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In 1846, the population of the 13 principal cities, which by their size, or from their commercial importance, were of the most prominence, was, excluding foreigners and troops in garrison, as follows: Vienna. 408,000 | Padua
64.000 Milap 156,000 Verona,
52.000 Prague. 215.000 Gratz..
51.000 Pesth.. 101.000 Bruno..
45.000 Lemberg.. 71,000 Buda
40.500 Trieste... 55,000 Presburg..
53,000 Including the population immediately outside of Trieste proper, the number of inhabitants of that city would be 80,000.
It is important to add concerning the Hungarian and Italian cities which suffered most from ihe events of 1848 and 1849, that the figures in the above table may be found now too high. The population of Peeth, for instance, has been reduced to 84,000.
According to Springer, the number of inhabitants in the Austrian Empire engaged in industrial occupations, strictly so called, (and who concentrate, from preference, in cities and market towns,) was increased between the years 1821 and 1840 from 2,300,000 to 3,000,000, while the agricultural laborers constituted a solid mass of 23,000,000 souls.
- NAVAL DRY-DOCKS OF THE UNITED STATES." In the Merchants' Magazine for August we briefly reviewed the work of Mr. Sterart, on the Naval Dry-Docks of the United States, giving at the same time a few extracts. Subsequently, we received a note from W. J. McAlpine, Esq., charging Mr. Stewart with plagiarism. That note we published in our October number. We dov, in justice to the author of the work on Naval Dry-Docks, &c, give place to the subjoined explanation of Mr. Norton, the publisher, who, we presume, speaks by the authority of the author:FREEMAN Hunt, Editor of the Merchants' Magazine, etc. :
DEAR SIR: My attention has been called to a letter published in the October num. ber of your valuable Journal from Wm. J. McAlpine, in which he states that the ex. tract in your August number, taken froin “ Naval Dry-Ducks of the United States," of which work I ain the publisher, was nearly word for word published some two years and a half since in Appleton's Dictionary of Mechanics and Engineering, and that he thinks it due to the Messrs. Appleton, who have the copyright of the Dictionary, and to himself, the contributor of the article referred to, to correct your notice of the work in question.
In justice to all the parties interested, I beg leave to state that, so far from having infringed upon the copyright of the Messrs. Appleton, the article as it appeared in their (Byrnes') Dictionary in May, 1850, was published in the supplement to the New York Tribune, July 6th, 1819, “ WORD FOR WORD," over the signature of “ Richelieu," wbich name has been adopted for years past by a well-known writer for that paper, and for which he would bave received due credit, bad it not been recorded "word for word” at the Navy Department in October, 1847, nearly two years prior to the date of the article in the Tribune.
By reference to the preface of the “Naval Dry-Docks," you will notice that the author states that “care has been taken to refer constantly to the official records of the Navy Department, and the reports of the engineers of the several docks during their construction, for valuable and reliable ivforniation," and a purusal of the book will show conclusively, I think, that the author has given (as I know it was his desire) " honor to whomsoever hopor is due.”
CHARLES B, NORTON.
GEOGRAPHICAL DEPARTMENT OF THE MERCANTILE LIBRARY.
The Mercantile Library Association of New York have opened a geographical room for the deposit of maps, charts, nautical and astronomical surveys and gergraphical statistics. The shipping interests of New York require such a place of deposit, which will be accessible to them at all times and made valuable for matters of reference and information. No place seems more appropriate for the establishment of such a department than in a mercantile library. The want of a similar department has long been felt by the mercantile community of New York. This new enterprise bids fair to be of great practical utility to that large class of citizens, directly engaged in Commerce and navigation. The Commerce of New York is much larger than that of any other city in the United States ; bence the necessity for some place where authentic and valuable information can at all times be obtained, which will serve to guide the mariner upon the “trackless deep.” The getting and printing of accurate nautical information has become a subject of general national importance.
In former times mariners were left to acquire their knowledge from the shipwrecks of others, but this progressive age demands some other means for acquiring reliable hydrographical information. Alibough the department is but recently opened, the collection is believed to be by far the largest of any in this country, consisting in part of Lieut. Maury's wind and current Charts, Lieut. A. D. Bachie's Charts of the Coast Survey, E. & G. W. Blunt's charts, besides many general and particular maps, all of which are open to the public free of charge. The present Board of Directors have entered upon this new enterprise with much zeal, and it is to be hoped that the subject will receive that careful investigation which the importance of it demands.
OF THE TAX OR DUTY ON FOREIGN COAL. The Philadelphia North American predicts a short supply of coal next winter “for those markets which are inaccessible after the closing of navigation.” The Tribune, with its ultra protectionist tendencies, says :-“If the duty on coal were utterly and forever abolisbed, and such duties imposed instead on iron and fabrics as would set our closed furnaces and idle factories at work once more, we have no doubt that the coal interest would be immensely and permanently benefited by the change.”
The Journal of Commerce suggests the “ propriety of a total abolition of the duty on coal, that the tribute pow levied upon New England, New York, and New Jersey by Pennsylvania may, if possible, be diminished.”
The Independent, in an able and well considered paper on the question of a total abolition of the duty on coal, presents a few considerations in favor of petitioning Congress for a repeal of the coal tax, among which are the following :
1. All the manufacturing and mechanical interests of the country that employ steam. power, would be benefited by the abolition of a duty of thirty per cent ad valorem on coal, which must have an effect upon the tariff of home prices in an article the consumption of which is so large an item in the cost of manufacturing.
2. The cost of gas--manufactured from bituminous coal--would be perceptibly diminished by the abolition of the duty on foreign coal. In Manchester, England, die price of gas is five shillings sterling--say $1 25---per thousand feet; in New York it is $3, and in New Haven $4. Why should we put a tax on light of 30 per cent ad valorem?
3. The commercial interest of the country would be greatly benefited by abolishing the duty on coal. Our leading exports--such as cotton and grain--are so much more bulky than the average of our ini ports that home freights are always light and the rates low. Indeed, vessels sometimes return in ballast, and they would more frequently bring coal as ballast, if our ports were free to its admission. But the duty on coal is a bar to its importation, and to that extent damages the freighting interest. To remedy this in part a higher freight is assessed upon outward bound prodacts, to the prejudice of the merchant and the producer.
It is impossible to get fairly at the ratio between out-freights and home-freights, because the out-freights are not established by a tariff, but fluctuate according to circumstances. Our first class packets often bring home coal on owners' account, just to ballast the ship. This would be done more frequently, but duties must be paid in cash on the delivery of the goods, and this demand on coal at all seasons is a drar. back on importation. The average freight on coal from Liverpool is about $3 per ton. It should be borne in mind here, as an important element in the caleulation, that we would not look to Great Britain al one for our supplies of bituminous coal. Vast fields of this coal in Nova Scotia would pour their treasure into the lap of New York, and that too in exchange for breadstuffs, if coal were duty free. The freight from Nova Scotia would not add so much to the prime cost of coal there, but that if exempted from duty it could be sold in our market as cheaply as domestic coal. Is it worth while to shut out our farmers from a market in our own neighborhood, to cut off our coasters from a steady and remunerative freight, and to tax ourselves $l 50 per chaldron on coal for the sake of protecting mines worth thirty-six hundred millions of dollars—more than the gold mines of California--whose owners confess that at the highest rates they cannot supply the wants of the public ?
4. The public generally, and especially the poorer classes, would be benefited by the repeal of the duty on coal. In Manchester, England, a chaldrou of the best Winstanley and Orrell coal, weighing 3,584 lbs., is delivered for £1 sterling, or $4 80. For this coal we would pay ordinarily in the New York market from $10 to $11 a chaldron, the duty being 30 per cent ad valorem. The price of Pennsylvania coal in this market ranges from $1 25 to $7 50; $5 per ton of 2,000 lbs. would be a very
A few years ago in the winter and spring it advanced to $7 or 88, and during the past winter it has ranged nearly as high." The monopolists in Pennsylvania now threaten, by a combination, to keep up the prices for the coming season, and mod. estly inform us that an advance of 20 per cent upon the present prices is intended merely as a healthful stimulus upon their own minds, to induce them to meet the growing demands of the market. We prefer that the stimulus should be applied from another quarter. At the lowest average rates of domestic coal, the price of 3,584 lbs. would be about $9. This verifies the remark made to us by a large coal dealer, during the high prices, that if it were not for the duty he could sell English coal cheaper than American. At the same price we should uniformly use the Eoglish coal, and so would many of our fellow citizens. A fair competition would keep down the price, so that the poor would be benefited. Let the experiment be tried. Next to cheap bread we should aim to provide cueAP Fuel for
TALLEYRAND AND THE BANKER, A banker, anxious about the rise and fall of stocks, came once to Talleyrand for information respecting the truth of a rumor that George III. had suddenly died, when the statesman replied in a confidential tone, “I shall be delighted if the information I have to give, be of any use to you." The banker was enchanted with the prospect of obtaining authentic intelligence from so high a source; and Talleyrand, with a mysterious air, continued, “Some say that the king of England is dead, others that he is not dead, for my own part I believe neither the one nor the other; I tell you this in confidence, but do not commit me." No better parody on modern diplomacy could ea. sily be written.
INVENTION FOR NEGRO CLOTHING. The Natchez Free Trader gives the following directions for making waterproof sacks for negroes, Mr. Johnson of the lower part of Concordia Parish being the discoverer:
“For a plantation of 50 or 100 negroes, take 20 gallons of linseed oil, into which mix three pounds of litharge, after the oil shall have been boiled a few moments. The litharge should be pulverized before being incorporated with the oil, and well stirred in.
“ Previously an overcoat, or sack, should have been neatly made from common cotton cloth, called Domestics, long enough to reach below the knees, to be closely buttoned up in front.
" When the mixture of oil and litharge is boiling hot, immerse the garment, wring it as dry as possible, and let it hang in the sun for three days, when it will become com. pletely waterproof, an overcoat for the negro, secure against storm or tempest, impervious to the wintry winds, or the chills of the nights. It will cost less than sixty cents per sack, and last one or two years.”
THE BANKER'S SATURDAY NIGHT,
[FROM THE INDEPENDENT.]
AN EYE TO BUSINESS. We are often entertained, says an English journalist, by the tone of sentiment adopted in advertising a death. There is frequently a facetious union of puff and despondency. We will give a specimen of a “death:"- · Died on the 11th ultimo, at the shop in Fleet-street, Mr. Edward Jones, much respected by all who knew and dealt with him. As a man he was amiable, as a hatter upright and moderate. His virtues were beyond all price, and his beaver hats were only £1 4s. each. He has left a widow to deplore his loss, and a large stock to be sold cheap for the benefit of his family. He was snatched to the other world in the prime of life, and just as he had concluded an extensive purchase of felt, which he got so cheap that the widow can supply hats at a more reasonable charge than any house in London. His disconsolate family will carry on the business with punctuality.”
A CREDITOR'S STRATAGEM TO COLLECT A DEBT. A week or two ago, says the Boston Herald, four creditors started for Boston, in the same train of cars, for the purpose of attaching the property of a certain debtor in Farmington, in the State of Maine. He owed each one separately, and they each were suspicious of the object of the other, but dared not say a word about it. So they rode, acquaintances all, talking upon everything except that which they had most at heart. When they arrived at the depot at Farmington, which was three miles from VOL. XXVII.-NO. VI.
where the debtor did business, they found nothing to "put 'em over the road" but a solitary cab, towards which they all rushed. Three got in, and refused admittance to the fourth, and the cab started. The fourth ran after, and got upon the outside with the driver. He asked the driver if he wanted to sell his horse. He replied that be did not want to,—that he was not worth more than $50, but he would not sell him for that. He asked him if he would take $100 for him. “Yes," said be. The fourth man” quickly paid over the money, took the reins and backed the cab up to a bank -slipped it from the harness, and tipped it up so that the door could not be opened, and jumped upon the horse's back and rode off“ lick-a-ty-switch," while the “insiders" were looking out of the window, feeling like singed cats. He rode to a lawyer's, and got a writ made and served, and his debt secure, and got back to the hotel just as the “insiders" came up puffing and blowing. The cabman toon bought back his horse for $60. The “sold” men offered to pay that sum, if the fortunate one, who found property sufficient to pay his own debt, would not tell of it in Boston.
NO ANTAGONISM BETWEEN CAPITAL AND LABOR. The Hon. EDWARD Everett, in one of his speeches at the dinner in Boston, given to BARING, the celebrated London Bapker, argued in his felicitous style that there could be no antagonism between CAPITAL and LABOR :
The owner of capital, said Mr. Everett, in England or America, really reaps the smallest portion of the advantages which flow from its possession-he being but a kind of head book-keeper or chief clerk to the business community. He may be as rich as Crosus, but he can neither eat, drink, nor wear more than one man's portion. Mr. Everett said he remembered hearing a jest made about Mr. Astor's property, which contained, he thought, a great deal of meaning-a latent, practical philosophy. Some one was asked whether he would be willing to take care of all Mr. Astor's property -eight or ten millions of dollars—merely for his board and clothing.
No," was the indignant answer, “ do you think me a fool P"
Well, rejoins the other, " that is all Mr. Astor himself gets for taking care of it; he's found, and that's all. The houses, the warehouses, the ships, the farms which be counts by the hundreds, and is obliged to take care of, are for the accommodation of others."
But then he has the income, the rents of all this mighty property, five or six hundred thousand dollars per annum.".
Yes, but he can do nothing with his income but build more houses, and warehouses, and ships, or loan more money on mortgages for the convenience of others. He's found, and you can make cothing else out of it."
AMERICAN TRADE IN INDIA. A writer in the London Daily News, is disturbed by the apprehension of American competition in the oriental trade. After alluding to the growth of the Russian Commerce in India, it urges some instant action of the East India Company to retain its ground, adding
Our Commerce cannot be forced like a cucumber, but must be reared like an infant And this the Court veglects, to strangle it in its birth. America's incipient trade with the opposite coast, on which they hold no harbor, and where they bave fought no battles, nor acquired large kingdoms, is already becoming more valuable than our own, and will grow into an extensive Commerce. Any mail may tell us that an American Consul is appointed to the Gulf.
Time, indeed, it was, that the Court should awaken from its nightmare. An American ship master will land a cargo on the Mekran coast at a less expense, than a cargo of British goods can be landed in Bombay; and the only way to defy such dangerous competition, is to make the most of the great advantages afforded by the Indus as the highway to Central Asia.
It is America, not Russia, we fear. All the world over taxes are being reduced ; but in India we, three or four years ago, imposed "an additional ad valorem duty of 5 per cent on importations of English goods,” because our customs were falling.