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Art. III.-COMMERCIAL CITIES AND TOWNS OF THE UNITED STATES.

NUMBER XXXIII.

THE CITY OF NEW YORK,-Part IV.

CITY FINANCES,

The expense of the government of the city, annually for the last halfcentury, appears in the following statement of the amount raised each year, for city purposes, from 1801 to 1850 :Years. Amount. Years. Amount. Years,

Amount. 1801... $75,000 1819

$250,140 | 1836..... $1,085,180 1802 75,000 1820 270,361 1837...

1,260,000 1803 75,000 1821

259,430 1838..

1,300,000 1804 75,000 1822 302,106 1839.

1,200,000 1805 127,947 1823

351,814 1840..

1,100,000 1806 127,815 1824

353,328 1841

1,265,000 1807 119,155 1825

336,864 1842...

1,100,000 1808 138,985 1826 583,759 1843..

990,000 1809 139,027 1827 437,692 1844..

1,298,922 1810 129,727 1828

485,752 1845.

1,339,487 1811 176,978 1829

507,107 1846.

1,754,323 1812 174,920 1830

509,178 1847..

1,746,361 1813 174,727 1831

562,104 1848.

1,992,150 1814 214,225 1832

665,386 1849..

2,302,564 1815 197,913 1833

971,866 1850..

2,578,325 1816 180,654 1834

835,605 1851...... 2,924,493 1817 216,720 1835

965,603 1852.... 3,378,385 1818

255,741

TAXATION BY DECADES.

Periods.
Amount. Periods.

Amount. 1801-10 $1,082,655 | 1831-40..

$9,945,694 1811-20 2,112,879 1841-50..

16,386,132 1821-30

4,127,030 Total tax, fifty years.

$33,662,890 COMPARATIVE INCREASE OF TAXATION AND POPULATION. In. tax.

In, tax. Periods. per cent, per cent. Periods.

per cent, per cent, 1801-10.

69
1831-40

64 141 1811-20. 28 95 1841-50

65 65 1821-30.

64 95

In. pop.

In. pop.

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RATE OF TAX PER HEAD.

Years.

1835.

Years,
Rate.

Rate. 1800... $1 24 | 1830.

$2 61 1805 1 69

3 57 1810 1 35 1840.

8 52 1814 2 32 1845

3 61 1820.

2 18
1850.

5 00 1825

2 03 From these calculations it is seen, that the increase of taxation has, since 1800, far outrun the increase of population ; the benefits of government to each individual costing four times as much in 1850 as 1800, and twice as much as in 1830; but we suppose no one contends that the personal advantages conferred by the municipal administration upon the citizen, have multiplied in anything like a corresponding ratio. Nor has property, rapidly as it has augmented, kept a much more even pace with the cost of protec

Per head. $5 86 7 09

tion, the rate per hundred of 1850, being treble that of the year 1800, and more than double that of either 1830 or even of 1840.

The amount raised in like manner in Boston, was, at different periods, as follows: Year. Amount. Per head, Year.

Amount. 1800 $83,428 75 $3 43 | 1840....

$546,742 80 1820 165,228 30 3 81 . 1845.....

811,338 09 The amount raised by tax in Cincinnati, in 1850, was $438,345 84, equal to $3 84 per head.

Although the rate of taxation per head is much larger in Boston than in New York, the burden upon property is less, the wealth of the former city being much greater in proportion to its inhabitants than that of New York.

It is useless to make any comparison of the per centage of tax in the different cities, as the valuation of property varies so widely that the comparative burden imposed could not be deduced from the rates.

DEBT.

The debt of the city, according to the message of the Mayor, of the present year, is as follows :Permanent debt, redeemable from sinking fund....

$14,578,908 Temporary debt, redeemble from taxation...

710,000

Total ....

$16,288,908 On the first of January, 1845, the permanent debt was $12,881,750 42; temporary, $1,147,914 80; total, $14,029,665 22. The debt of Boston, in 1850, was about......

$7,000,000 00 Of Baltimore, in 1850...

,454,389 17 Of New Orleans, 1852.

6,642,226 00 Of St. Louis, 1851...

1,636,096 10 Of Cincinnati, 1851...

1,340,000 00 WEALTH. The following is a statement of the valuation of property in the city of New York, from 1800 to 1831, distinguishing each class of estate from 1825: Years.

Real estate.

Personal estate,

Total. 1800

$24,486,370 1805

25,645,867 1806

26,529,630 1807

24,959,955 1808

26,118,720 1809

24,782,267 1810

26,436,370 1811

26,046,780 1812

26,243,040 1813

27,640,230 1814

82,901,497 1815

81,636,042 1816

82,074,201 1817

78,895,725 1818

80,245,091 1819

70,113,061 1820

69,530,763 1821

68,282,070 1822

71,289,144 1823

70,940,820 1824

88,076,676

. . . . .

Years.

Real estate,
Personal estate,

Total. 1825

$58,435,895 $42,734,151 101,160,046 1826

64,942,851
42,534,931

107,477,781 1827

72,617,770
39,594,156

112,211,926 1828

77,139,880
36,879,653

114,019,533 1829

76,531,890
35,984,136

112,516,026 1830

87,603,580
37,684,938

125,288,518 1831

97,221,870

42,058,314 139,280,214 1832

104,042,405

42,260,213

146,302,618 1833

114,129,561

52,365,626

186,495,187 1834

123,249,280

63,299,231

186,548,511 1835

143,732,452

74,981,278 218,723,703 1836

233,743,303

75,758,617 309,501,920 1837

196,450,109

67,297,241 263,747,350 1838

194,543,359

69,609,582 264,152,941 1839

196,778,434

70,010,796 266,789,230 1840

187,121,464

65,721,699

252,843,163 1841

186,347,246

65,430,456

251,777,702 1842

176,512,342

61,294,559

237,806,901 1843

164,950,515

63,046,676

227,997,091 1844

171,936,091

64,023,456 235,960,047 1845

177,160,790

62,777,628 239,938,318 1846

183,480,934

61,471,571

244,952,505 1847

187,314,386

59,837,917

247,152,306 1848

193,027,576

61,164,451

254,192,027 1849

197,761,919

58,455,174

256,217,093 1850

207,146,173

79,939,240

286,085,416 1851

227,013,856

93,094,502

320,108,358 1852

252,186,753

98,520,043 351,706,796 The property of each kind, in the several wards, in 1836, 1843, and 1852, was :1836. 1843.

1852. Wards. Real. Personal. Real.

Personal.

Real. Personal. 1... $35,272,466 $28,759,936 $24,129,450 $26,817,180 $39,828,183 $40,071,503 2. 10,140,380 2,490,866 13,206,750 1,709,345 15,999,725 2,947,672 3. 15,357,477 7,658,500 11,428,226 5,621,371 16,656,300 9,769,472 4. 10,207,250 2,387,625 7,475,000 2,222,587 8,407,420 1,571,567

. 3,214,601 5,405,960 8,904,800 2,364,122 10,738,400 2,490,550

. 10,091,945 4,188,105 6,763,900 975,100 8,104,850 1,303,250 7. 12,284,590 4,506,000 10,620,478 3,656,000 11,757,490 2,746,578 8. 13,808,600 2,272,650 10,905,500 2,871,632 12,939,960 1,706,573 9. 10,725,855 1,638,900 9,247,900 1,430,626 11,795,800 1,727,643 10. 7,536,288 862,690 6,062,900 546,450 6,851,300 1,106,250 11. 18,755,484 1,393,900 3,987,025 87,400 6,897,200 539,831 12... 14,830,072 2,987,550 5,586,938 750,550 3,888,896 518,100 13.. 4,437,250 648,350 4,066,800 275,785 4,699,900 552,505 14... 7,884,250 2,336,429 6,648,386 2,102,928 8,133,500 2,335,927 15... 16,194,200 7,801,007 14,006,350 9,482,057 19,245,250 15,826,945 16..... 24,201,595 619,869 12,626,763 542,670 11,375,139 1,608,225 17....

9,283,349 1,590,774 13,186,850 2,436,900 18.

33,886,010 8,194,800 19...

9,878,380 255,400 20....

7,916,200 210,750

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Total... 233,743,303 76,758,617 164,950,515 63,046,576 252,186,753 98,520,042

The proportionate increase of population and wealth in New York, in each consecutive period of ten years, since 1800, has been as here stated :Years.

In. population. In. property. In. pop. per ct. In.wealth pr.et. 1800-10..... 35,884 $1,950,000 69

8 1810-20.... 27,333 43,094,383

281

168 1820-30....... 78,883 65,757,765 64

80 1830-40....... 110,121 127,554,645 64

102 1840-50...... 202,835 33,242,258 65

13 1800-50....... 456,056 261,599,046

1768

1,068

By this, it appears that the period 1810–20, was that of greatest real prosperity, as during this time the increase of wealth bore a larger proportion to that of population than in any other of the periods named. The ability of the community to provide for itself whatever was desirable in the way of necessaries and comforts, was increased in this period, by above 130 per cent, while in the ten years previous it actually grew poorer by the loss of about 50 per cent, the excess of the increase of population over that of property. In the same manner, it is apparent, that the period 1840-50 has been that of least prosperity, or rather of greatest real retrograde, of any one of the successive periods of ten years since 1800. In this period, there has been an increase of 52 per cent in population above the increase of wealth, so that where there would have been a dollar in the division of property in 1840, there was in 1850 less than two-thirds of a dollar. It is evident that this is the true method of viewing our progress, as we can be said to prosper or go backward only according to the enlarged or diminished ability held by the aggregate population of the city, to supply the great aggregate of its wants. The criterion, however, is far from precise, on account of the irregularities of the valuation, which, under the best system, must come very far short of uniformity and accuracy. The additions to the population, both in 1800-10 and in 1840-50, may have been of as good material as the increase of any other period, as regards their productive ability. But this is only their capacity for future creation of wealth ; while they did not bring a share corresponding with that before existing to each man to the general stock, they yet claimed a full share with the others in wages and other benefits of the existing property. The effect, of course, was in each case to diminish the general comfort, and to increase very sensibly, through the competition in labor and lessening of prices, and the increase of rent, &c., the inconveniences of the poorer classes of the population.

COMPARISON OF THE VALUATION OF NEW YORK AND BOSTON SINCE 1800.
Years.

New York.

Boston. 1800

$24,486,370

$15,095,700 1810

26,436,370

18,450,500 1830

69,530,753

88,289,200 1830

125,288,518

59,586,000 1840

252,843,163

94,581,600 1850 :

286,085,416

180,500,000 The valuation of several other cities was, at different periods, as follows :Baltimore, 1850 ..... $80,237,960 | Providence, R. I., 1845... $28,516,000 Brooklyn, 1850..... 32,514,810 Chicago, 1850....

7,220,249 1851. 40,352,377 1851

8,562,717 Buffalo, 1850. 16,801,466 | Salem, Mass., 1845..

10,084,000 New Orleans, 1851.... 74,315,865 Manchester, Eng., 1851 6,846,830 Newport, R. I., 1850..

4,720,450

WEALTII PER HEAD, The amount per head of wealth, in New York and Boston, has been, at the different periods named, as follows:Years.

New York,

Boston. 1800

$404 804

$621 30 1810

274 315

646 08 1820

662 06

884 31 1830

618 431

970 58 1840..

806 41

961 49 1850.......

684 994

1,296 94 VOL. XXVII. NO. VI.

44

IN SEVERAL OTHER PLACES.

Baltimore, 1850.....

$174 63 | Newport, R. I., 1850 N. O., 1851, (on the popu’n of '50) 622 10 Chicago, 1850... Brooklyn, 1850

335 76 | Salem, Mass., 1845. Buffalo, 1850

397 56 | Manchester, Eng., 1851... Providence, R. I, 1845.

898 06

$493 61 240 97 601 60 17 62

The valuation in Boston, undoubtedly, is nearer the full value of the propperty, than in any other of the cities named; but still, there is no doubt, that the amount per head is larger in Boston than in any other city of the United States, unless it be equaled by some of the large manufacturing towns of New England. Boston is certainly, in this view, the richest of all the large cities in the world. But it should be remembered that it has not to sustain such a vast proportion of penniless emigrants as are perpetually crowding into New York, and is exempt from other causes that operate very efficiently to lessen the proportion of wealth to population in New York. "Emigration, of course, in a large degree, is the means of increasing the valuation, by the rise which it occasions in rent, and consequently in property generally, and in the impulse it gives to business; but this does not com. pensate for the other effect of emigration, as it is here,) of overcrowding all employments in the city, furnishing and replenishing perpetually a large unproductive class, and in swelling the ranks of that unthrifty multitude, who, whatever their labor may contribute to the general prosperity, are careless of their own interest, beyond the gratifcation of their immediate wants and desires.

Of the amount in 1850, of the valuation of Boston, $74,907,100 was personal property, which is as much, within five millions, as the personal property of New York in the same year. This indicates a far more comfortable' state of things among the body of the population, the mechanics, laborers, &c., than exists here. The prosperity of these classes is always measurably evidenced by the proportion which personal estate bears to real, most of their savings being necessarily converted into this species of property. The division of personal estate, according to the valuation of 1850, upon the population of the same years in the two cities, would give to each individual in New York $155 06: in Boston $539 71. A similar calculation in reference to the different wards of New York, shows that there is the least degree of comfort in the 13th and 16th wards, the division of personal property in 1850, giving but $16 11 per head in the former, and $16 71 in the latter. In the 10th ward, a like division would afford $41 29 per head; in the 8th ward, $41 37 per head; in the 6th, $45 08, and in the 4th, $46 88. In the 15th ward, the division would give $643 21 to each individual; in the 14th, $144 30, and in the 18th, $128 11. The calculation cannot be extended at all to the first three wards, as their position, before explained, with reference to Commerce and population, puts them on a very different footing, in general matters, from the other wards. The same circumstances, of course, affect somewhat all the wards of the city, but in very uneven degrees. Taking the wards four to thirteen, sixteen, and seventeen, embracing about 385,000 inhabitants, or near four-fifths the whole population of the city, the division, on the basis of 1850, would give but about 843 of personal property per head, and but about $320 per head of both real and personal.

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