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On lines open for traffic in England and Wales the number of persons employed on 5,200 miles of railway, having 1,669 stations, was 51,979, and at the corresponding period of 1850, 46,787 persons, on 4,901 miles of railway, having 1,610 statious. On lines open in Scotland the number of persons employed on 9603 miles of railway, having 304 stations, was 8,107; and at the corresponding period of 1850, 8,516 persons on 8914 miles of railway, having 291 stations. The number of persons employed on 537} miles of railway, having 134 stations, on 30th June, 1851, was 3,477 ; and at the corresponding period of 1850, on 515 miles of railway, having 129 stations, 4,671 persons were employed. The increase of mileage in England and Wales, during the year ending 30th June, 1851, was 299 miles, with 59 stations; in Scotland, 69 miles and 13 stations; and in Ireland, 23 miles and 5 stations.
The nurnber of persons employed on 735 miles of railway in course of construction, at the end of June, 1851, was 42,938, of whom 34,948 were laborers; and at the corresponding period of 1850, 58,885 persons were employed on 868 miles of railway. The length of railway in course of construction in England, at the end of June, 1851, was 537 miles, on which 28,633 persons were employed; in Scotland, 215 miles, on which 695 persons were employed, as against 814 miles in June, 1850, and 7,979 perBons employed; and in Ireland, on 176 miles in course of construction, 13,610 persons were employed, as against 192 miles at the corresponding period and 19,123 persons. The number of miles in abeyance in England and Wales being 2,926, in Scotland 796 miles, and in Ireland 803 miles.
Of the 106,501 persons employed on railways in the United Kingdom on 30th of
219 Accountants and cashiers..
208 Inspectors and time keepers..
1,681 Engine drivers.
2,258 Assistant engine drivers.
2,387 Guards and breakmen.
1,865 Gatekeepers ..
1,341 Policemen and watchmen.
1,861 Porters and messengers.
KEY WEST AS A DEPOT FOR CALIFORNIA STEAMERS. A correspondent, writing from Key West, (Florida) attempts to show that Key West has ample means and resources, unbounded facilities, and can give quicker dispatch to steamers than Havana, and should therefore be made the great depot for California steamers. That Key West is a United States port, inhabited by people whose interest, feelings, and patriotism, are for and with the United States; that she possesses a good harbor, and has the means and resources necessary for a place of transit for passengers, and a depot for supplies for the steamships employed in transporting the United States mails, and citizens of the United States to and from New York and California, independent of all other considerations, are reasonis sufficient for making so important a change.
Our Key West correspondent thus sums up the reasons for making Key West a
hali-way house for coal, watering, and provisioning the vessels employed in the California trade.
1st. The distance from New York to Central America, is less on a line passing through Key West, than measured via of Havana ; and from New York to Tehuantepec the advantage of distance is greatly in favor of Key West.
21. A. steamer bound to Chagres via of Havana, must twice cross the Gulf Stream, and in a diagonal line stem its rapid current for full twenty-four hours. If passing through Key West, the steamer would keep upon the edge of the stream, where the eddy would be in its favor and the crossing of the Gulf avoided.
3d. Smoother seas and calmer weather are found upon the edge of the Gulf Stream than in its center, particularly in that part lying between Savannah and Tortugas, which would lessen the passage made via of Key West.
4th. A steamer can enter the harbor of Key West at any hour of the night, immediately enter at the custom-house, make fast alongside of the coal wharf, and, without a moment's delay, proceed to coaling and watering, and, if necessary, leave before dawn of day. Should she take the Havana route, and arrive off the Moro Castle after sun-dow, she must anchor and wait until 9 o'clock on the following day, before any communication is made with the shore; and the day is well nigh gone before coaling is cornmenced, thus consuming nearly twenty hours of her valuable time.
5th. A steamer can be cualed at Key West, as has been fairly proved, in less time than at Charleston, as soon as at New York, and in one-fourth of the time consumed at Havana.
6th. Vessels not wishing pilots, can enter the harbor of Key West free of pilotage; at Havana, pilotage is invariably enforced.
7th. Coal can be landed as cheap, can be stored in yards in immediate proximity to the landing, and be placed in the bunkers by man or horse power, in less time and at less expense than at Havana, where the coal is passed on board in baskets from launches alongside, a slow and tedious process.
8th. Provisions of all kinds can be purchased, at prices in favor of Key West, to the amount of duty levied on the same at Havana-they all being exported to that city from the United States. Fresh meats are sold at less rates in our now small mar. ket, than the steamers pay the Havana butchers. Were there an increased demand, prices would come down. Tampa Bıy, two days' sail from Key West, is perhaps the finest cattle market in the South. Full grown cattle can be bought in that towo, to an unlimited extent, for $10 per head. Green turtle, weighing from one to fire hundred pounds, abound on our coast, and can be delivered for ihree cents per pouod. No better meat can be taken to sea than turtle. It can be kept for twenty days alive, requires no food nor care save watering, and the entire animal is eatable. It can be roasted, stewed, boiled, fried, force bulled, and souped, to satisfy the appetites of salted Californians. The fish market of Havana is supplied by our smacks, so there can be no competition in that line. Our waters are alive with the finest varieties, and we could fill half the markets in the States.
9th. The only articles that Havana could furnish the steamers at less rates, are fruit and vegetables. But we doubt whether she would be able, in one year from the day that Key West is made a depot, to compete with the Yankees of Florida in these productions Should there be a demand to justify the expenditures, half the State would be turned into fruiteries and vegetable gardens, and the result would show that the Spaniard, with bis rich soil and mild climate, had found a successful competitor.
10th. There is no sweeter water carried to sea than that afforded by our large cisterns. Rain water never becomes sour, nor does it acquire an unpleasant bilgey taste; but it improves with age, and remains pure for years. Our water is superior to the Havana River water, and is sold for the same sum.
11th. Passengers meet, at Key West, with no obstacles in landing. There are so landing permits, nor passports, nor boat bire, nor danger of any kind in getting on shore. Nor is there extortion of any kind. They are upon the soil of freedom, and among their own people. The above așe some of the reasons why Key West should become a depot for the United States Mail Steamships.
12th. A telegraphic wire can be carried across the Key and along the coast, connecting at Savannah with the New York lines, at as little expense as over any like distance in the States, and thus enable the California news to be published in New York four days in advance of the mails. As no wire can be carried across the Gulf, from Havana, a telegraph is impracticable from that city.
STATISTICS OF POPULATION, &c.
EMIGRATION FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM.
The twelfth general report of the Colonial Land and Emigration Cominissioners, for the year 1851, has just been printed, and presented to both Houses of Parliament. The report is the most interesting and elaborate which has yet appeared, and the growing importance of the subject must command for it the attentive considera'ion of the public. The Cosmissioners state that the total emigration from the United Kingdom in the twenty years ending with 1851, has amounted to 2,640,848; but of this emigration more than one-half has taken place in the last five years—the largest num. ber who emigrated in any one year having been 129,851, in 1846. The numbers who emigrated within the last five years were as follows: 1847 258,270 | 1850...
280.849 1848. 248.089 1851.
335,966 299,498 It will, therefore, be seen that, although the progress has not been uniform, the general result shows an immense increase, the emigration in 1851 having exceeded the largest enigration of any preceding year by 36,468, or 12.17 per cent, and the average of four years by 61,290, or 23.66 per cent. Such an einigration, if drawn equally from all parts of the United Kingdom, would seriously affect the progress of pipulation. But the rate at which it is now proceeding, so far exceeds its rate during the majority of the years included in the last census, that, unless some very great change takes place shortly, or the loss be suppliers from other quarters, the next census will show a much larger reduction of the population than the last. The emigrátivn of 1831, while it nearly doubled the estimated average emigration of the preceding ten years, exceeded any probable increase of the population by nearly 4 to l. But this calculation, unfavorable as it appears, is clearly below the truth, for the classes who emigrate include a large proportion of the youngest, the bealthiest, and most energetic of the adult population, on which the excess of births over deaths mainly depeods. Upon the prospect of the extinction of the Irish race in Ireland, the Commissioners say :
“ We should be disposed to believe that those who remain at home, including an unusual proportion of the old, the most feeble, and most destitute, do not, at the most, do more than replace by births their losses by deaths. If such be the case, it would follow that the annual decrease of the population in Ireland is not less than the annual amount of the emigration, and that unless the emigration be soon arrested, the country will be deserted by its original population.”
The money sent home from North America during the four years from 1848 to 1851, or contributed as prepaid passaye-money, amounted to no less a sum than £2,947,000. The amount so paid in£160,000 | 1850.....
£957,000 540,000 | 1851
990,000 Of the whole number who left the United Kingdom in 1851Went to the United States
267,357 To British North America..
42.605 To Australia....
196,881 From London, (not quite sour sevenths)..
17.370 From Scotland.
10,864 From Ireland...
38,418 To the 267,357 who proceeded direct to the United States must be added 18,000
who went through Canada, making a total of 285,358 emigrants from the United Kingdom to the United States during the year, or about seventeen-twentieths of the whole unassisted emigration. But, although the number of emigrants who settle in the British North American Provinces has not increased, and is not likely to increase at all in proportion to the general emigration, it must be borne in mind that the emigration to those Provinces has not fallen off, but, on the contrary, bas maintained a fair progress up to the present time. During the four years preceding 1847, that em. igration amounted to 121,684, or 30,421 a year. During the four years ending 31st December last, it amounted to 147,998, or an average of 36,999 a year.
The year 1847 is excluded, because it was an exceptional year, which could not fairly be taken into account. The Commissioners believe that, including transient em. igrants, an immigration of from 35,000 to 40,000 is sufficient in ordinary years to sopply the labor market of British North America. The amount expended out of the public funds for the conveyance of emigrants was, up to the end of 1851, about £800,000, of which about £4,500 was derived from Parliamentary votes for sending out free emigrants to those colonies which have received convicts, and £102,000 ob tained from the emigrants themselves. The remaining sum of about £650,000 was furnished from the land revenues of New South Wales and South Australia, or the general revenue of the Cape of Good Hope.
The emigration which bas taken place during the first four months of the present year promises to exceed that of any furmer year. The discovery of gold fields in California and Australia has, of course, tended to ewell the tide to a great extent; but, even if those discoveries had not taken place, there is every reason to believe that the emigration of 1852 would have been unparalleled. The total emigration from the twelve ports in the United Kingdom, at which there are emigration officers, amounted to 103,216. Of theseWent to the United States..
83,029 To British North America
8,104 To the Australian Colonies
11,253 To other places ......
885 Assuming that the tide of emigration, during the remaining eight months of the year, does not exceed the rate at which it flowed in the months of January, February, March, and April, the total einigration in 1852 would amount to 412,864 persons, being an excess, as compared with 1851, of no less than 155,492. In all probability, however, the emigration from the United Kingdom, during the present year, will consideraly exceed 500,000 persons.
POPULATION AND TERRITORY OF THE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE IN 1851. Upon an extent of 664,400 square kilometres, (a kilometre is equal to 1,0931 yards -i.e., 64 yards less than five-eighths of our mile,) the Austrian Empire possesses, according to the last census taken in 1846, a total population of 37,443.000 souls. Thus, with an extent of territory greater by some thirty thousand square nuiles than France, Belgium, and the Netherlands unite its population is about seven millions less than that of those countries. Broken up into grand territorial divisions, or natural groups of provinces, the figures above are thus distributed :
Extent in square
No. inhabitants Provinces.
kilometres. Population. p'r. sq. kilo. German, (in th- Confederation)... 197,400 12,097,000 Polish, or Gallician. ...
87,500 5,106,000 58 Italian, (Lombardy, Venice)..
45,800 4,928,000 109 Hungarian and Illyrian
334,200 14,820,000 Total .......
664,400 36,951,000 56 Compared with the whole population and the whole territorial extent of the Austrian Empire, the several provincial divisions above, present the following proportions: Provincer.
Square kilometres. Inhabitants. German, (in the Confederation).
30 in 100 33 in 100 Polishı, or Gallician.....
13 in 100 14 in 100 Italian, (Lombardy, Venice).
7 in 100 13 in 160 Hungarian and Illyrian....
50 in 100 40 in 100 Concerning the Hungarian provinces the results above offered are not given as exact.
They are approximative only. Since 1846, the date of the last census, the annexation of the city and territory of Cracow has added 500 square miles to the superficial extent of the Austrian Empire, and 141,000 to the number of its inhabitants; and as the population of the empire increases usually at the rate of 1 per cent per annum, the total population in January, 1848, may be estimated at 38,333,000 souls.
Political troubles and internal wars have not admitted of any sensible augmentation since that period. During the peace which lasted from 18:21 to 1840, the general increase of the population, according to the calculations of Dr. Beecher, was about 6,000,000 or nearly 20 per cent. The increase was greater than that of France, though less than that of England, Prussia, or Russia.
The great territorial divisions above mentioned are subdivided as follows:-
The German countries of Austria comprise Lower Austria, with Vienna, its capital; Upper Austria, with Saltsburg, the Tyrol, Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola ; the Littoral, or sea board, with Trieste, Bohemia, Moravia, and Austrian Silesia. Upper and Lower Austria are the only provinces of the empire exclusively inhabited by Germans. The Sclavonians are numerous, and in some parts predominate even, in the other provinces with the exception of the Tyrol, whose southern valleys have an Italian population. The Italians also predominate in the ports of the Liitoral.
Austrian Poland comprises only Gallicia with the former Republic of Cracow, and the Buckovina, which was once a Turkish province. The Poles and the Ruthenes or Rousniaks (people of Russian origin) form the mass of the population; but among them are also found many Germans, Moldavians, Armenians, and above all, Jews.
Austrian Italy is composed of Lombardy and the Venetian States, and is inhabited by a mixed population of foreigners.
The Hungarian and Illyrian counties are composed now of Hungary proper and Servian Woyvodia, lately formed, and which corresponds in the main to the former Banat of Temiswar; Transylvania, which, united to Hungary during the revolution, has again been separated; of the Illyrian Banat, composed of Croatia and Esclavonia, former dependencies of the Hungarian crown; and finally of Dalmatia, between Turkey and the Adriatic.
The Hungarians, or Magyars, predominate in Hungary and Transylvania; and the Illyrian Sclavonians, (Croats, Servians, Dalmatians, and Morlachians,) prevail in the provinces, which extend to the south of the first of these two countries. The Wallachians, or Romanians, form an element in the population of Transylvania, as dense as that of the Slovachians in the north of Hungary. The Germans, everywhere numerous in the cities, are found too among the farmers of what is called the Saxon country, and in some Hungarian districts. There are also Jews, and many wandering Bohemians, or Gipseys, &c.
In the provinces bordering on Turkey, excepting Dalmatia, military government prevails. The seaports of this last prov nce-partly inhabited by Italians—are, with the port of Fiume, the only sea ports in that vast extent of couiitry.
The average density of the population in Austria, though less than that of Great Britain and France, is greater than that of Prussia. The most populous provinces of the empire, in proportion to their extent, are Lombardy, which exhibits the maximum of 122 inhabitants per square kilometre; the Venetian States; Moravia; Bohemia; and Lower Austria. The least populous provinces, on the other hand, are the Tyrol
, containing but 30 inhabitants to the square kilometre, (a minimum which is explained by the country's being covered with gigantic mountains ;) the military frontier of Illyrian Hungary; Carinthia ; Carniola, qand Transylvania.
The population of the empire is divided into about 800 citics, 2,500 market towns, (bourgs,) and 65,000 villages. The largest number of cities is in the German provinces. The Lombardo. Venetian Kingdom has fewer communes, large enough to be called cities, but has more important capitals. The Hungarian countries, where capital cities are more rare, possess many large market towns, and populous villages, striking by their size, but which bear the mark of Asiatic rather than of Western civilization.
In general it is remarked that in Austria the concentration of the population into large cities is still less than in other parts of Germany and in France, and much less than in England, Belgium, and the Netherlands. Nevertheless, there are to be found in the Austrian States, according to the census of 1846, 136 communes, of which the civil population exceeded 10,000, to wit:-5 communes containing more than 100,000 inhabitants each : 9 containing between 40,000 and 100,000; 10 containing between 30,000 and 40,000; 15 containing between 20,000 and 30,000; and 97 containing between 10,000 and 20,000.