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The report of the engineer and superintendent of the road, Charles N. Warren, Esq., exhibits the construction and working of the road for the year ending June 30th. The total receipts since the first locomotive was put on the track have been $ 222,786 18, and the total expenses $130,338 64, including the hauling of iron and other material. Within the year, the road has been connected with the Lexington Road, side tracks Taid at Frankfort, Pleasureville, and Smithfield, water stations put up along the line, the depot at Louisville built, and engine houses put up at that place and Frankfort. The passenger business

present June has exceeded of the corresponding month in 1851, by 16 per cent. At this rate of increase the receipts for the coming year will be $195,000. There are 10 eight-wheeled and one six-wheeled locomotives on the road, two freight engines of ten wheels are to be delivered during the month of September. The total mileage of the engines was 135,000 miles, and they averaged 18,000 miles each. The receipts per mile run was..

$1 24 4 Expenses....

0 73 4 deducting items above mentioned....

061 1 The total cost of the road, including interest in cash and stock up to the 1st of July, is $1,358,764 43. The receipts for the year were forPassengers,

Freight.

Mails.
$99,971 42
$63,402 81
$5,546 02 $167,920 25

$99,134 19 Less one half for repairs..

$12,600 Wood on hand

4,000

12,600 00 Leaving the expenses at

$84,534 19 Balance in favor of receipts

85,386 06

Total,

The expenses..

TOLLS AND TONNAGE OF CANADIAN CANALS.

The subjoined statement of tolls, trade, and tonnage of the several canals, during the year 1851, is derived from a Parliamentary document :

VESSELS PASSED THE SEVERAL CANALS IN THE YEAR 1851.

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Total......... 15,454 1,430,172 £3,809 3,420 553,669 £2,598 Total British and foreign vessels.

18,874

1,973,841 Toll

£6,407 The total movement on the canals for 1851 and three years previous, is as follows:

Tons....

WELLAND CANAL.

1818. 307,611

1819. 351,596

1850. 399,600

1851. 691,627

Tons.....
Passengers
Tonnage of vessels.. ...

2,487
372,854

1,610 468,410

1,930 588,100

4,758 772,623

ST. LAWRENCE CANAL,

Tons....,
Passengers
Tonnage of vessels..

164,627

2,071
5,648

213,153
26,997

288,103
35,932
6,169

450,400
33,407

5,448

6,984 £1,614,241 From Western Australia.

CHAMBLY CANAL.

1818. Tons..

17,835 Passengers

470 Tonnage of vessels..

659
The receipts of 1851 were
Expenses
Of the gross tolls, the Welland produced
The St. Lawrence..

1819. 77,216 8,430 1,264

1850. 109,040

278 2,878

1851. 110,720

1,860

1,727 £76,216

12,286 48,241 21,276

STATISTICS OF POPULATION, &c.

PAST, PRESENT, AND PROSPECTIVE POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES.

We have published in former volumes of the Merchants' Magazine similar statements of the progress of population in the United States. The following was recently communicated to the National Intelligencer by William Darby, a venerable statistician. “The two tabular views which follow,” says Mr. Darby,“ will show that data are not wanting which enable us to demonstrate the certainty of cause and effect. With these remarks the two inclosed tables are submitted to your disposal. I find, let me observe, that one thing has prevailed through every decennial period of our history.” TABLE I.-POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES, AS RECORDED IN THE TABULAR VIEW OF THE

SEVEN ENUMERATIONS MADE BY THE DECENNIAL CENSUS, 1780 TO 1850, INCLUSIVE, 1790. 1800. 1810. 1820. 1830. 1840. 1850. 3,929,872 5,305,952 7,239,841 9,638,131 12,866,920 17,063,353 23,144,126 TABLE II.- PROSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES FROM 1860 TO

1950, INCLUSIVE, ON THE RATIO OF ONE-AND-A-THIRD DECENNIALLY, AS FOUND BY TABLE I,

VERY NEARLY. 1860 30,958,000 | 1910

120,034,000 1870 41,145,000 1920

160,045,000 1880 54,559,000 1930

213,360,000 1890 73,144,000 1 1940

284,480,000 1900 97,525,000 1950

879,307,000

POPULATION AND COMMERCE OF AUSTRALIA, British Parliamentary papers, recently published, furnish statements of the population, trade, &c., of the Australian Colonies, to the beginning of 1851. At that date the respective position of each Province was as follows:

Tonnage. Population. Imports. Exports. Inwards, Outwards. New South Wales.. i 192,000

£2,078,358 £2,399,580 234,215 77,360 5

263,849 Victoria... South Australia... 76,430 845,572 570,816 86,583 87,872 West Australia.... 5,886 52,351 22,134 15,988 14,748 Van Dieman's Land,

1,232,272 1,172,530 203,081 203,978 The population of Van Dieman's Land is not given for a later period than 1847, when it was 70,164, including 24,188 convicts. The total value of wool esported in 1850 from New South Wales and Victoria was...

15,482 From South Australia...

131,730 From Van Dieman's Land,

451,203 From South Australia the export of minerals was..

362,568

MORTALITY OF COMMERCIAL CITIES.

RATIO OF DEATUS TO POPULATION IN NEW YORK, BALTIMORE, BOSTON, AND CHARLESTON,

The following comparative table of mortality of the cities of New York, Baltimore, Boston, and Charleston, for the year 1851, has been prepared by Dr. J. Giluan, of the Baltimore Board of Health :

New York, Baltimore. Boston. Charleston. Consumption

2,374 679

669 120 Inflammation of lungs..

1,263 55 262

35 Scarlet fever....

627 234

50

21 Typhus fever.

977

10
88

36 562 100

63

4 Measles

320

21

145 Dropsy.

1,213 260 210

56 Convulsions..

1,792 99 141

26 Apoplexy

687
23
32

33 179 156

79

31 All other causes..

10,649 2,450 2,044 470

Small pox .

Old age..

Total....

20,734 4,167 3,855 922 The following table shows the sex, condition, and age of the above :

New York. Baltimore. Boston, Charleston. Males...

11,371 2,179 1,966 484 Females..

9,367 1,988 1,889

438 Free colored

443 670 Slave colored.

229

533 Still born..

1,286 370 251 Under one year.

5,604 1,039 335 149 One to ten...

6,252 1,196 1,004

166 Ten to twenty.

363 206 210

53 Twenty to thirty..

2,336 429 518 103 Thirty to forty

2,094 291 386 113 Over fifty...

2,269 593 611 242 By the above table it appears that the ratio of deaths to the population is as follows:

Population. Ratio of mortality. New York....

515,507 1 in 2,485 Baltimore...

169,054 1 in 4,057 ! Boston....

136,871 1 in 3,550 Charleston.

42,985 1 in 4,662

OF THE POPULATION OF THE GLOBE. The population of the globe is supposed to be under a thousand millions, or, according to M. Hassel, 937,856,000. If, then, says a French writer, all mankind were collected in one place, every four individuals occupying a square metre, the whole might be contained in a field ten miles square. Thus, generally speaking, the population of a country might be packed, without much squeezing, in its capital. But the mean idea this gives us of the number of the human race, is counterbalanced by its capability of extension. The new world is said to contain of productive land 4,000,000 square miles of middling quality, each capable of supporting two hundred inhabitants ; and 6,000,000 of a better quality, capable of supporting five hundred persons. According to this calculation, the population of the new world, as peace and civilization advance, may attain to the extent of 4,000,000,000. If we suppose the surface of the old world to be double that of America, (and notwithstanding the comparative poverty of the land, this calculation may be accepted, if we say nothing of Australia and the various archipelagoes, it would support 8,000,000,000; and thus the aggregate population of the entire globe might amount to 12,000,000,000, or twelve times the present number.

Not reported.

JOURNAL OF MINING AND MANUFACTURES.

MANUFACTURING TOWNS OF THE UNITED STATES.

NUMBER I.

CLINTON, MASSACHUSETTS. LOCATION AND POPULATION OF OLINTON-GINGUAM MANUFACTORY-MANUFACTURE ОР BRUSSELS CARPETS-E. B. BIGELOW, THE INVENTOR-NOTICES

OF

HIS STEAM-LOOM AND CARPETING IN ENGLAND-LANCASTER QUILT COMPANY-CARPET BAGS-WOOLEN, FORK, AND COMB FACTORIES-IRON FOUNDRY-BOARDING-HOLSES OF THE OPERATIVES -WAGES-CHURCHES, ETC.

We recently passed a day at this village in visiting the several manufacturing es. tablishments, and with the aid of Edwin BYNNER, Esq., the editor of the Clintan Saturday Courant, Mr. A. S. Carleton, and the brothers Bigelow, we are able to lay before the readers of the Merchants' Magazine a comprehensive and tolerably accurate sketch of this interesting manufacturing village.

Clinton, geographically speaking, is a small town in the County of Worcester, Mass., contains less than 5,000 acres, including highways and all surfaces covered with water, and was set off from Lancaster in 1849. It is bounded on the north and west by Lan. caster and Sterling ; south by Boylston ; east by Bolton and Berlin; all of which towns were originally integral portions of old Lancaster, or, as it was termed, the Nashaway Plantation, which dates back as far as 1643, being the oldest and one of the most beautiful towns in the county, and was ceded to the whites by Sholan, Sachem of the Nashaway tribe of Indians. It is conveniently situated about thirty-five miles west from Boston, and thirteen miles north from Worcester, having direct rail. road communication with both cities, and contains about 2,800 inhabitants.

The town is chiefly celebrated for its manufactures—which are extensive and unique in their character-for the rapidity of its growth, the excellence and extent of its system of common schools, and the public spirit of its inhabitants. Clinton is “ virtually the creation of a single mind,” that of Erastus B. BIGELOW, Esq., the celebrated inventor and adapter of machinery for numerous woven fabrics ; whose genius may be said to have been cradled in its lap. We shall have occasion to speak of the character and genius of Mr. Bigelow in a future number of the Merchants Magazine.

The most important manufactures produced in Clinton are the fabrics known throughout the States, and elsewhere, as Lancaster ginghams, Brussels carpets, coach lace, figured counterpanes, tweeds, yarns, fancy cassimeres, carpet bags, combs, and machinery. First in importance, and deservedly rated as the most perfect establishment in the United States, is the “ Gingham,” or “ Lancaster Mills.” This immense establishment, entirely built of brick, was erected in 1843, on the banks of the Nashua, in the easterly portion of the town, and contains 21,000 spindles, and 600 looms, with necessary machinery for carding, spinning, &c. The driving power consists of three breast wheels, 26 feet in diameter, with 14 feet buckets-on one line of shafting, with which is connected a steam-engine of some 200 horse.power, to insure a sufficient power in dry seasons, giving an entire propelling force of 600 horse-power; the whole of which, however, is seldom or ever required. The large dye-house connected with this establishment, is supposed to be the most perfect of the kind in the world. One great and desirable result from the erection of this mill is the reduction effected in the price of its fabric; as, while ginghams of the quality here made, were formerly as high as from 16 to 18 cents per yard; the average price of those of this company is about 103, wholesale.

The capital invested amounts to $900,000. The number of hands employed averages about 800 ; of which two-thirds are females, whose wages, exclusive of board, range from $2 to $4 per week. The entire range of buildings is heated by steam, in the production of which 1,500 tons of anthracite coal are annually consumed.

The whole surface covered with the buildings of this establishment exceeds 4 acres; one room alone, in which the weaving is done, covering nearly two, or to be more exact, 15 acres. About 70 large tenements of a handsome and uniform appearance, are occupied by the operatives. The daily product of the mill exceeds 13,000 yards, or between 4,000,000 and 5,000,000 annually. Its entire arrangement is of the most persect description, and in its vast completeness, it stands as a splendid monument to the genius and masterly power of the mind of its projector. The Clinton Company, with a capital of $400,000, ranks second among the incorporated establishments. Like all the larger manufactories of the town, this also was designed and completed by the Messrs. Bigelow. Here is woven coach lace of the most beautiful patterns; tweeds, cassimeres, and pantaloon stufis of an excellent fabric, and constantly in demand. About 200 hands are usually employed, turning out 1,200,000 yards of coach lace and 800,000 yards of the other description of goods, annually. This company has also a machine shop, in which the greater portion of the machinery working in Clinton has been manufactured. This mill was commenced in the spring of 1838.

The “ Bigelow Carpet Company" was commenced in the fall of 1849. Though the youngest of the establishments which give to Clinton her growing importance, it is perhaps the most interesting, and destined to be one of the largest of the number. Though now but in its infancy, 500 yards of Brussels carpet, of a quality heretofore unequalled, of the most varied and beautiful patterns and colors, are daily produced from 28 looms; consuming 700 pounds of worsted, and about 400 pounds of linen yarn in the same length of time. This building is also of brick, two stories and attic, 200 feet long by 42 wide. The machinery is propelled by a steam-engine of thirty horse-power, and the consumption of coal is equal to 400 tons, annually. One hundred hands are employed about half of which number are females. The dying, weaving, and finishing are the only branches now performed in the present building; the spinning, &c., being done elsewhere.

During the time it has been in operation, the works have been constantly employed, so great has been the demand for the new fabric, which beretofore has been woven solely by hand, by which means five yards was the maximum of the product of a day's labor. By the beautiful loom of Mr. Bigelow, from 20 to 25 yards are easily obtained by the attendance of one girl. The beautiful process by which the wires are taken from, and uniformly replaced in the warp, in the manufacture of this fabric, is the theme of universal admiration; the machine working as though gifted with almost human intelligence. Like all the products of Mr. Bigelow's wonderful inventive power, the machinery of this establishment is of the most perfect description ; and to tbose who delight in the marvelous triumphs of science, no greater treat can be afforded than to witness its operation.*

It is eminently worthy of note in this place, that five of the leading carpet manufacturers in England have taken licenses to run looms for the manufacture of carpets under the patents of E. B. Bigelow, Esq., and are now erecting extensive works.

The steam loom invented by Mr. Bigelow, for the manufacture of Brussels carpeting, is thus noticed in the Worcester (England) Herald, (March, 1852:-)

“Several manufacturers and foremen from carpet establishments in Kidderminister

* The Carpet Factory is not an incorporated company, but is owned by E. B. & F. Bigelow, and H. P. Fairbanks.

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