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United States import quotas or embargoes on agricultural and related products in effect Mar. 1, 1956Continued SEC. III.-CURRENT QUOTAS ON SUGAR AS OF MAR. 1, 1956, UNDER THE SUGAR ACT OF 1948, AS AMENDED :

Quantity in short tons, raw value
Domestic beet areas.

1, 800,000
Louisiana and Florida cane.


1,052, 000
Puerto Rico

1,080, 000
Virgin Islands

12, 000
Philippine Republic.


2,808, 960
Dominican Republic..

2, 813


8, 237

54, 668

4, 355 Unallotted

5, 852

8, 350,000
as follows:
There are also special limitations on the portion of the quota from certain areas which may be supplied in the form of direct consumption (refined sugar). These limitations are

Quantity in short tons, raw value
Puerto Rico

126, 033

Philippine Republic

Virgin Islands

Full-duty countries

Approximately 4s of their total quota
Liquid sugar: Molasses and sugar sirups,

Quantity in terms of wine gallons of 72 percent total sugar content





Tariff Act
of 1930, para-
graph No.

Commerce import class No.

29, 064
1580.750-1580.00 and 1610.750–1610.000.-

29, 616

n. s. p. f., containing soluble nonsugar solids
equal to 6 percent or less of the total soluble

7,970, 558
Dominican Republic 4-

502 Part of 1630.480-1630.000.

830, 894 British West Indies 4

200,000,000 cigars.

Cigars (exclusive of cigarettes, cheroots of all 605.

2621.000 (part). kinds, and paper cigars and cigarettes, includ.

ing wrappers). Scrap tobacco, and stemmed and unstemmed filler 601 and 603.- 2603.000, 2604.000, 2009.000.

tobacco described in par. 602, Tariff Act of 1930. Coconut oil..


2242.500. Buttons of pearl or shell.


9724.000, 0724.100.

6,500,000 pounds. 200,000 long tons. 850,000 gross.


801 Cordage, including yarns, twines (including 1005 (a), binding twines), cords, cordage, rope, and cablo,

1005 (b), tarred or untarred, wholly or in chiel value of 1622. manila (abaca) or other hard fiber.


Absolute quota 962,000 short tons, of which not over 66,000 short tons

may be refined sugar. 3417.500. 3411.000, 3412,000, 3417.020-3417.199, Absolute quota of 6,000,000 pounds,

83979—5&pt. 3—5

0705.000, 0707.000, 0710.000, 0713.000, The entry, or withdrawal from warehouse for consumption, of all such furs

0714.000, 0717.000, 0726.000; part of and skins which are products of the U.S.S. R. (Russia) or of any part of 0737.800, 0737.820, 0737.900, 0737.920, China which, at the time of entry, or withdrawal, is under Communist 0738.200, 0738.600, 0738.700, 0738.800. domination or control is probibited.

The importation of canned crab meat, manufactured or produced wholly

or in part in the U. S. S. R. (Russia) or manufactured or produced
wholly or in part on vessels of U. S. S. R. registry or on vessels under
the exclusive dominion or control of the U. S. S. R. is prohibited by
reason of the determination made under this section that such goods
are produced by the use of convict, forced, or indentured labor.

NOTE.-In addition to the quotas and embargoes described herein, a number of re-
strictions on agricultural and related products are in effect in furtherance of national
policy and in promotion and protection of the general health and welfare. For example,
the importation of absinthe is prohibited, as is the importation of narcotics. Cattle can-
not be imported unless the Bureau of Animal Industry (U.S. Department of Agriculture)
certifies that the country of origin of such cattle is free from tick fever and other disease.

A restriction of imports from Communist China and the Communist-dominated areas
of North Korea is also indirectly brought about by the foreign assets control regulations
of the Department of the Treasury.

1 The aggregate quantity entitled to the 178 cent reduced rate in any calendar year shall
be 15,000,000 pounds, or not more than a quantity equal to 15 percent of the average aggre-
gate apparent annual consumption of such fish during the 3 calendar years immediately
preceding the year in which the imported fish are entered, which ever quantity is greater.
of the total quantity of fish entitled to entry at the 178 cents rate in any calendar year,
not over 14 shall be so entitled during the first 3 months, not over 14 during the first 6
months, and not over 34 during the first 9 months of that year.

For the purposes of this note, “apparent consumption” shall be the sum of (a) the pro-
duction in the United States of fresh and frozen fillets, steaks, and sticks of the named fish
as defined on Oct. 30, 1947, and as reported by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, (b) the
quantity of such fillets, steaks, and sticks entered into the United States free of duty
under par. 1730 (a), and (c) the quantity of the named fish entered into the United States
and provided for in par. 717 (b).

? The minimum annual tarifi quota is 1,000,000 bushels (60 pounds each). If for any
calendar year the production of Irish or white potatoes, including seed potatoes, in the
United States, according to the estimate made as of September 1 by the U.S. Department
of Agriculture, is less than 350,000,000 bushels (60 pounds each), the tariff quota for th
12-month period beginning on September 15 of that year is increased above the 1,000,000
bushels by a quantity equal to the amount by which such estimated production is less
than 350,000,000 bushels. Cuban potatoes, including those entered when the current
quota is unfilled, are not to be charged against the quota.

3 Rates of duty not shown in this table for sugar. • Other foreign countries can ship no liquid sugar into the United States.

Provision is made for gradually decreasing proportions of this amount to be entered
free of duty. The proportions are as follows:

(a) During each of the calendar years 1956 to 1958, inclusive, 95 percent.
(6) During each of the calendar years 1959 to 1961, inclusive, 90 percent.
(c) During each of the calendar years 1962 to 1964, inclusive, 80 percent.
(d) During each of the calendar years 1965 to 1967, inclusive, 60 percent.
(e) During each of the calendar years 1968 to 1970, inclusive, 40 percent.
(f) During each of the calendar years 1971 to 1973, inclusive, 20 percent.

(9) On and after Jan. 1, 1974, nil.
Imports of such articles in excess of the duty-free quantity are subject to duty at the
most favorable rate in effect for like articles from other foreign countries.

• Provision is made for assessment of a rate of duty on this article in gradually increasing proportions to the lowest rate of duty assessed on other like foreign articles. The proportions are as follows:

(a) During the period from Jan. 1, 1956, to Dec. 31, 1958, both dates inclusive, 5 percent.

(b) During the period from Jan. 1, 1959, to Dec. 31, 1961, both dates inclusive, 10 percent.

(C) During the period from Jan. 1, 1962, to Dec. 31, 1964, both dates inclusive, 20 percent.

(d) During the period from Jan. 1, 1965, to Dec, 31, 1967, both dates inclusive, 40 percent.

(e) During the period from Jan. 1, 1968, to Dec. 31, 1970, both dates inclusive, 60 percent.

During the period from Jan. 1, 1971, to Dec. 31, 1973, both dates inclusive, 80 percent.

6) During the period from Jan. 1, 1974, to July 3, 1974, both dates inclusive, 100 percent.


Mr. HARRISON. Our next witness is Harold C. McClellan, Assistant Secretary for International Affairs, Department of Commerce.

Mr. Secretary, we are very happy to have you and we will ask you to take a seat and proceed in your own way, sir.


Mr. MCCLELLAN. Thank you very much, sir. I have asked, Mr. Chairman, that Mr. Macgowan of the Bureau of Foreign Commerce join with me today, because some of the questions here may be of a technical order.

Mr. HARRISON. Yes, sir. Will you identify him for the record, sir?
Mr. McCLELLAN. Thank you, sir.
Mr. HARRISON. We are very happy to have you.

Mr. McCLELLAN. Mr. Chairman, I brought with me a prepared statement which has as its specific purpose reporting on the operation of our section of the Department of Commerce in its work with the BDSA, on the domestic side of the Department of Commerce, and with other departments in the procedures having to do with trade agreements and the reciprocal trade agreements program.

I am prepared either to read the statement—that might be advisable, if you wish it, in order to point out the specific ways in which we operate

or to file this for the record and review and submit to questions.

Mr. HARRISON. Well, Mr. Secretary, we would be happy to have you do it either way you prefer.

Mr. MCCLELLAN. I think, Mr. Chairman, it would be better if I read it.

Mr. HARRISON. All right, sir. We would be happy to hear it.

Mr. McCLELLAN. I think in itself it would answer some of the questions more quickly than would otherwise be the case.

Mr. HARRISON. Thank you very much, Mr. Secretary. Mr. McCLELLAN. Trade-agreement procedures in the Department of Commerce.

Committee structure: The Department of Commerce participates in the work of the interdepartmental trade agreements organization largely through the Interdepartmental Committee on Trade Agreements and its subcommittees, and the Committee for Reciprocity Information. The subcommittees of the Trade Agreements Committee are for the most part country committees established to develop trade and tariff data to serve as a basis for formulating trade agreements with specific countries. However, from time to time special subcommittees are created to deal with important commodity or technical tariff problems.

Representation: The Department is represented on the Trade Agreements Committee and the Committee for Reciprocity Information by the Director of the Office of Economic Affairs (Bureau of Foreign Commerce), and an alternate. In addition, during periods immediately preceding and during tariff negotiations, a representative of the Business and Defense Services Administration (the Commerce organization, composed of 25 industry divisions, which main

tains contact with the country's industries and is staffed by commodity specialists and industrial technicians) customarily attends the Trade Agreements Committee meetings, so as to insure the effective participation of that agency in the proceedings of the Committee. The Commerce representatives on the Trade Agreements Committee are assisted as occasion requires by commodity experts and technicians from the Business and Defense Services Administration, the Bureau of Foreign Commerce, and, at times, other bureaus, such as Census and the Patent Office. (Other agencies represented on the Trade Agreements Committee also follow this practice of calling in technicians to supply technical information and advice.)

Commerce representation on the country subcommittees is drawn from the geographic divisions of the Office of Economic Affairs and consists usually of desk officers specializing in the economic affairs of individual countries. These country specialists are assisted by Business and Defense Services Administration personnel drawn from its industry divisions who serve primarily to maintain liaison between the country committees and the Business and Defense Services Administration. Through these contact men commodity experts from the Business and Defense Services Administration are invited to attend meetings at which products in their field of competence are under discussion.

In the case of the occasional special committees, commodity specialists from the Business and Defense Services Administration or qualified technicians from the Bureau of Foreign Commerce are designated.

CONCESSIONS TO BE REQUESTED (EXPORTS) The basic work of preparing the list of concessions to be requested from the foreign country is primarily a Commerce responsibility: The foreign trade background and tariff know-how of the Bureau of Foreign Commerce regional specialists and the specialized commodity knowledge of the Business and Defense Services Administration industry divisions are brought to bear on the problem. Individual commodity digests are prepared on each item considered for listing, giving trade and production figures, tariff data, and commodity background. (The commodity data is supplied by the Business and Defense Services Administration.)

The initial selection of commodities is made on a statistical basis, taking into account volume of trade, supplier position of the United States, and tariff levels. This list is then reviewed, screened, and supplemented on the basis of the tariff and commodity information supplied respectively by the Bureau of Foreign Commerce and the Business and Defense Services Administration. The result of this operation is again reviewed in the light of requests from the public. Every effort is made to incorporate suggestions made by industry, in briefs and oral testimony before the Committee for Reciprocity Information, as well as suggestions received directly in the Bureau of Foreign Commerce and the Business and Defense Services Administration by correspondence and personal contact with industry and trade associations.

The refined list embodying the Commerce position is then reviewed by the country committee. In this way the specialized knowledge of the other agencies assists in the development of a preliminary interdepartmental selection, which is subsequently reviewed by the Trade Agreements Committee.


Development of published list: On the import side, the responsibility for developing the basic statistical and tariff studies rests with the Tariff Commission. As soon as this information is made available to Commerce through the country committees, the Bureau of Foreign Commerce and the Business and Defense Services Administration undertake independent studies to determine what items should be recommended for inclusion in the list of products to be published with the announcement of intention to negotiate, as the items on which the United States would consider granting tariff concessions.

The Business and Defense Services Administration circulates the basic material to its industry divisions for study by the appropriate commodity experts who, aside from their own practical background, being in constant touch with industry, can advise on the attitude of the industries which would be affected by tariff concessions on individual products.

The Bureau of Foreign Coinmerce review is undertaken by its country officers in the light of their knowledge of the economy of the foreign country, its actual and potential production and trade in the items, and other factors which would indicate the value which the foreign country would attach to the individual concessions by the United States.

The next step is a series of intradepartmental meetings at which the results of the two independent reviews are reconciled and a departmental position on each item developed. Again at this stage, the Business and Defense Services Administration commodity experts explain their position with respect to the listing of individual items. Such disagreements as may arise between the Bureau of Foreign Commerce and the Business and Defense Services Administration are, of course, readily resolved by the bureau directors and Assistant Secretaries, if necessary.

The net result of this careful screening is that Commerce recommends to the Trade Agreements Committee the dropping of numerous items.

Determination of United States offers: Once the announcement of the proposed negotiations and the list of import products have been approved by the Trade Agreements Committee and the President, anu published, the work of determining what concessions, if any, should be offered by the United States on the items appearing on the “published list” begins. The Bureau of Foreign Commerce and the Business and Defense Services Administration conduct independent reviews of the listed items and reconcile their differences at a series of intradepartmental meetings. If necessary, the differences are referred to the bureau directors and Assistant Secretaries. These departmental positions are then presented to the other participating agencies by the Commerce representatives on the country committee and the Trade Agreements Committee.

In this second stage of the preparations the briefs and oral testimony submitted by industry and others interested in foreign trade before the Committee for Reciprocity Information become available. Both the

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