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Average 7 years ending1827.

81,003 $5,864,277 $73 53 $183,788 $6,084,073 1834.

85,892 5,583,247 63 25 265,061 5,849,749 1841,

107,275 9,112,928 85 92 586,013 9,638,941 1847, 6 years

141,189 6,629,866 54 04 529,065 8,335,689 1841-51, 10 years .....

132,060 7,834,076 59 25 620,006 8,454,682 The destination of the tobacco exported from the United States, in the last few years, has been as follows:

EXPORTS OF TOBACCO FROM THE UNITED STATES.

.hhds.

Russia ..
Sweden.
Hanse Towns.

Holland ...

1849.

30 1,738 21,933 19,653

3,404 21,857

7,995 14,081 1,307

Belgium...
Great Britain...

colonies.
France
Spain
Portugal.....
Italy and Trieste....
Africa.....
Elsewhere

1850.

613 1,542 46,399 22,683

4,232 30,926

3,657 15,552 5,299

1851. 1,856 1,408 22,506 11,871

523 23,698

2,681 10,101 8,953

66

584 4,948 1,582 2,409

805 9,814 1,746 3,363

650 7,651 2,197 1,953

Total hhds...

101,521 145,729 95,945 Total value....

$5,304,207 $9,951,023 $9,219,251 As compared with the year 1849, the tobacco trade has been very good. That is to say, for 5,000 hhds. less tobacco, the United States apparently get $3,400,000 more money. This return, however, does not show the losses sustained by consignors to foreign markets, growing out of the machinery of advances, forced sales, slaughtering, buying in, and reclamations ; by which

process

it has been said that American tobacco may be sent from here and come back for the manufacture of cigars, paying duty, and under

selling the home-made article. It is known that German cigar-makers in New York can sell cigars, made from American tobacco imported from Germany, cheaper than to make them from the tobacco before it has been sent abroad. A good deal is to be allowed to adulteration, which, as seen in the above table, affects, in connection with smuggling, the manufactured tobacco which pays duty in Great Britain.

The change in the duties on general articles of consumption seems in England to have promoted the consumption of tobacco, on the general principles which prompted the change of policy under Sir Robert Peel's administration in 1842, although the duty charged upon tobacco has remained the same.

The English official returns show that the consumption fell year by year until 1842, which was the year of the greatest depression, and when the financial crisis of the government brought Sir Robert Peel into power. From that year, when the duties were removed on many articles, in order to promote their consumption, as well as that of those on which the tax was untouched, the consumption of leaf tobacco has continued steadily to increase.

TOBACCO ENTERED FOR CONSUMPTION IN GREAT BRITAIN.

Years.

Ibs.

lbs.

lbs.

Years.
1845...

1850..

Lear,
Manufactured,

Leal, Manufactured, lbs. 1838.. 23,356,246 190,148

26,076,311 245,940 1839. 22,971,406 196,304 1846..

26,737,001 264,707 1840. 22,902,398 193,912 1847..

26,220,240 208,913 1841. 22,094,772 213,613 1848..

27,061,480 205,927 1842. 22,013,146 225,202 1849..

27,350,120 201,450 1843. 22,891,517 263,840

27,638,104 196,681 1844. 24,535,116 240,602 1851..

27,863,390 209,588 The progress of this consumption was checked by the fluctuation of prices. When it was the highest, the export to Europe direct, instead of through England, was the greatest.

The years 1841-42 show the smallest consumption in England. The first year was, however, one of large sales and high prices by the United States. In the year 1842, however, the prices fell ruinously. In 1844, the English consumption was larger than ever, but the price by no means so high as formerly.

We learn from the Cincinnati Price Current that, as a market for manufactured tobacco, Cincinnati has for years past been a port of considerable importance to manufacturers, and the statistics of the trade presented below show a very rapid increase in the receipts and sales for consumption. This trade has, in a great measure, been a branch of the grocery business, but within the last few years Tobacco Commission Houses have been established here, who act as agents for manufacturers, and through these agencies the wholesale trade is chiefly supplied. The merchants of Cincinnati

, interested in the tobacco trade, are now making preparations for the erection of the necessary accommodation for a tobacco market. The City Council, some months since, passed an ordinance to establish tobacco inspection in the city of Cincinnati, and the same body have appointed an inspector, and also granted a license for a Tobacco Warebouse. The latter is already constructed, on an extensive scale, on Pearlstreet.

The following are the sections of the Cincinnati ordinance relating to warehouses :

SEC. 2. That warehouses shall hereafter be licensed by the City Council of the city of Cincinnati

, for the storage, inspection, and sale of tobacco in hogsheads or boxes. Such warehouses shall be built of brick or stone, with safe and substantial roofing of shingles, tin, or copper, or other materials considered safe, and otherwise constructed as to keep securely, and guard against fire, and the weather, as far as practicable, all tobacco stored therein ; and such houses shall at all times be kept in good repair and condition, for receiving, storing, inspecting, selling, and delivering tobacco in hogsheads or boxes. The owner or owners shall have the right to close or discontinue their warehouses at pleasure, after having given written notice of such intention to said City Council at least sixty days before the time fixed by them for closing said tobacco warehouses.

Seo. 3. Such warehouses shall be used for the storage, &c., of tobacco as aforesaid, and shall be kept open and in proper condition, with the necessary conveniences to receive, inspect, sell

, and deliver, bogsheads or boxes of tobacco. The proprietor or proprietors of each tobacco warehouse shall provide and continually keep in order scales of sufficient size and strength to weigh at least one ton weight, wbich shall be tested at least once in every year, and oftener, if required, by the standard of weights and measures; and shall provide one or more coopers and able-bodied men to do all the coopering, and to handle the tobacco stored, inspected, and sold in such warehouse, and to do all things needful in receiving, storing, inspecting, selling, coopering, and delivering hogsheads or boxes of tobacco. He or they shall likewise provide and keep in said warehouse a well-bound book of proper size, in which he shall enter the marks, numbers, gross, tare, and net weight of each hogshead or box of tobacco received at his warehouse, when received, when inspected, when sold, and when delivered, the owner's or planter's name, the name of the purchaser, the price, and fees of each hogshead or box of tobacco inspected and sold at such warehouse. He shall make out bills for the planter, weigh, and mark each hogshead or box of tobacco.

Seo. 4. The proprietor or proprietors of a warehouse, shall be responsible for the safe keeping and delivery of tobacco stored in their warehouse, except in case of fire or unavoidable accidents, and shall deliver all tobacco to the owner on the side-walk within a reasonable time after demand at the warehouse, and presentation of the receipt thereof to one of the proprietors of the house or his clerk, and the tender of the fees due the warehouse upon such tobacco.

Seo. 5. The proprietor or proprietors of a warehouse shall enter into bond with good security, to be approved by the Mayor of Cincinnati, payable to the city of Cincinnati

, in the penal sum of one thousand dollars, well and truly to do, perform, and comply with all the provisions of this act, and any person injured by the said warehouse men, may sue thereon, and recover as in other cases, in any court having jurisdiction in such case, for any failure, refusal, or neglect of duties herein required.

Section 8 regulates the charges as follows:

Sec. 8. The fees to be collected by the proprietor or proprietors of each warehouse, shall be as follows:-Two dollars and five cents per hogshead or box for receiving, storing, weighing, coopering, marking, selling at public outcry, or at private sale, at the request of the owner of the tobacco, collecting and making out bills of sale, and twenty cents for the inspection. Of this amount, the planter or owner of the tobacco shall pay one dollar, and the purchaser or bolder of the note of inspection, payable upon the execution and delivery of said note by the proprietors, one dollar and twenty-five cents.

The tobacco manufacturers of Lynchburg, Va., have called a convention of all the manufacturers of the article in that State, and of all the agents throughout the United States, to assemble at Richmond on some day not yet designated, to consider the propriety of suspending operations during the winter months—that is, that no tobacco shall be put up for market during the months of January, February, and March. It is contended that under the system now pursued, the tobacco put up during those months is forced on the Northern markets in April and May, and must either be sold at a sacrifice, or held over until the fall, when it becomes moldy, and unfit for chewing purposes.

Tobacco is packed in hogsheads for shipment: it is done with the greatest care; and the pressure applied is so great that a hogshead 48 inches in length, and 30 or 32 inches in diameter, will contain one thousand pounds

weight. Upon the arrival of the tobacco in England, it is conveyed to bonding-warehouses, examined, charged with duty, and sold to the manufacturers.

The manufacture of the tobacco-leaves into the numerous varieties of tobacco for smoking in pipes is commenced by loosening and opening the bundles, and sprinkling the leaves with water. The stalks are then stripped from the leaves ; this is effected by women or boys, who fold the leaf along the middle, and, by means of a small instrument, separate the stalks from the leaves, and lay them aside in different heaps. To prepare them for being cut into shreds, the leaves are pressed together in large numbers. When removed from the press to the cutting-engine, the cake of leaves is as hard as a board; yet it retains a slight degree of clamminess or moisture from the leaves having been previously sprinkled. In cutting the tobacco, the cake of leaves is laid upon an iron bed, which is susceptible of a slow progressive motion by means of a screw, which passes beneath it, and is connected with a cog-wheel in such a manner that, while the machine is moving, the bed is constantly urged forward. Another part of the mechanism gives motion to the knife, which bas a sharp biade, rather longer than the width of the cake, and is pivoted on a hinge or fulcrum at one end, the other rising and falling with the action of the machinery.

The kind called pig-tail tobacco is produced by a process similar to spinning, and requires the simultaneous aid of a man and two boys. A bench several yards in length is made use of, with a spinning-wheel at one end, turned by one of the boys. The other boy arranges a number of damp leaves, with the stalks removed, end to end upon the bench, taking care to lay them smooth and open; and the man immediately follows him, and rolls

up the leaves in the form of a cord by a peculiar motion of his hand. As fast as this is done, the finished tail is wound upon the spinning-wheel. It is transferred from the spinning-wheel, by the action of the machinery, to a frame connected with it; and subsequently it is wound or twisted up into a hard close ball.

For the following years the consumption of tobacco in the United Kingdom, and the duty thereon, wereYears. Consumption. Duty per lb. Years.

Consumption. Duty per Ib. 1801 .Ibs. 16,514,998 ls. 7d.

.lbs. 15,350,018 3s, 1811 14,923,243 28. 2d.

16,000,000 3s. 1821

12,983,197 4s. Seven-eighths of all the tobacco brought into Great Britain is grown in the United States. The duties payable are 3s. 13d. per lb. on unmanufactured tobacco; 9s. 53 d. per lb. on cigars and manufactured tobacco; and 6s. 3 d. per lb. on snuff. The imports in the two years in the United Kingdom were

1819.

1850. Unmanufactured.....

lbs. 42,098,126 33,894,506 Manufactured and snuff.

1,913,474 1,532,829 The British home consumption is about 28,000,000 lbs. annually, the rest being re-exported. The gross duties realized in the two years, was £4,425,040 and £4,430,134 respectively.

The Cincinnati Gazette furnishes some facts which are designed to show that Cincinnati is by far the most desirable point in the West for a tobacco market, and that, with proper warehouse facilities, and satisfactory munici

1831. 1841..

pal regulations, Cincinnati must, within a few years, become the leading market west of the Alleghany Mountains.

In the first place, says the Gazette, Cincinnati is the center of a very extensive tobacco region, where greater varieties are produced than in any other section of the country. In Eastern Ohio is grown the “yellow leaf," which is in great favor with the Russian and French governments, and German States. The "seed leaf” is raised on the Miami River. The “Mason County leaf” is produced in the vicinity of Ripley, Ohio, and Maysville, Kentucky, and this is a quality always in active request. The “heavy leaf” is grown on the Kentucky River, and in the vicinity of Carrolton and Warsaw. The sections in which these descriptions are produced are all adjacent to Cincinnati, and a considerable portion of the products pass through Cincinnati, and this trade may of course be controlled here, if we can only establish a market. Besides, continues the Gazette, we may secure the greater portion of the tobacco raised on the Big Kanawha, in Indiana, and on the Green, Cumberland, and Tennessee Rivers. Thus it is seen there exists all around Cincinnati the materials with which to establish a most important tobacco market, and thereby bring to Cincinnati a large and valuable trade.

“ The planters who have been accustomed to sell in the interior markets, convenient to their respective farms, or to ship to New York via New Orleans or Louisville, will naturally inquire, before entertaining an idea of seeking a market here, what our advantages are, and if Cincinnati merchants can offer greater inducements than those of other Western or Southern cities.

“In order to meet the inquiries which may be raised on this point, we will remark that we claim advantages which will enable a purchaser of tobacco in this market to pay a higher price than the same article will net the seller in any

other market.

" From the moment a hogshead of tobacco is packed until it reaches the manufacturer, every day it is delayed during the transportation, and every time it is handled, adds to the first cost of the article, and this, with the freight, insurance, and other charges, all have to be paid indirectly by the producer. This is a plain principle of political economy. Now, if by bringing tobacco from Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana, to this point, and hence distributing to New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and European countries, it can be delivered in less time, and at less expense, than when forwarded via New Orleans, or to Louisville, thence to be shipped to this city and the Eastern seaboard cities; is it not clear that the first cost of the article may be reduced, and this would, of course, increase the profits of the planter, while it will not diminish those of the dealer. To this there can be but one reply. But can it be done? Let us ste.

“The following is a close estimate of the cost of the transportation of a hogshead of tobacco from Louisville to the North via New Orleans :Drayage in Louisville....

$0 50 Freight to New Orleans

3 26 Insurance to New Orleans

0 62 Charges to New Orleans..

1 75 Freight by ship

7 00 Insurance to New York.

2 00

Total......

$15 12 “The time occupied in this route varies from forty-five to sixty days. “The cost of transporting by two of the Northern routes from this city to New York is as follows, per hogshead of 1,200 lbs.

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