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two hogsheads, four quarter-casks, or fifteen cases (of all sizes) are received as one puncheon. The above shipments were made by twenty-five firms. Martell & Co., Hennessy & Co., Otard, Dupuy & Co., and the United Vineyard Proprietors Company, were the four leaviest shippers, exporting more than the other twenty-one houses combined.
POSTAL TREATY BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND PRUSSIA. The following are the rates of postage established by a convention just concluded between the United States and Prussia.
We are authorized to say that the first closed mail to Prussia will be dispatched from New York by the United States steamship Baltic, on the 30th inst.
RATES ON LETTERS--PRE-PAYMENT OPTIONAL, BEING THE FULL POSTAGE. German-Austrian Postal Union States of, riz:-Prussia, all other German
States, and the whole Austrian Empire, by the Prussian closed mail, via London and Ostend.
30 OX NEWSPAPERS-SIX CENTS EACH. Pre-payment required both in the United States and Germany, being the full postage.
Therefore, newspapers received in the Prussian closed mail (unlike those in the British, French, Bremen, and other foreign mails.) will be delivered without further charge. Newspapers sent in the Prussian closed mail to the German-Austrian Postal Union, should be marked “Paid all."
ON LETTERS-PRE-PAYMENT OPTIONAL, BEING THE FULL POSTAGE. Alexandria, (by Prussian closed Ionian Islands
87 mail cents 38 Larnaea
40 Beyrout.. 40 Modena.
33 Candia 30 Mytilene..
46 Cesme.. 40 Norway
48 China, except Hong Kong, via Tri Parma..
33 este. 62 Poland
37 Constantinople.. 40 Rhodes..
40 Dardavelles, ile.. 40 Russia.
37 Denmark.. 37 Salonica
40 East Indies, English possessions in, Samsu.
40 via Trieste 38 Smyrna..
40 East In lies, all other countries in
42 and beyond the East Indies, via Switzerland
38 Trieste 70 Tenedes
40 Galatz. 40 Trebizoude.
40 Gallipoli.. 4 Tulozi...
40 Greece 42 Tuscany
35 Hong Kong, via Trieste 38 Varna ..
40 PRE-PAYMENT REQUIRED, BEING THE UNITED STATES AND PRUSSIAN POSTAGE ONLY. Egypt, except Alexandria ....
..cents 30 Italian States, not belonging to Austria, except Modena, Parma, and Tuscany. 30
Lumbardy and Venice are parts of the Austrian Empire.
iterranean, except Cunstantinople, Beyrout, Lainaea, Rhodes, Cesme, Smyrna,
30 ON NEWSPAPERS-SIX CENTS EACH. Pre paynient required, being the United States and l'russian postage only.
SIGNALS FOR SHIPS ORDERED BY SWEDEN. The following translation of a Royal Ordinance of the Swedish Goveroment, con cerning ship lantern signals, has recently been officially communicated to the Depart ment of State at Washington:ROYAL ORDINANCE CONCERNING SHIP LANTERN SIGNALS WITH WHICH ALL VESSELS, STEAK
OR OTHER, MUST BE PROVIDED WHILE EITHER AT SEA OR IN FOREIGN WATERS.
We, Oscar, by the grace of God, king of Sweden and Norway, and of the Goths and Wendes, do hereby make known that the Government of Great Britain having expressed the desire that Swedish vessels, in order to avoid collisions at sea, should be ordered to adopt the manner prescribed for English vessels to determine their respective positions--namely, by means of colored or white lights--we have judged proper, alter consulting the Department of the Marine, to issue the following directions, which shall be in force on and after the 1st of January next:
1st. All Swedish steamers at sea, in roadsteads, rivers and canals, harbors and bays, shall carry, from sunset to sunrise, lanterns of the description, and in the manner here. inafter described :-
When under way—A lantern with a white light at the foretop, a lantern with a green light on the starbord side, and a lantern with a red light on the larboard side.
The foretop light, which should be visible at the distance of at least five miles (mioutes) in a dark but clear night, shall be so constructed as to throw a uniform and fixed light upon a portion of the horizon comprised within twenty points of the compass; ten points on each side of the ship-pamely, from forward to two points abaft the beam, on either side.
The side lights, which in a dark but clear night should be visible at a distance of at least two miles (minutes) shall be so arranged as to throw a uniform unbroken light upon an arc of the horizon equal to ten points of the compass-namely, from forwards to two points abast the beam. Green on the starboard and red on the larboard side.
Each of the side lanterns must be furnished with a screen (inboard) at least three feet long, in order to prevent the lights from being seen across the bow, (literally " from crossing forward on the bow.")
When at anchor-A lantern with a light of ordinary power.
2d. All sailing vessels, at home or abroad, from sunset to sunrise, when approaching another vessel under sail or in tow, should show a clear light in the way most easily to be seen by the other vessel, and sufficiently soon to avoid a collision.
All sailing vessels at anchor in roads, or in places where vessels pass, shall carry at the masthead, between sunset and sunrise, a lantern with a steady, clear light, except in ports and places where other regulations are in force.
3d. Lanterns used at anchor by both sailing and steam vessels shall be so constructed as to throw a clear and strong light all around the borizon.
4th. It shall be permitted to use any kind of lantern whatever, provided all the foregoing regulations are observed.
Diagrams and further explanations of the above system of signals shall be communicated by the Chamber of Commerce.
During the absence of His Majesty, our Gracious King and Master, the Regency, ad interim, of Sweden and Norway.
Signed by G. A. SPARRE, and seventeeu other members.
TRIBUNALS OF COMMERCE, A special committee of the Liverpool Chamber of Commerce has prepared a report upon mercantile law reform and the Tribunals of Commerce. For convenience of reference this report has been printed in pamphlet form. The committee, as to Tribunals of Commerce, thus recapitulate the requirements of the trading classes of the country, as may be gathered from the expression of their discontent and deep sense of wrong suffered from the present system of what may be truly termed spoliation with injustice :
1. “They require that redress of wrong, the recovery of right, and the adjudication of doubtful claims, shall be had as summarily as may be consistent with the ascer. tainment of the truth, without unnecessary expense, or the interference of useless persong, forms, or formularies.
2. “That a rich man, or an obstinate man, or a dishonest man, shall no longer be enabled, under the color of law, to deny or withhold another man's rights, or to harrass, exhaust, and ruin those who are obliged to enter into litigation with them.
3. “That causes of dispute between man and man shall, at least in the first instance, be referred to authoritative judges, who, by habit or experience, are most competent to understand the subject.”
The leading principles which are essential to be preserved in any new arrangements are thus epitomized :
1. “The establishment of permanent and local courts, with compulsory powers within towns and districts of certain extent, for the adjudication of mercantile disputes occurring within their respective jurisdictions.
2. “The judges to consist of mercantile men, bankers, and traders of unblemished character, of a certain age, assisted by lawyers of certain standing.
3. “The courts to have the powers common to all properly.constituted tribunals, such as power to appoint their own officers, to regulate their own proceedings, to compel appearance, to commit for contempt, and to enforce judgment.
4. “The procedure to be conducted informally, according to the principles of known law, and in equitable conformity to mercantile usage.
6. “ The courts to have power to suspend or adjourn the hearing of a cause, for the purpose of obtaining further evidence or information.
6. “ Also to have power to refer questions of law to the higher courts, and ques. tions of accounts, or of particular trade practices and technicalities, to parties conversant therein.
7. “The courts to have power to inflict fines for vexatious suits or defenses. 8. “The disputants to have the option of pleading in person or by proxy.
9. " Judgments under a certain amount, on sufficient cause shown, to be referred back to the courts for review; above a certain amount to be taken by appeal, if so desired, to the higher tribunals.
10. “These courts to have cognizance of bankruptcies and insolvent estates."
METHOD OF PUTTING UP PRODUCE FOR MARKET. Messrs. W. F. HARRIS & Co., Commission Merchants of Macon, Georgia, who have had some experience in the Southern Market, have issued a circular containing some valuable suggestions to the growers of produce, which, if improved, may enable farmers and shippers to obtain better prices for their products. We publish the circular for the information of the readers of the Merchants' Magazine in the Southern and Western States.
Heretofore the rude manner of putting up produce for market, and then the want of speedy conveyance to market, have operated much against the interests of shippers. But as the railroads have penetrated further into the heart of the produce section, and as these roads are more extensively equipped, the strong probability is, that henceforth there will not be detention or difficulty in reaching market, at any season of the
year. Middle and Southern Georgia, will always, more or less, need the products of TenDessee, and can afford to pay prices for them that will handsomely remunerate the growers for their trouble in producing and preparing these products for market. But to realize these fair prices, two things are necessary to be done first on the part of the farmer.
1st. The article itself must be of the best quality.
2d. The article, whatever it may be, must be put up in the very best manner, in order to be presented for sale in market, in good condition.
Supposing that every farmer or shipper will select only the best articles, we offer some directions as to preparing them for safe transportation, and preserving them in good order.
A few of the leading articles may suffice.
APPLES.--Apples should be well selected, free from bruises and rotten specks, and sbipped in barrels perforated with auger holes, so that the air may pass through. The sameremark as to the manner of shipping, applies to Irish Potatoes and Onions, all of which should be shipped, at intervals, from September until June.
Georgia pays thousands of dollars to New York and New England annually, for these three articles, while Tennessee can furnish better qualities of the same, for the same prices.
Dried Fruit.-Both apples and peaches should be pealed, well dried, and sent to market in barrels, as green apples.
CABBAGES-Should be sent in crates.
Bacon. - It is unquestionably the right policy to send bacon to market rather than live hogs, because it will pay the farmer more money, if properly managed.
To make merchantable bacon, the bogs should be well fattened on corn, and after killing, well trimmed, salted, thoroughly smoked, ond cured dry before boxing for market
. Hams and shoulders should be trimmed after the Baltimore style; that is the shoulders nearly square, and the hams rounded at the top ; not forgetting to cut off the legs just above the knee joints, and the tail from the ham. Sides should be free from backbone. Clear sides are worth one cent per pound more than the ribbed side. It need not be added that there is, in trimming and curing the same quality of pork, a difference of from two to four cents per pound. The more neatly bacon is trimmed, the better will be the price.
LARD.— The better plan is to assort the lard, keeping the leaf from the entrail lard, and send it to market in neat cans, containing from 100 to 200 lbs. Nice cans of 100 lbs. will usually bring one cent more per lb.
BUTTER. — Butter should be made of rich milk, the milk and water entirely worked out, and the butter packed firmly in nice cans, holding from 40 to 60 lbs. Nail kegs old barrels and boxes are not suitable vessels for butter, as is sometimes seen in market.
BEEF HAMS.—Dried beef hams, well cured, command as high prices as bacon, the year round. Let the farmer try this article in the Georgia market.
Beans and Peas. White Beans, well assorted, are much sought for as a diet, and command high prices. The same is true of the White Lady Pea, while there is constant demand for Stock Peas. Let beans and peas be sent in sacks containing two bushels.
Eggs. Let eggs be shipped in barrels, packed in seed oats.
Flour.— With an improvement in the grinding and bolting, and then by packing the flour in pice barrels, bound with flat white oak hoops-branding the barrels neatly -the Teunessee flour might be made to drive all Northern flour from Georgia mar. kets, and thereby Tennessee would receive the ten thousands of dollars that are an. nually paid to northern markets for the single article of flour. Buckwheat flour sells well in the winter and spring.
Corn Meal.—Let it be ground of strictly white flint corn-previously fanned and free from silks and husks—and bolted and sacked in two-bushel sacks, while cool. Meal intended for shipping to foreign ports, should kiln-dried and packed in barrels ; and this would pay if properly undertaken.
FEATHERS.- Good assorted geese feathers are in demand during the fall, winter, and spring.
Grain.- Wheat, rye, oats, and barley of superior quality will, every year, find a market in the south, and should be sent in two-bushel sacks the latter part of the summer or first of the fall.
Corn.--Corn should be well dried on the ear, and the white separated from the yellow before shelling. When shelled, the silks, husks, nubs of cobs and trash of all kinds, should be separated by fanning in the same manner as wheat is cleaned ; ana sent to market in two-bushel sacks. Be certain to keep the corn from getting damp after it is put up for market.
White flint corn is generally preferred in the southern market, though yellow corn is worth more for exportation.
The consumption of Indian corn being greatly on the increase in Europe, hereafter Tennessee corn will find a market in Liverpool and in Germany. This coming winter and spring it will be shipped hence, so let it be of the best quality, well assorted, that it may gain a good reputation there on first trial. The most expeditious channel to the seaboard is by the way of Savannah, which offers a fine wholesale market, besides many advantages in shipping as it regards safety, dispatch, cheapness of freight, insurance, &c.
Marks.—Let every package be shipped with the mark of a single letter, and let the shipping receipt be sent to the consignee as soon as the produce is shipped.
W. F. HARRIS & Co.
SHIP BUILDING IN LOUISIANA.
It will be seen by the following act passed by the Louisiana Legislature, that a large bounty is offered for the encouragement of ship building in that State. No State in the Union possesses a greater abundance of ship timber, or timber of superior qualo ity; it is procured easily, and at a small cost. Labor there is not higher than it is in, New England, and we think that eastern enterprise would find a substantial reward co the banks of the Mississippi, under the encouragement here presented :
AN ACT TO ENCOURAGE SHIP BUILDING IN LOUISIANA.
Whereas materials of the best quality for the building of ships, are found in great abundance in this State, and said materials are actually carried to a great distance at great cost, and then converted into ships; and whereas it has been found by experience that the resources of a State may often be developed by the offering of a reward or bonus for the introduction of an art or agricultural product, and whereas it would be highly convenient and profitable to our citizens, to have ships built in Louisiana, and it is believed that this branch of business might be established upon a permanent basis, by giving it a slight encouragement for a limited period, therefore
SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the State of Louisiana, in General Assembly convened, That a reward or bonus is hereby offered, and shall be given by this State to each and every person, or association of persons, whether resident of this State or otherwise, who shall build or complete, or cause to be built and completed within this State, any ship or ships, vessel or vessels, of a tonnage each of more than one hundred tons burden, which reward or bonus shall be five dollars per ton, custom house measurement, for each and every ship or vessel, and for each and every sea-going steamer so built and completed as aforesaid, and four dollars per ton for each and every river or lake steaner so built and completed as aforesaid.
Sec. 2. Be it further enacted &c., That any person demanding the reward or bonus provided by this act, shall file in the office of the Secretary of State, a certificate signed by the collector of the port, and the builder of any vessel or vessels, which said certificate shall state the name or names of the builder or builders, the name and tonnage of the ship
other vessel, and that said ship or other vessel was wholly built and completed within this State, after the passage of this act; and upon the production of a copy of said certificate, countersigned by the Secretary of State, it shall be the duty of the auditor of public accounts to give to the holder of said certified copy, a warrant upon the treasurer for the amount to which said holder may be entitled under the provisions of this act.
Sec. 3. Be it further enacted, &c., That this act shall be in force for and during the term of five years from and after its possage.
Approved March 18, 1852.
OF OCEAN POSTAGE.
TO COLLECTORS AND OTHER OFFICERS OF THE CUSTOMS.
TREASURY DEPARTMENT, October 9, 1852. The attention of collectors and other officers of the customs is called to the subjoined provisions of the 5th section of the “ Act to establish certain post-roads and for other purposes," approved August 31st, 1852.
The instructions of the 10th August, 1829, being applicable under the law of 3d March, 1825, as modified by the act of 30th of August last, are annexed, and will continue to be faithfully observed and enforced by officers of the customs. It will be
seen that the act of the 31st of August last, requires all letters on board a vessel arI riving within a port or collection district of the United States, to be delivered at the
post-office at or vearest said port or place of arrival, before the vessel is allowed to break bulk or make entry.
The 1st section of the act of 3d March, 1825, excepts from this requirement, letters addressed to the owner or consignee of the vessel. That exception is no longer in force, and all letters must be delivered at the post-office as required, except such as the customs officer, on well grounded suspicion, may deem it his duty to seize, as hereinafter prescribed. The provision imposing a penalty of one hundred dollars on the master or commander of the vessel, which breaks bulk before the due delivery of the letters at the post-office, is unrepealed and will be rigidly enforced. The oath, in the