 210,134 1827.

100,025 54 6,816,146 2,730,255 45,812 239,024 1828.

96,278 44 5,480,707 2,637,411 35,655 210,747 1829.

77,131

5,185,370 2,619,399 19,509 202,396 1880.

83,810 54 5,833,112 3,199,151 29,425 246,747 1831.

86,718 44 4,892,388 3,639,856 27,967 292,475 1832.

106,806 41 5,999,769 3,456,071 31,175 295,771

83,153 64 5,755,968 3,790,310 13,453 288,973 1834.

87,979 61 6,595,305 3,956,579 57,826 328,409

94,353 77 8,250,677 3,817,854 36,471 357,611 1836. 109,442

10,058,640 3,246,675 46,018 435,464 100,232 43 5,765,647 3,615,591 40,883 427,836 1838

100,593 6} 7,392,029 5,008,147 75,083 577,420 1839.

78,995 105 9,832,943 4,214,943 42,467 616,212 1840.

119,484 64 9,883,657 6,787,165 37,132 813,671 1841

147,828 7 12,676,703 7,503,644 68,553 873,877 1842

168,710 43 9,540,765 4,434,214 42,668 525,490 1843, 94,454 43 4,650,979 3,404,252 20,455

278,819 1844, 163,042 8,397,255 6,046,878 28,668

536,600 1845.

147,168 43 7,469,819 5,312,971 44,399 538,498

147,998 44 8,478,270 6,854,856 52,458 695,914 1847. 135,762 44 7,242,086 7,844,592 37,051

658,950 1848.

130,665 44 7,551,122 6,698,507 36,192 568,435 1849. 101,521 44 5,840,247 7,159,397 49,888

613,044 1850.

145,729

55 9,951,023 5,918,583 44,690 648,832

95,945 8 9,219,251 7,235,368 37,422 1,143,547 The tobacco trade, which for some years was under a depression, has, within the last two, somewhat improved, as far as an increased average price per bhd. goes. In order to observe the operation of this trade through a series of years, we have compiled from official sources the number of hhds. and export value sent out of the United States annually. We have divided the last twenty-four years into three periods of seven years each, and the last ten years. This division embraces the operation of each tariff. The seven years up to 1828, were of comparative low duties; 1828 and up to 1834, was the period of the highest. The reductions under the compromise began in 1834, and continued down to 1841, inclusive. In 1842, the duties upon articles before free, were levied, and in 1843 the tariff of 1842 began its operation, and in 1847, the present tariff. The result is as follows:EXPORT OF TOBACCO FROM THE UNITED STATES.

1851...

Total Valne of value of

Value snuff and tobacco Years.

Hhdg.
Value.

manufactured. exported. 1828.

96,271 $5,296,960 $54 73 $210,747 $5,480,707 1829.

77,141 4,982,974 64 60 202,306 5,185,370 1830.

83,810 5,586,365 66 65 246,748 6,833,112 1831.

86,718 4,892,388 56 40 202,745 5,184,863 1832.

106,806 5,999,769 56 18 295,771 6,295,540 1833.

83,153 5,755,968 69 29 288,973 6,043,991 1884.

87,979 6,595,305 74 96 328,408 6,423,714

per hhd.

$5,849,749

Average 7 years.... 85,982 $5,583,247 $63 25 $265,061

* Duty in England lowered from 4s. to 3s. per Ib.

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