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world many works connected with history, politics, attainments, but did not proceed with the work. and literature. In 1807 he commenced the pub- Pecuniary embarrassments also came to cloud his lication of his Caledonia, of which three large latter days. The banking establishment of which volumes had appeared, when his death precluded he was a partner was forced in 1816 to suspend paythe hope of its being completed. It contains a ment, and Mr Roscoe had to sell his library, piclaborious antiquarian detail of the earlier periods of tures, and other works of art. His love of literature Scottish history, with minute topographical and continued undiminished. He gave valuable assisthistorical accounts of the various provinces of the ance in the establishment of the Royal Institution of country.

Liverpool, and on its opening, delivered an inaugural address on the origin and vicissitudes of literature, science, and art, and their influence on the present state of society. In 1827 he received the great gold

medal of the Royal Society of Literature for his WILLIAM RoscoE (1753-1831), as the author of merits as a historian. He had previously edited an the Life of Lorenzo de Medici, and the Life and Pon, edition of Pope, in ten volumes, which led to some tificate of Leo X., may be more properly classed controversy with Mr Bowles, as Mr Roscoe had with our historians than biographers. The two works formed a more favourable, and, we think, just esticontain an account of the revival of letters, and fill mate of the poet than his previous editors. up the blank between Gibbon's Decline and Fall and Robertson's Charles V. Mr Roscoe was a native of Liverpool, the son of humble parents, and while

MALCOLM LAING. engaged as clerk to an attorney, he devoted his leisure hours to the cultivation of his taste for MALCOLM LAING, a zealous Scottish historian, was poetry and elegant literature. He acquired a com- born in the year 1762 at Strynzia, his paternal petent knowledge of the Latin, French, and Italian estate, in Orkney. He was educated for the Scottish languages. After the completion of his clerkship; bar, and passed advocate in 1785. He appeared as Mr Roscoe entered into business in Liverpool, and an author in 1793, having completed Dr Henry's took an active part in every scheme of improve. History of Great Britain after that author's death. ment, local and national. He wrote a poem on the The sturdy Whig opinions of Laing formed a conWrongs of Africa, to illustrate the evils of slavery, trast to the tame moderatism of Henry; but his and also a pamphlet on the same subject, which was attainments and research were far superior to those translated into French by Madame Necker. The of his predecessor. In 1800 he published The History stirring times in which he lived called forth several of Scotland from the Union of the Crowns on the Accesshort political dissertations from his pen; but about sion of King James VI. to the throne of England, to the year 1789, he applied liimself to the great task the Union of the Kingdoms in the reign of Queen he had long meditated, a biographical account of Anne; with two dissertations, historical and critical, Lorenzo de Medici. He procured much new and on the Gowrie ('onspiracy, and on the supposed authenvaluable information, and in 1796 published the ticity of Ossian's Poems. This is an able work, result of his labours in two quarto volumes, entitled marked by strong prejudices and predilections, but The Life of Lorenzo de Medici, called the Magnificent valuable to the historical student for its acute reasonThe work was highly successful, and at once ele- ing and analysis. Laing attacked the translator of vated Mr Roscoe into the proud situation of one of Ossian with unmerciful and almost ludicrous sevethe most popular authors of the day. A second rity, in revenge for which, the Highland admirers of edition was soon called for, and Messrs Cadell and the Celtic muse attributed his sentiments to the preDavies purchased the copyright for L.1200. About judice natural to an Orkney man, caused by the the same time he relinquished the practice of an severe checks given by the ancient Caledonians to attorney, and studied for the bar, but ultimately their predatory Scandinavian predecessors ! Laing settled as a banker in Liverpool. His next literary replied by another publication-- The Poems of Ossian, appearance was as the translator of The Nurse, a &c. containing the Poetical Works of James Macpherpoem, from the Italian of Luigi Tansillo. In 1805 son, Esq. in Prose and Rhyme, with Notes and Illuswas published his second great work, 'The Life and trations. In 1804 he published another edition of his Pontificate of Leo X.,' four volumes quarto, which, History of Scotland, to which he prefixed a Prethough carefully prepared, and also enriched with liminary Dissertation on the Participation of Mary new information, did not experience the same success Queen of Scots in the Murder of Darnley. The latter as his life of Lorenzo. The history of the refor- is a very ingenious historical argument, the ablest mation of religion, it has been justly remarked, of Mr Laing's productions, uniting the practised skill 'involved many questions of subtle disputation, as and acumen of the Scottish lawyer with the knowwell as many topics of character and conduct; and, ledge of the antiquary and historian. The latter for a writer of great candour and discernment, it was portion of Mr Laing's life was spent on his paternal scarcely possible to satisfy either the Papists or the estate in Orkuey, where he entered upon a course of Protestants. The liberal sentiments and accom- local and agricultural improvement with the same plishments of Mr Roscoe recommended him to his ardour that he devoted to his literary pursuits. He townsmen as a fit person to represent them in par- died in the year 1818. Mr Laing's merit,' says a liament, and he was accordingly elected in 1806. writer in the Edinburgh Review, as a critical inHe spoke in favour of the abolition of the slave trade, quirer into history, an enlightened collector of mateand of the civil disabilities of the Catholics, which rials, and a sagacious judge of evidence, has never excited against him a powerful and violent oppo- been surpassed. In spite of his ardent love of sition. Inclined himself to quiet and retirement, liberty, no man has yet presumed to charge him and disgusted with the conduct of his opponents, he with the slightest sacrifice of historical integrity to withdrew from parliament at the next dissolution, his zeal. That he never perfectly attained the art and resolutely declined offering himself as a can- of full, clear, and easy narrative, was owing to the didate. He still, however, took a warm interest in peculiar style of those writers who were popular in passing erents, and published several pamphlets on his youth, and may be mentioned as a remarkable the topics of the day. He projected a history of art instance of the disproportion of particular talents to and literature, a task well suited to his talents and I a general vigour of mind.'


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or pretence; but the style of the great statesman,

with all the care bestowed upon it, is far from being JOHN PINKERTON (1758-1825) distinguished him- perfect. It wants force and vivacity, as if, in the self by the fierce controversial tone of his historical process of elaboration, the graphic clearness of writings, and by the violence of bis prejudices, yet characters necessary to the historian had evaporated


narrative and distinct perception of events and was a learned and industrious collector of forgotten fragments of ancient history and of national anti-The sentiments and principles of the author are, quities. He was a native of Edinburgh, and bred to however, worthy of his liberal and capacious mind. the law. The latter, however, he soon forsook for literary pursuits. He commenced by writing im

SIR JAMES MACKINTOSH. perfect verses, which, in his peculiar antique orthography, he styled “Rimes,' from which he diverged As a philosophical historian, critic, and politician, to collecting Select Scottish Ballads, 1783, and in- Sir JAMES MACKINTOSH deserves honourable menditing an Essay on Medals, 1784. Under the name tion. He was also one of the last of the Scottish of Heron, he published some Letters on Literature, and was recommended by Gibbon to the booksellers as a fit person to translate the Monkish Historians. He afterwards (1786) published Ancient Scottish Poems, being the writings of Sir Richard Maitland and others, extracted from a manuscript in the Pepys Library at Cambridge. His first historical work was A Dissertation on the Origin and Progress of the Scythians, or Goths, in which he laid down that theory which he maintained through life, that the Celts of Ireland, Wales, and Scotland, are savages, and have been savages since the world began! His next important work was an Inquiry into the History of Scotland Preceding the Reign of Malcolm III., or 1056, in which he debates at great length, and, as Sir Walter Scott remarks, with much display of learning, on the history of the Goths, and the conquests which he states them to have obtained over the Celts in their progress through all Europe. In 1796 he published a History of Scotland During the Reign of the Stuarts, the most laborious and valuable of his works. He also compiled a Modern Geography, edited a Collection of Voyages and Travels, was some time editor of the Critical Review, wrote a Treatise on Rocks, and was engaged on various other literary tasks. Pinkerton died in want and obscurity in Paris.

Sir James Mackintosh.

metaphysicians, and one of the most brilliant conCHARLES JAMES Fox (1749-1806), the celebrated versers of his times qualifications apparently very statesman and orator, during his intervals of relaxa- dissimilar. His candour, benevolence, and libera. tion from public life, among other literary studies lity, gave a grace and dignity to his literary specuand occupations commenced a history of the reign lations and to his daily life. Mackintosh was & of King James II., intending to continue it to the native of Inverness-shire, and was born at Aldouriesettlement at the revolution of 1688. An introduc-house, on the banks of Loch Ness, October 24, 1765. tory chapter, giving a rapid view of our constitu- His father was a brave Highland officer, who paso tional history from the time of Henry VII., he sessed a small estate, called Kylachy, in his native completed. He wrote also some chapters of his county, which James afterwards sold for £9000. history, but at the time of his death he had made From his earliest days James Mackintosh had a but little progress in his work. Public affairs, and passion for books; and though all his relatives were a strong partiality and attachment to the study of Jacobites, he was a stanch Whig. After studying the classics, and to works of imagination and poetry, at Aberdeen (where he had as a college companion were continually drawing him off from his historical and friend the pious and eloquent Robert Hall) researches, added to which he was fastidiously scru- Mackintosh went to Edinburghi, and studied

medipulous as to all the niceties of language, and wished cine. In 1788 he repaired to London, wrote for the to form his plan exclusively on the model of ancient press, and afterwards applied

himself to the study writers, without note, digression, or dissertation of law. In 1791 he published his Vindiciæ Gallica, *He once assured me, says Lord Holland, ' that he a defence of the French Revolution, in reply to would admit no word into his book for which he Burke, which, for cogency of argument, historical had not the authority of Dryden. We need not knowledge, and logical precision, is a remarkable wonder, therefore, that Mr Fox died before complet- work to be written by a careless and irregular young ing his historical work. Such minute attention to man of twenty-six. Though his bearing to his style, joined to equal regard for facts and circum- great antagonist was chivalrous and polite, Mackin. stances, must have weighed down any writer even tosh attacked bis opinions with the ardour and of uninterrupted and active application. In 1808 impetuosity of youth, and his work was received the unfinished composition was given to the world with great applause. Four years afterwards he by Lord Holland, under the title of A History of the acknowledged to Burke that he had been the dupe Early Part of the Reign of James the Second, with an of his own enthusiasm, and that a Introductory Chapter. An appendix of original experience' had undeceived him. The excesses of papers was also added. The history is plainly the French Revolution had no doubt contributed to written, without the slightest approach to pedantry I this change, which, though it afterwards was made



the cause of obloquy and derision to Mackintosh, governinent-a revolution in which the sentiments seems to have been adopted with perfect sincerity and opinions that have formed the manners of the and singleness of purpose. He afterwards delivered European nations are to perish. “The age of chivalry and published a series of lectures on the law of is gone, and the glory of Europe extinguisbed for nature and nations, which greatly extended his ever.'. He follows this exclamation by an eloquent reputation. In 1795 he was called to the bar, and eulogium on chivalry, and by gloomy predictions of in his capacity of barrister, in 1803, he made a the future state of Europe, when the nation that has brilliant defence of M. Peltier, an emigrant royalist been so long accustomed to give her the tone in arts of France, who had been indicted for a libel on and manners is thus debased and corrupted. A ca. Napoleon, then first consul. The forensic display viller might remark, that ages much more near the of Mackintosh is too much like an elaborate essay meridian fervour of chivalry than ours have witor dissertation, but it marked him out for legal pro- nessed a treatment of queens as little gallant and motion, and he received the appointment (to which generous as that of the Parisian mob. He might rehis poverty, not his will, consented) of Recorder of mind Mr Burke that, in the age and country of Sir Bombay. He was knighted, sailed from England in Philip Sidney, a queen of France, whom no blindness the beginning of 1804, and after discharging faith- to accomplishment, no malignity of detraction, could fully his high official duties, returned at the end of reduce to the level of Maria Antoinetta, was, by a seven years, the earliest period that entitled him to nation of men of honour and cavaliers,' permitted to his retiring pension of £1200 per annum. Mackin- languish in captivity, and expire on a scaffold ; and tosh now obtained a seat in parliament, and stuck he might add, that the manners of a country are faithfully by his old friends the Whigs, without one more surely indicated by the systematic cruelty of glimpse of favour, till in 1827 his friend Mr Can- a sovereign, than by the licentious frenzy of a mob. ning, on the formation of his administration, made He might remark, that the mild system of modern him a privy councillor. On the accession of the manners which survived the massacres with which Whig ministry in 1830, he was appointed a com- fanaticism had for a century desolated and almost missioner for the affairs of India. On questions of barbarised Europe, might perhaps resist the shock of criminal law and national policy Mackintosh spoke one day's excesses committed by a delirious popu

lace. forcibly, but he cannot be said to have been a successful parliamentary orator. Amid the bustle of

But the subject itself is, to an enlarged thinker, public business he did not neglect literature, though fertile in reflections of a different nature. That syshe wanted resolution for continuous and severe study. tem of manners which arose among the Gothic nations

The charms of society, the interruptions of public of Europe, of which chivalry was more properly the business, and the debilitating effects of his residence effusion than the source, is, without doubt, one of the in India, also co-operated with his constitutional most peculiar and interesting appearances in human indolence in preventing the realisation of the ambi- affairs. The moral causes which formed its character tious dreams of his youth. He contributed, how have not perhaps been hitherto investigated with tre ever, various articles to the Edinburgh Review, and happiest success. But to confine ourselves to the subwrote a masterly Dissertation on the Progress of ject before us, chivalry was certainly one of the most Ethical Philosophy for the Encyclopædia Britannica. prominent features and remarkable effects of this He wrote, three volumes of a compendious and system of manners. Candour must confess that this popular History of England for Lardner's Cabinet singular institution is not alone admirable as a cor: Cyclopædia, which, though deficient in the graces contributed to polish and soften Europe. It paved

rector of the ferocious ages in which it flourished. It of narrative and style, contains some admirable the way for that diffusion of knowledge and extension views of constitutional history and antiquarian re. search. His learning was abundant; he wanted planted it, and gave a new character to manners.

of commerce which afterwards in some measure suponly method and elegance. He also contributed a short but valuable life of Sir Thomas More (which commerce has overthrown that "feudal and chival

Society is inevitably progressive. In government, sprung ont of his researches into the reign of rous' system under whose shade it first grew. In Henry VIII., and was otherwise a subject congenial religion, learning has subverted that superstition to his taste) to the same miscellany; and he was engaged on a History of the Revolution of 1688, liar circumstances softened the barbarism of the

whose opulent endowments had first fostered it. Pecuwhen his life was somewhat suddenly terminated middle ages to a degree which favoured the admission on the 30th of May 1832. The portion of his his, of commerce and the growth of knowledge. These tory of the Revolution which he had written and circumstances were connected with the manners of corrected (amounting to about 350 pages) was pub-chivalry; but the sentiments peculiar to that insti. lished in 1834, with a continuation by some writer tution could only be preserved by the situation which who was opposed to Sir James in many essential gave thenı birth. They were themselves enfeebled in points. In the works of Mackintosh we have only, the progress from ferocity and turbulence, and almost the fragments of a capacious mind; but in all of obliterated by tranquillity and refinement. But the them his learning, his candour, his strong love of auxiliaries which the manners of chivalry had in truth, his justness of thinking and clearness in per- rude ages reared, gathered strength from its weakness, ceiving, and his genuine philanthropy, are conspic and flourished in its decay. Commerce and diffused cuous. It is to be regretted that he had no Boswell knowledge have, in fact, so completely assumed the to record his conversation.

ascendant in polished nations, that it will be difficult

to discover any relics of Gothic manners but in a fan[Chivalry and Modern Manners.]

tastic exterior, which has survived the generous illu

sions that made these manners splendid and seduc[From the Vindiciæ Gallicæ.)

tive. Their direct influence has long ceased in Europe ; The collision of armed multitudes [in Paris] ter- but their indirect influence, through the medium of minated in unforeseen excesses and execrable crimes. those causes, which would not perhaps have existed In the eye of Mr Burke, however, these crimes and but for the mildness which chivalry created in the excesses assure an aspect far more important than midst of a barbarous age, still operates with increascan be communicated to them by their own insulated ir.g vigour. The manners of the middle age were, in guilt. They form, in his opinion, the crisis of a the most singular sense, compulsory. Enterprising revolution far more important than any change of benevolence was produced by general fierceness, gala

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lant courtesy by ferocious rudeness, and artificial reason, the refuge of oppressed innocence and persegentleness resisted the torrent of natural barbarisin. cuted truth, have perished with those ancient prioBut a less incongruous system has succeeded, in which ciples which were their sole guardians and protector commerce, which unites men's interests, and know- 1 They have been swallowed up by that fearful convul. ledge, which excludes those prejudices that tend to sion which has shaken the uttermost corners of the embroil them, present a broader basis for the stability earth. They are destroyed, and gone for erer! One of civilised and beneficent manners.

asylum of free discussion is still inviolate. There is Mr Burke, indeed, forebodes the most fatal conse- still one spot in Europe where man can freely exercise quences to literature, from events which he supposes his reason on the most important concerns of society, to have given a mortal blow to the spirit of chivalry. where he can boldly publish bia judgment on the acts I have ever been protected from such apprehensions of the proudest and most powerful tyrants. The press by my belief in a very simple truth--that diffused of England is still free. It is guarded by the free knowledge immortalises itself. A literature which is constitution of our forefathers. It is guarded by the confined to a few, may be destroyed by the massacre hearts and arms of Englishmen, and I trust I may of scholars and the conflagration of libraries, but the venture to say, that if it be to fall, it will fall only diffused knowledge of the present day could only be under the ruins of the British empire. It is an awful annihilated by the extirpation of the civilised part consideration, gentlemen. Every other monument of of mankind.

European liberty has perished. That ancient fabric

which has been gradually reared by the wisdom and [Extract from Speech in Defence of Mr Peltier, for a sirtue of our fathers, still stands. It stands, thanks Libel on Napoleon Bonaparte, February 1803.]

be to God! solid and entire—but it stands alone, and

it stands in ruins ! Beliering, then, as I do, that we Gentlemen—There is one point of view in which are on the eve of a great struggle, that this is only the this case seems to merit your most serious attention. first battle between reason and power—that you have The real prosecutor is the master of the greatest em- now in your hands, committed to your trust, the only pire the civilised world ever saw—the defendant is a remains of free discussion in Europe, now confined to defenceless proscribed exile. I consider this case, this kingdom ; addressing you, therefore, as the guartherefore, as the first of a long series of conflicts be- dians of the most important interests of mankind; tween the greatest power in the world, and the only convinced that the unfettered exercise of reason dePREE PRESS remaining in Europe. Gentlemen, this pends more on your present verdict than on any other distinction of the English press is new—it is a proud that was ever delivered by a jury, I trust I may rely and a melancholy distinction. Before the great earth- with confidence on the issue-i trust that you will quake of the French Revolution had swallowed up all consider yourselves as the advanced guard of liberty the asylums of free discussion on the continent, we as having this day to fight the first battle of free dis enjoyed that privilege, indeed, more fully than others, cussion against the most formidable enemy that it but we did not enjoy it exclusively. In Holland, in ever encountered ! Switzerland, in the imperial towns of Germany, the press was either legally or practically free. Holland and Switzerland are no more; and, since the com

DR JOHN LINGARD, &c. mencement of this prosecution, fifty imperial towns have been erased from the list of independent states lished in 1819 three volumes of a History of England

DR John LINGARD, a Roman Catholic priest, pabby one dash of the pen. Three or four still preserve a precarious and trembling existence. I will not say | continued his work in five more volumes

, bringing

from the Invasion by the Romans. He subsequently ance. I will not insult the feebleness of states whose down his narrative to the abdication of James II. unmerited fall I do most bitterly deplore.

To talents of a high order, both as respects acute These governments were, in many respects, one of ness of analysis and powers of description and narthe most interesting parts of the ancient system of rative, Dr Lingard added unconquerable industry Europe. The perfect security of such inconsiderable and access to sources of information new and imand feeble states, their undisturbed tranquillity portant. He is generally more impartial than Hume, amidst the wars and conquests that surrounded them, or even Robertson; but it is undeniable that his reattested, beyond any other part of the European sys

ligious opinions have in some cases perverted the tem, the moderation, the justice, the civilisation, to fidelity of his history, leading him to palliate the which Christian Europe had reached in modern times. atrocities of the Bartholomew massacre, and to Their weakness was protected only by the habitual darken the shades in the characters of Queen Elizareverence for justice which, during a long series of beth, Cranmer, Anne Boleyn, and others connected ages, had grown up in Christendom. This was the with the reformation in the church. His work was only fortification which defended them against those subjected to a rigid scrutiny by Dr John Allen, in two mighty monarchs to whom they offered so easy a prey. elaborate articles in the Edinburgh Review, by the And, till the French Revolution, this was sufficient. Rev. Mr Todd (who published a defence of the chaConsider, for instance, the republic of Geneva ; think racter of Cranmer), and by other zealous Protestant of her defenceless position in the very jaws of France; writers. To these antagonists Dr Lingard replied but think also of her undisturbed security, of her pro- in 1826 by a vindication of his fidelity as a histofound quiet, of the brilliant success with which she rian, which affords an excellent specimen of calm applied to industry and literature while Louis XIV. controversial writing. His work has now taken its was pouring his myriads into Italy before her gates; place among the most valuable of our national hiscall to mind, if ages crowded into years have not tories. It has gone through three editions, and has effaced them from your memory, that happy period been received with equal favour on the continent

. when we scarcely dreamed niore of the subjugation of The most able of his critics (though condemning his the feeblest republic in Europe than of the conquest account of the English Reformation, and other pasof her mightiest empire, and tell me if you can ima- sages evincing a peculiar bias) admits that Dr Lia; gine a spectacle more beautiful to the moral eye, or gard possesses, what he claims, the rare merit of a more striking proof of progress in the noblest prin- having collected his materials from original histociples of civilisation. These feeble states, these mo- rians and records, by which his narrative receives a numents of the justice of Europe, the asylum of peace, freshness of character, and a stamp of originality

; industry, and of literature: the organs of public not to be found in any general history of England

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in common use. We give one specimen of the nar. his work. Here the orator was interrupted by Sir rative style of the author:

Peter Wentworth, who decla.ed that he had nerer

heard language so unparliamentary-language, too, (An Account of Cromwell's Erpulsion of the Parlia

the more offensive, because it was addressed to them ment in 1653.]

by their own servant, whom they had too fondly

cherished, and whom, by their unprecedented bounty, At length Cromwell fixed on his plan to procure they had made what he was. At these words Cromthe dissolution of the parliament, and to rest for a well put on his hat, and, springing from his place, time the sovereign authority in a council of forty exclaimed, Come, come, sir, I will put an end to persons, with himself at tueir head. It was his wish to your prating. For a few seconds, apparently in the effect this quietly by the votes of the parliament—his most violent agitation, he paced forward and backresolution to effect it by open force, if such votes were ward, and then, stamping on the floor, added, “You refused. Several meetings were held by the officers are no parliament; I say you are no parliament; and members at the lodgings of the lord-general in bring then in, bring them in.' Instantly the door Whitehall. St John and a few others gave their opened, and Colonel Worsley entered, followed by assent; the rest, under the guidance of Whitelock more than twenty musketeers. “This,' cried Sir and Widrington, declared that the dissolution would Henry Vane, 'is not honest; it is against morality be dangerous, and the establishment of the proposed and common honesty.' •Sir Henry Vane,' replied council unwarrantable. In the meantime the house Cromwell ; '0, Sir Henry Vane! The Lord deliver resumed the consideration of the new representative me from Sir Henry Vane! He might have prevented body; and several qualifications were voted, to all of this. But he is a juggler, and has not common honesty which the officers raised objections, but chiefly to the himself!' From Vane he directed his discourse to admission of members,' a project to strengthen the Whitelock, on whom he poured a torrent of abuse ; government by the introduction of the presbyterian then pointing to Chaloner, There,' he cried, “sits a interest. Never,' said Cromwell, shall any of that drunkard ;' next to Marten and Wentworth, There judgment who have deserted the good cause be ad- are two whoremasters ;' and afterwards selecting mitted to power. On the last meeting, held on the different members in succession, described them as 19th of April, all these points were long and warmly dishonest and corrupt livers, a shame and scandal to debated. Some of the officers declared that the par- the profession of the gospel. Suddenly, however, liament must be dissolved one way or other;' but checking himself, he turned to the guard and ordered the general checked their indiscretion and precipi. them to clear the house. At these words Colonel tancy, and the assembly broke up at midnight, with Harrison took the speaker by the hand and led him an understanding that the leading men on each side from the chair; Algernon Sidney was next compelled should resume the subject in the morning.

to quit his seat; and the other members, eighty in At an early hour the conference was recommenced, number, on the approach of the nilitary, rose and and, after a short time, interrupted, in consequence of moved towards the door. Cromwell now resumed his the receipt of a notice by the general, that it was the discourse. • It is you,' he exclaimed, that have intention of the house to comply with the desires of forced me to do this. I have sought the Lord both the arıy. This was a mistake; the opposite party day and night that he would rather slay me than had indeed resolved to pass a bill of dissolution; not, put me on the doing of this work.' Alderman Allan however, the bill proposed by the officers, but their took advantage of these words to observe, that it was own bill, containing all the obnoxious provisions, and not yet too late to undo what had been done; but to pass it that very morning, that it might obtain the Cromwell instantly charged him with peculation, and force of law before their adversaries could have time gave him into custody. When all were gone, fixing to appeal to the power of the sword. While Harrison his eye on the mace, What,' said he, “shall we do most etrictly and humbly' conjured them to pause with this fool's bauble? Here, carry it away. Then, before they took so important a step, Ingoldsby has- taking the act of dissolution from the clerk, he ortened to inform the lord-general at Whitehall. His dered the doors to be locked, and, accompanied by resolution was immediately formed, and a company the military, returned to Whitehall. of musketeers received orders to accompany him to That afternoon the members of the council assemthe house. At this eventful moment, big with the bled in their usual place of meeting. Bradshaw had most important consequences both to himself and his just taken the chair, when the lord-general entered, country, whatever were the workings of Cromwell's and told them that if they were there as private inmind, he had the art to conceal them from the eyes dividuals, they were welcome; but if as the Council of the beholders. Leaving the military in the lobby, of State, they must know that the parliament was he entered the house and composedly seated himself dissolved, and with it also the council. Sir,' replied on one of the outer benches. His dress was a plain Bradshaw, with the spirit of an ancient Roman, 'we suit of black cloth, with gray worsted stockings. For have heard what you did at the house this morning, a while he seemed to listen with interest to the debate; and before many hours all England will know it. but when the speaker was going to put the question, But, sir, you are mistaken to think that the parliahe whispered to Harrison, "This is the time; I mustment is dissolved. No power under heaven can disdo it;' and rising, put off his hat to address the house. solve them but themselves; therefore, take you notice At first his language was decorous, and even laudatory. of that. After this protest they withdrew. Thus, Gradually he became more warm and animated; at by the parricidal hands of its own children, perished last he assumed all the vehemence of passion, and the Long Parliament, which, under a variety of forms, indulged in personal rituperation. He charged the had, for more than twelve years, defended and inmembers with self-seeking and profaneness, with the vaded the liberties of the nation. It fell without a frequent denial of justice, and numerous acts of op- struggle or a groan, unpitied and unregretted. The pression ; with idolising the lawyers, the constant ad members slunk away to their homes, where they sought vocates of tyranny; with neglecting the men who had by submission to purchase the forbearance of their bled for them in the field, that they might gain the new master; and their partisans, if partisans they Presbyterians who had apostatised from the cause; had, reserved themselves in silence for a day of retriand with doing all this in order to perpetuate their bution, which came not before Cromwell slept in his own power and to replenish their own purses. But grave. The royalists congratulated each other on an their time was come; the Lord had disowned them; event which they deemed a preparatory step to the be had chosen more worthy instruments to perforin I restoration of the king; the army and 'nary, in nu



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