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SOUTH FORELAND HIGH LIGHT.

(TRINITY-House, London, September 1, 1852. This corporation having, with a view to promote the safety of vessels when naviga. ting by night in the vicinity of Folkstone, recently caused examination to be made of the rocky patches which extend from the shore at Copt Point; and having ascertained that additional facility for navigating that part of the Channel, will be afforded by decreasing the range of the South Foreland High Light to the northward, notice is hereby given, that on and after the 1st of October next, the light from the said high lighthouse will not be visible to the northward of the line of bearing of W. by Š. southerly.

Masters of vessels drawing more than 14 feet water should adhere to the old rule, which requires that the lower light shall be kept in sight when approachiog the shore; and masters and pilots of all vessels not bound to Folkstone Harbor are now instructed to stand off immediately the high light disappears.

By order, J. HERBERT, Secretary.

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DIRECTIONS FOR SAILING INTO AND OUT OF HARBOR GRACE. Ships going out of Harbor Grace with scant winds, should never open Long Harry of the easternmost land; that mark will lead clear of the White Rock and North Bar. For the South Bar, never open Ship's Head Beacon on the beach, until the beacon opposite the Chapel opens to the southward of Father Ewer's House, you are then clear of the South Bar and may haul to S. E.

LEADING MARKS INTO HARBOR Grace. The beacon on Ship's Head just open the northward of the beacon on the beach, will lead mid-channel; or Long Harry just touching to the easterr.most land. The beacon open of Father Ewer's House, will lead along the eastern side of the bar in four fathoms low water, spring tides.

The beacon between Father Ewer's House and the Spire, is the cross mark for the spit or point of the bar. The beacon on with the west end of Dr. Stirling's house, (now the Nunnery,) leads along the west side of the bar, in five fathoms, low water, spring tides.

WEST COAST OF JUTLAND, AND THE COASTS OF BORNHOLM. The Danish Consul General at London, (England,) under date September 28th, 1852, has issued the subjoined notice to mariners :

Notice is hereby given to mariners, in the event of their being unfortunately stranded on the west coast of Jutland, or on the coasts of Bornholm, and no communication can by other means be made with the ship for rescuing the crew, that a line of nine yarns will be thrown to them by the aid of a rocket apparatus.

On the shipwrecked seamen hauling in this line it will be followed by a 31 inch warp, having a block secured at the end, in which is the bight of a smaller line. Both ends of this line are fastened to the escape-chair, which by means of an iron ring traperses the 31 inch warp. This warp is to be made fast on board the vessel as high as practicable, in order that the chair, if possible, may pass clear of the surge.

The chair can now, by help of the small line which runs into the block fastened to the warp on board, be hauled in and out on the warp; and the communication for the rescue of the crew be thus established.

DETENTION OF VESSELS AT HAMPTON ROADS. A Committee was appointed at the last meeting of the Board of Trade, to address the Treasury Department with reference to the undue detention of vessels bound to Baltimore at Hampton Roads, by the Collector at Norfolk. The committee received in answer the following letter :

TREASURY DEPARTMENT, November 12, 1852. GENTLEMEN : In reply to your communication of the 8th inst., respecting the detention of vessels, bound to Baltimore, by being compelled to enter and clear at Norfolk while detained at Hampton Roads, I have to state that the collector at Norfolk has been instructed under this date to require, in such cases, the delivery of a certified copy of the manifest to the boarding officer, but not to require the vessels to enter and clear at his port. I am, respectfully, your obedient servant,

WM. L. HODGE, Acting Secretary of the Treasury.

JOURNAL OF MINING AND MANUFACTURES.

THE FIRST MINING OPERATIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. To FREEMAN Hunt, Editor of the Merchants' Magazine :

Doubtless there may be some readers of the Merchants' Magazine, who will be sur. prised to learn that regular mining operations were undertaken in our country long prior to the Revolutionary War; and that some of the mines then opened have scarcely been surpassed in importance and value by the recent enterprises of a similar character, even in California. With such persons the impression may exist, that the developments of mineral wealth in that distant State, bave now, for the first time, turned public attention to the resources of the country more contiguous to us, and awakened the present spirit of mining enterprise. But this is not the fact. It is well known that a mania for gold existed in the minds of many of the first settlers of the American Colonies. They made extensive explorations, especially in that portion of the Colonies which now contains the States of New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Vermont. In some instances, these explorations must have been limited only be the impenetrable nature of the forests, or the hostile disposition of the Indians. From a large mass of letters and memoranda now before me, which were written by Mr. Sampson Simson, in the year 1750, I am induced to believe that all, or nearly all, of the mines now known to exist in the United States were then discovered. And, in addition, there were doubtless others, which were subsequently lost sight of, in consequence of their remoteness from the settlements, and the danger attending the access to them.

It is a very natural question to ask of what account such mines can be, as they have not yielded anything of special value even to the present day: Nay, it is even said, that the work upon them has long ago ceased, and even tradition has reported them as valueless. It is a fact that no important yield was formerly obtained from them, and it is likewise a fact that tradition reports them to be valueless, because the operations upon them were long ago suspended. But it is not a fact, on the contrary it is very far from the truth, that these operations were suspended because the mines were of little value. Instead thereof, many of them are of great value, but their situations were so exposed during the Revolutionary War, that all work upon them was, from the necessity of the case, suspended. This, I think, will be so apparent from the following facts which I am about to relate, as to convince any one that the public impression upon this point is erroneous, and that we yet have in our very midst, mineral wealth of incalculable value and of rare richness.

It does not appear that any serious efforts were made to develop these mines, until about a century ago. At that time, Mr. Sampson Simpson, a highly bonorable and wealthy merchant of the city of New York, in connection with capitalists in London, made entensive explorations and commenced working many of them. Their explorations they extended from North Carolina to Massachusetts.

In the year 1764, be associated with himself Charles Scott, of Virginia, who was afterwards a member of the First Continental Congress, General Moncton, Colonel James, an Engineer in the British Army, who had command of the sappers & miners the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Governors of New York and Massachusetts, the Provost of New York, George Trail, Thomas Barstow, Colonel McLane, Henry Remsen, and General Ethan Allen. With these gentlemen he continued to be associated until the time of his death, which occurred in the year 1773. His successor was Solomon Simpson, the father of Sampson Simpson, who at present resides in Warren Street in New York.

During the lifetime of Mr. Sampson Simpson, he obtained many valuable mining rights from individuals and the Crown of Great Britain. Amongst the most valuable of these, was a grant from the Crown, of all mines and minerals in Hampshire County in the Colony of Massachusetts, which embraced the present counties of Hampden, Franklin and Hampshire; also the mines and minerals in the Manor of Philipsburgh, including a portion of Westchester and Putnam counties in the State of New York; and the lands from the Town of Roxbury in the State of Connecticut, now known as the Spruce Hill Mines. He worked, alsó, a silver mine at Norwalk, Connecticut; the same which is now worked by Doctor Frankfort, or one very near to it. Under the association above mentioned, the copper mines at or near Granby, Connecticut, the

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mines on Spruce Hill, Litchfield County, and the silver mine at Sing Sing, Westchester County, New York, were very extensively workedmand proved exceedingly rich. The latter mine yielded a large quantity of native silver, some portions of which may now be seen at the office of Sampson Simpson, Esq., No. 18 Beekman Street, New York.

As a large number of the stockholders of this silver mine at Sing Sing, belonged to the British Army on the commencement of the Revolutionary War, and as its location was very much exposed, the operations upon it were suspended at that time. The tools, smelting house and other buildings were removed by the Continental Army to West Point, and the latter were made to serve for barracks during the war. It was, therefore, solely on account of these circumstances, and not from a scarcity of metal that this work was discontinued. It is certainly to be hoped that some enterprising individuals will again open these mines, and render their untold wealth useful to mankind, as well as profitable to their present proprietor.

Previously to this time, operations had been commenced on the mines in the vicinity of Northampton. On the 5th October, 1765, Charles Scott, Ethan Allen, Benjamin Stiles, Abram Bronson, Israel Bronson, John Frederick Stendall, Thomas Row, and three elaves, Tom, Cato, and Cesar, left Roxbury, Connecticut, for Northampton, took possession of the mines, and began to work them. On the 29th of November, 1776, Thomas Row, mining captain, writes to Mr. Sampson Simpson as follows: " I have been in Northampton as you desired me, and find that part looks as though it would produce a great deal of lead ore; the Messrs. Bronson think they have cleared £300 besides paying all the charges. "I was at three places or mines, or rather veins, wbich are very large and are mixed very much with ore; there is another about two miles from Bronson’s. This vein is the largest I ever saw;" (Southampton Lead Mines) " the first stone of ore taken out of the back of the vein, weighed above two bundred weight, almost solid. This vein is open six rods long and four feet wide, mixed very thick with ore; there is one part of the vein that is above a foot pretty near solid."

Judge B. Stiles and Charles Scott wrote to Mr. Simpson concurring with Captain Row in the above statement.

During the year 1771, Colonel James, Royal Engineer, (the same who afterwards commanded at Bunker Hill,) obtained leave of absence and sailed for England, with authority to sell a portion of the mines at Sing Sing, Roxbury, and Northampton, and also to conclude the sale of a portion of the mines that had been negotiated by Doctor Benjamin Franklin to General Moncton. A portion of the funds were paid and accep: tances made to the amount of £6,000 sterling, payable at a subsequent day. But owing to the disturbed state of the colony, it was deemed prudent not to pay the bills at maturity. Colonel James returned in time to participate in the Battle of Bunker Hill. The War of the Revolution, which now broke out, put an end to all mining operations, and it was not until many years afterwards, that the work was resumed.

In the years 1807, 1808 and 1809, Perkins Nichols, Esq., of Boston, obtained deeds from the owners of the soil for some of these mining rights of the proprietor, and commenced operations in the spring of 1809. At Southampton the property was divided by sales of portions to the Hon. Thomas H. Perkins & Brother, Isaac P. Davis, and David Hinkley: Subsequently, and by consent of the parties, it was conveyed to Dr. Solomou Bond in trust, but this gentlemen was never interested in the property. These mines were afterwards subdivided and shares sold to various individuals, who from time to time forfeited their interests by non-payment of assessments, until the whole property became vested in Perkins Nichols, Thomas H. Perkins, Isaac P. Daris, and David Hinkley. It was owing to the perseverance of the latter gentleman that the works were continued several years, after all the other parties had ceased to advance money to push forward the enterprise.

The canal leading to the adit is about 4 of a mile in length. This adit, which is horizontal and of 1,142 feet, bas been driven into the solid rock, and will drain the mine of water to the depth of 200 feet at its greatest elevation. A shaft was supk to ventilate the adit to the depth of 169 feet. A ebaft has also been sunk about 45 - feet on the course of the vein.

The work upon this mine ceased in consequence of the death of David Hinkley and also that of his head miner, Mr. Work. They were thirteen years driving this. adit.

In the year 1847, Knowles Taylor, Esq., and Charles Stearns, Geologist of the city of New York, made an unsuccessful attempt to purchase these mines. But the tradí. tion of the outstanding title of Sampson Símpson, and their inability to find his heirs induced them, at that time, to abandon the enterprise. Subsequently, in the year 1849, Mr. Stearns became the purchaser of the Roxbury Silver Mines, and then found that in order to perfect his title it was necessary for him to search out the descendents of Mr. Simpson. In this renewed effort he ultimately met with complete success. He found Sampson Simpson at Yonkers, Westchester County, New York, with all the papers of his uncle in the most perfect state of preservation; and with them there was also the long lost title to the Hampshire mines. He immediately purchased the interests of the mining company formed by Perkins Nichols, and a good will or quitclaim deeds of the occupants and owners of the soil. On the 4th of June last, he commenced operations at the Northampton mines. The labor of a few days was sufficient to make most important developments, which led to a sale of the property to Messrs. Sandford, Coit, & Griswold.

Since the sale, Messrs. Stearns & Sturges bave devoted their energies to clearing out the mines, timbering the old adit at the Southampton mines, and taking the water out of the shaft; all of which they have successfully accomplished. They have also let the mines to a company of Cornish miners, who work them for one-half the ore raised, and pay their own expenses. Thus, after nearly a century, these mines promise most important results to the proprietors,

The facts presented in this brief detail of these mines show the decided energy with which some of the most intelligent capitalists of the Colonies and in England embarked in mining operations. At the same time they make apparent how completely all enterprise was paralyzed by the Revolutionary War, and how widely public attention was diverted from these enterprises, and even their localities, so as to render an investigation of the title of the owners extremely difficult. It is not wonderful that, under such circumstances, operating for a series of years, an erroneous impression that these mines and many others were valueless sbould become deeply fixed in the public mind. Nothing, however, is necessary to remove this mistake, and present the subject in its true light, but the completion of the explorations which have been set on foot.

I remain, dear sir, your obedient servant,

CHARLES STEARNS.

THE MANUFACTURE OF GLASS.

NUMBER IV.

LEGENDS OF THE GLASS HOUSE, ETC. Enough has been adduced to show the peculiar estimation in which the art of glass making was formerly held, and the privileges conferred on it by the various governments of Europe.

The art was thus invested with an air of romance almost; and a manufacture commanding so much attention on the part of the governments, was regarded with a great share of awe and wonder.

It is not strange that in this state of things, various legends should have been identified with the manufacture and its localities. Among these legends was that which ascribed to the furnace fire the property of creating the monster called the salamander. It was believed, too, that at certain times this wonderful being issued from his abode, and as opportunity offered, carried back some victim to his fiery bed. The absence of workmen, who sometimes departed secretly for foreign lands, was always accounted for by the hypothesis that in some unguarded moment they had fallen a prey to the salamander. Visitors, too, whose courage could sustain them, were directed to look through the eye-hole to the interior of the furnace, and no one failed to discover the monster coiled in his glowing bed, and glaring with fiery eyes upon the intruder, much to his discomfiture and effectually, as to his retreat. Some gallant knights, armed “cap-a-pie,” it is said, dared a combat with the fiery dragon, but always returned defeated--the important fact being doubtless then unknown or overlooked, that steel armor, being a rapid conductor of heat, would be likely to tempt a more ready approach of the fabled monster.

There was another current notion that glass was as easily rendered malleable as brittle, but that the workmen concealed the art, and the life of any one attempting the discovery was surely forfeited. An ancient writer on glass, “ Isiderus,” states that in the reign of Tiberius, an artist banished from Rome on political considerations, in his retirement discovered the art of rendering glass malleable; he ventured to return to Rome, in hopes of procuring a remission of his sentence and a reward for his inven. tion; the glass makers supposing their interest to be at stake, employed so powerful an influence with the Emperor (who was made to believe that the value of gold might be diminished by the discovery) that he caused the artist to be bebeaded, and his secret died with him. “Blancourt” relates that as late as the time of Louis XIII., an inventor having presented to Cardinal Richelieu a specimen of malleable glass of bis own manufacture, he was rewarded by a sentence of perpetual imprisonment, lest the "vested interest” of French glass manufacturers might be injured by the discovery. Even at the present day, the error is a popular one, that if the art of making glass malleable were made known, it would have the effect of closing nearly all the existing glass works—while the truth is, that quite the reverse would be the result. Whenever the art of making glass malleable is made known, it will assuredly multiply the manufacture to a tenfold degree.

It was formerly the custom for the workmen, in setting pots in the glass furnace, to protect themselves from the heat by dressing in the skins of wild animals from head to foot; to this “outre” garb were added glass goggle eyes, and thus the most bideous looking monsters were readily presented to the eye. Show was then made of themselves in the neighborhood, to the infinite alarm of children, old women and others. This always occurred, with other mysterious doings on the occasion of setting the pot

, or any other important movement attendant on the business. The ground was thus furnished for very much of the horrible “diablerie” connected with the whole history of the manufacture.

A belief was long prevalent, that glass drinking vessels, made under certain astroDomical influences, would certainly fly to pieces if any poisonous liquid was placed in them; and sales of vessels of this kind were made at enormous prices. Another idea pervaded the community, that vessels of a certain form, made in a peculiar state of the atmosphere, and after midnight, would allow a pure diamond to pass directly through the bottom of the vessel. Various articles, such as colored goblets, were thought to add to the flavor of wine, and to detract materially from its intoxicating quality.

All these and many other popular notions added greatly to the mystery and renown of glass manufacturers. We close this number with an extract from “Howell's Familiar Letters;" "Murano,” says he, “a little island about one mile from Venice, is the place where crystal glass is made, and it is a rare sight to see whole streets where on one side there are twenty furnaces at work. They say here, that although one should transfer a furnace from Murano to Venice, or to any of the little assembled islands about here, or to any other part of the earth beside, to use the same materials, the same workmen, the same fuel

, and the self-same ingredients every way, yet they cannot make crystal glass in that perfection for beauty and luster as at Murano. Some impute it to the circumambient air, which is purified and attenuated by the concurrence of so many fires, that are in these furnaces night and day perpetually, for they are like the vestal fires, never going out.”

There is no manufacturing business carried on by man combining so many inherent contingencies, as that of the working of flint-glass. There is none demanding more untiring vigilance on the part of the daily superintendent, or requiring so much ability and interest in the work.“ Unlike all other branches of labor, it is carried on by night and day, is governed by no motive-power connected with steam or water, and has no analogy to the production of labor by looms or machinery.

The crude material of earth being used, each portion requires careful refining from natural impurities, and when compounded, being dependent upon combustion in the furnace for its completion, (which combustion is affected by change of the atmosphere beyond the power of man to direct, but exercises a power to affect the heat of the furnace acting for good or evil,) much responsibility rests upon the furnace tenders; constant care on their part is required. A slight neglect affects the quality of the glass. A check upon the furpace in founding time will spoil every pot of metal for the best work. Over-heat, too, will destroy the pots, and the entire weekly melt will be launched into the cave, at a loss of several thousand dollars. Even with the utmost care, a rush of air will not uncommonly pass through the furnace and destroy one or more pots in a minute's space. And when the furnace has yielded a full meli, and is ready for work, many evils are at hand, and among the ever-jarring materials of a glass-house, some one becomes adverse to a full week's work ; vigilance is not always the price of success.

Again: no branch of mechanical labor possesses more of attraction for the eye of the stranger or the curious, than is to be witnessed in a glass-house in full play. The crowded and bee-like movements of the workmen, with irons and hot metal, yet each, like the spheres of his own orbit, presents a scene apparently of inextricable confusion.

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