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• The vintage was in full glow. Men, women, a few hours' sport shed in this imperial shambles. Twice children, asses, all were variously engaged in the in one day came the senators and matrons of Rome work. I remarked in the scene a prodigality and to the butchery; a virgin always gave the signal for negligence which I never saw in France. The slaughter; and when glutted with bloodshed, those grapes dropped unheeded from the panniers, and ladies sat down in the wet and streaming arena to a hundreds were left unclipped on the vines. The luxurious supper! Such reflections check our regret vintagers poured on us as we passed the richest for its ruin. As it now stands, the Coliseum is a ribaldry of the Italian language, and seemed to striking image of Rome itself-decayed, vacant, seclaim from Horace's old vindemiator a prescriptive rious, yet grand-half-gray and half-green-treet o right to abuse the traveller.**
one side and fallen on the other, with consecrated
ground in its bosom - inhabited by a beadstan; [The Coliseum.] visited by erery caste; for moralists, antiquaries
, A colossal taste gave rise to the Coliseum. Here, in- tate, to examine, to draw, to measure, and to pray;
painters, architects, devotees, all meet here to medideed, gigantic dimensions were necessary; for though | • In contemplating antiquities,' says Livy, “the mind hundreds could enter at once, and fifty thousand find itself becomes antique.' It contracts from such obseats, the space was still insufficient for Rome, and jects a venerable rust, which I prefer to the polish the crowd for the niorning games began at midnight. and the point of those wits who hare lately profaned Vespasian and Titus, as if presaging their own deaths, this august ruin with ridicule. hurried the building, and left several marks of their precipitancy behind. In the upper walls they have
In the year following the publication of Forsyth's inserted stones which had evidently been dressed for original and valuable work, appeared A Classical a different purpose. Soine of the arcades are grossly Tour in Italy, in two large volumes, by John CHETunequal ; no moulding preserves the same level and WODE EUSTACE, an English Catholic priest, who had form round the whole ellipse, and every order is full travelled in Italy in the capacity of tutor. Though of license. The Doric has no triglyphs nor metopes, pleasantly written, Eustace's work is one of no and its arch is too low for its columns; the lonic re authority. Sir John Cam Hobhouse (who furnished peats the entablature of the Doric; the third order is the notes to the fourth canto of Lord Byron's Childe but a rough cast of the Corinthian, and its foliage the Harold, and afterwards published a volume of Histhickest water-plants; the fourth seems a mere repe- torical Illustrations to the same poem) characterises tition of the third in pilasters; and the whole is Eustace as one of the most inaccurate and unsatiscrowned by a heavy Attic. Happily for the Coliseum, factory writers that have in our times attained a the shape necessary to an amphitheatre has given it a temporary reputation.' Mr Eustace died at Naples stability of construction sufficient to resist fires, and in 1815. Letters from the North of Italy, addressed earthquakes, and lightnings, and sieges. Its ellipti- to Mr Hallam the historian, by W. STEWART ROSE, cal form was the hoop which bound and held it entire Esq. in two volumes, 1819, are partly descriptive till barbarians rent that consolidating ring; popes and partly critical; and though somewhat affected widened the breach ; and time, not unassisted, con- in style, form an amusing miscellany. A Tour through tinues the work of dilapidation. At this moment the the Southern Provinces of the Kingdom of Naples
, by hermitage is threatened with a dreadful crash, and a the Hon. R. KEPPEL CRAVEN (1821), is more of generation not very remote must be content, I appre- an itinerary than a work of reflection, but is plainly 1 hend, with the picture of this stupendous monument. and pleasingly written. The Diary of an İnvalid, Of the interior elevation, two slopes, by some called by HENRY MATHEWS (1820), and Rome in the Ninemeniana, are already demolished; the arena, the teenth Century (1820), by Miss WALDIE, are both podium, are interred. No member runs entire round interesting works: the first is lively and picturesque the whole ellipse ; but every member made such a in style, and was well received by the public. In circuit, and re-appears so often, that plans, sections, 1821 Lady Morgan published a work entitled Itals, and elevations of the original work are drawn with containing pictures of Italian society and manners
, the precision of a modern fabric. When the whole drawn with more vivacity and point than delicacy; amphitheatre was entire, a child might comprehend | Observations on Italy, by Mr John Bell (1825), and its design in a moment, and go direct to his place a Description of the Antiquities of Rome, by Dr BCRwithout straying in the porticos, for each arcade bears TON (1828), are works of accuracy and research. its number engraved, and opposite to every fourth Illustrations of the Passes of the Alps, by W. BROCEEarcade was a staircase. This multiplicity of wide, DON (1828-9), unite the effects of the artist's pencil straight, and separate passages, proves the attention with the information of the observant topographer, which the ancients paid to the safe discharge of a Mr BECKFORD, author of the romance of Vathek, crowd ; it finely illustrates the precept of Vitruvius, had in early life written Sketches of Italy, Spain, and and exposes the perplexity of some modern theatres. Portugal. After remaining unpublished for more Every nation has undergone its revolution of vices ; than forty years, two volumes of these graphic and and as cruelty is not the present vice of ours, we can picturesque delineations were given to the world in all humanely execrate the purpose of amphitheatres, | 1834. Time has altered some of the objects described now that they lie in ruins. Moralists may tell us by the accomplished traveller, but his work abounds that the truly brave are never cruel ; but this monu- in passages of permanent interest, and of finished ment says * No.' Here sat the conquerors of the and beautiful composition. Every season adds to world, coolly to enjoy the tortures and death of men the number of works on Italy and the other parts of who had never offended them. Two aqueducts were the continent. scarcely sufficient to wash off the human blood which * The poet Rogers has sketched the same joyous scene of
[Funeral Ceremony at Rome.] Italian life
[From Mathews's Diary of an Invalid.'] Many a canzonet Comes through the leaves, the vines in light festoons One day, in my way home, I met a funeral cere
mony. A crucifix hung with black, followed by, And every avenue a covered walk
train of priests, with lighted tapers in their hands Hung with black clusters. 'Tis enough to make
headed the procession. Then came a troop of figures The sad man merry, the benevolent one
dressed in white robes, with their faces covered with Melt into tears, so general is the joy.'
masks of the same materials. The bier followed, on
From tree to tree, the trees in avenues,
which lay the corpse of a young woman arrayed in all intended as a personification of all that is elegant, the ornaments of dress, with her face exposed, where the graceful, and beautiful ; not only abstracted from all bloom of life yet lingered. The members of different human infirmities, but elevated above all human feelfraternities followed the bier, dressed in the robes ings and affections ; for, though the form is female, of their orders, and all masked. They carried lighted the beauty is like the beauty of angels, who are of no tapers in their hands, and chanted out prayers in a sex. I was at first reminded of Milton's Eve; but in sort of mumbling recitative. I followed the train to Eve, even in her days of innocence, there was some the church, for I had doubts whether the beautiful tincture of humanity, of which there is none in the figure I had seen on the bier was not a figure of wax; | Venus; in whose eye there is no heaven, and in whose but I was soon convinced it was indeed the corpse of gesture there is no love. a fellow-creature, cut off in the pride and bloom of youthful maiden beauty. Such is the Italian mode
[A Morning in Venice.] of conducting the last scene of the tragi-comedy of
(From Beckford's ' Sketches of Italy,' &c.] life. As soon as a person dies, the relations leave the house, and fly to bury themselves and their griefs in It was not five o'clock before I was aroused by some other retirement. The care of the funeral de a loud din of voices and splashing of water under my volves on one of the fraternities who are associated balcony. Looking out, I beheld the grand canal 80 for this purpose in every parish. These are dressed entirely covered with fruits and vegetables on rafts in a sort of domino and hood, which, having holes for and in barges, that I could scarcely distinguish a the eyes, answers the purpose of a mask, and com
Loads of grapes, peaches, and melons arrived pletely conceals the face. The funeral of the very and disappeared in an instant, for every vessel was in poorest is thus conducted with quite as much cere- motion ; and the crowds of purchasers, hurrying from mony as need be. This is perhaps a better system boat to boat, formed a very lively picture. Amongst than our own, where the relatives are exhibited as a the multitudes I remarked a good many whose dress spectacle to impertinent curiosity, whilst from feel and carriage announced something above the common ings of duty they follow to the grave the remains of rank; and, upon inquiry, I found they were noble those they loved. But ours is surely an unphiloso- Venetians just come from their casinos, and met to phical view of the subject. It looks as if we were refresh themselves with fruit before they retired to materialists, and considered the cold clod as the sole sleep for the day. remains of the object of our affection. The Italians Whilst I was observing them, the sun began to reason better, and perhaps feel as much as ourselves, colour the balustrades of the palaces, and the pure when they regard the body, deprived of the soul that exhilarating air of the morning drawing ine abroad, animated, and the mind that informed it, as no more I procured a gondola, laid in my provision of read a part of the departed spirit than the clothes which and grapes, and was rowed under the Rialto, down it has also left behind. The ultimate disposal of the the grand canal, to the marble steps of S. Maria della body is perhaps conducted here with too much of that Salute, erected by the senate in performance of a vow spirit which would disregard all claims that this to the Holy Virgin, who begged off a terrible pestimortal coil' can have to our attention. As soon as lence in 1630. The great bronze portal opened whilst the funeral service is concluded, the corpse is stripped I was standing on the steps which lead to it, and disand consigned to those who have the care of the in- covered the interior of the dome, where I expatiated terment. There are large vaults underneath the in solitude; no mortal appearing, except one old churches for the reception of the dead. Those who priest, who trimmed the lamps, and muttered a prayer can afford it, are put into a wooden shell before they before the high altar, still wrapped in shadows. The are cast into one of these Golgothas ; but the great sunbeams began to strike against the windows of the mass are tossed in without a rag to cover them. When cupola, just as I left the church, and was wafted across one of these caverns is full, it is bricked up; and after the waves to the spacious platform in front of St Giorfifty years it is opened again, and the bones are re- gio Maggiore, one of the most celebrated works of Palmoved to other places prepared for their reception. ladio. When my first transport was a little subsided, So much for the last scene of the drama of life. With and I had examined the graceful design of each parrespect to the first act, our conduct of it is certainly ticular ornament, and united the just proportion and more natural. Here they swathe and swaddle their grand effect of the whole in my mind, I planted my children till the poor urchins look like Egyptian umbrella on the margin of the sea, and viewed at my mummies. To this frightful custom one may attri- leisure the vast range of palaces, of porticos, of towers, bute the want of strength and symmetry of the men, opening on every side, and extending out of sight. which is sufficiently remarkable.
The doge's Palace, and the tall columns at the entrance of the piazza of St Mark, form, together with
the arcades of the public library, the lofty Campanile, [Statue of the Medicean Venus at Florence. * ]
and the cupolas of the ducal church, one of the most [From Mathews's Diary.]
striking groups of buildings that art can boast of. To The statue that enchants the world—the unimi-trious in the records of former ages, before which, in
behold at one glance these stately fabrics, so illustated, the inimitable Venus. . One is generally disap: the flourishing times of the republic, so many valiant pointed after great expectations have been raised; chiefs and princes have landed, loaded with Oriental but in this instance I was delighted at first sight, and spoils
, was a spectacle I had long and ardently desired. each succeeding visit has charmed me more. It is indeed a wonderful work in conception and execution looking up the piazza of St Mark, along which he
I thought of the days of Frederick Barbarossa, when ---but I doubt whether Venus be not a misnomer. marched in solemn procession to cast himself at the Who can recognize in this divine statue any traits feet of Alexander fil., and pay a tardy homage to of the Queen of Love and Pleasure? It seems rather
St Peter's successor, Here were no longer those * This celebrated work of art was discovered in the villa of splendid fleets that attended his progress; one soliAdrian, in Tivoli, in the sixteenth century, broken into thir- tary galeas was all I beheld, anchored opposite the teen pieces. The restorations are by a Florentine sculptor. It palace of the doge, and surrounded by crowds of gonwas brought to Florence in the year 1689. It measures in sta- dolas, whose sable hues contrasted strongly with its ture only 4 feet 11 inches. There is no expression of passion or vermilion oars and shining ornaments.
A partysentiment in the statue : it is an image of abstract or ideal coloured multitude was continually shifting from one beauty.
side of the piazza to the other; whilst senators and magistrates, in long black robes, were already arriving school in which was a small pulpit, with steps up to to fill their respective offices.
it, in the middle of the apartment; a great theatre ; I contemplated the busy scene from my peaceful a temple of justice; an amphitheatre about 220 feet in platform, where nothing stirred but aged devotees length; various temples ; à barrack for soldiers, the creeping to their devotions; and whilst I remained columns of which are scribbled with their names and thus calm and tranquil, heard the distant buzz of the jests ; wells, cisterns, seats, tricliniums, beautiful Motown. Fortunately, some length of waves rolled be- saic; altars, inscriptions, fragments of statues, and tween me and its tumults, so that I ate my grapes many other curious remains of antiquity. Among the and read Metastasio undisturbed by ofhciousness or most remarkable objects was an ancient wall, with curiosity. When the sun became too powerful, I en part of a still more ancient marble frieze, built in it as tered the nave.
a conimon stone; and a stream which has flowed under After I had admired the masterly structure of the this once subterraneous city long before its burial; roof and the lightness of its arches, my eyes naturally pipes of Terra Cotta to convey the water to the diffedirected themselves to the pavement of white and rent streets; stocks for prisoners, in one of which ruddy marble, polished, and reflecting like a mirror skeleton was found. All these things incline one the columns which rise from it. Over this I walked almost to look for the inhabitants, and wonder at the to a door that admitted me into the principal quad. desolate silence of the place. rangle of the convent, surrounded by a cloister sup- The houses in general are very low, and the moms ported on Ionic pillare beautifully proportioned. A are small; I should think not abore ten feet high. Right of stairs opens into the court, adorned with Every house is provided with a well and a cistern. balustrades and pedestals sculptured with elegance Everything seems to be in proportion. The principal truly Grecian. This brought me to the refectory, streets do not appear to exceed 16 feet in width, with where the chef d'aurre of Paul Veronese, representing side pavements of about 3 feet; some of the subordithe marriage of Cana in Galilee, was the first object nate streets are from 6 to 10 feet wide, with side partthat presented itself. I never beheld so gorgeous a ments in proportion: these are occasionally high, group of wedding garments before; there is every and are reached by steps. The columns of the bar. variety of fold and plait that can possibly be ima- racks are about 15 feet in height; they are made of gined. The attitudes and countenances are more tuffa with stucco; one-third of the shaît is smoothly uniform, and the guests appear a very genteel decent plastered, the rest fluted to the capital. The walls sort of people, well used to the mode of their times, of the houses are often painted red, and some of them and accustomed to miracles.
have borders and antique ornaments, masks, and imi. Having examined this fictitious repast, I cast a look tations of marble ; but in general poorly executed. I on a long range of tables covered with very excellent have observed on the walls of an eating-room various realities, which the monks were coming to devour kinds of food and game tolerably represented: one with energy, if one might judge from their appearance. woman's apartment was adorned with subjects relating These sons of penitence and mortification possess one to love, and a man's with pictures of a martial chaof the most spacious islands of the whole cluster; a racter. Considering that the whole has been under princely habitation, with gardens and open porticos ground upwards of seventeen centuries, it is certainly that engross every breath of air; and what adds not surprising that they should be as fresh as at the period a little to the charms of their abode, is the facility of of their burial. The whole extent of the city, not one making excursions from it whenever they have a mind. half of which is excavated, may be about four miles. [Description of Pompeii.]
ARCTIC DISCOVERY-ROSS, PARRY, FRANKLIN, &c. [From Williams's · Travels in Italy, Greece,' &c.] Contemporaneous with the African expeditions Pompeii is getting daily disencumbered, and a very already described, a strong desire was felt in this considerable part of this Grecian city is unveiled. We country to prosecute our discoveries in the Northern entered by the Appian way, through a narrow street
seas, which for fifty years had been neglected. The of marble tombs, beautifully executed, with the names idea of a north-west passage to Asia still presented of the deceased plain and legible. We looked into attractions, and on the close of the revolutionary the columbary below that of Marius Arius Diomedes, war, an effort to discover it was resolved upon. In 1
! and perceived jars containing the ashes of the dead, 1818 an expedition was fitted out, consisting of two with a small lamp at the side of each. Arriving at the ships, one under the command of CAPTAIN JOHN gate, we perceived a sentry-box in which the skeleton Ross, and another under LIEUTENANT, now SIR of a soldier was found with a lamp in his hand : pro- EDWARD Parry. The most interesting feature in ceeding up the street beyond the gate, we went into this voyage is the account of a tribe of Esquiseveral streets, and entered what is called a coffee maux hitherto unknown, who inhabited a tract house, the marks of cups being visible on the stone : of country extending on the shore for 120 miles, we came likewise to a tavern, and found the sign (not and situated near Baffin's Bay. A singular phenoa very decent one) near the entrance. The streets are menon was also witnessed—a range of cliffs covered lined with public buildings and private houses, most with snow of a deep crimson colour, arising from of which have their original painted decorations fresh some vegetable substance. When the expedition and entire. The pavement of the streets is much came to Lancaster Sound, a passage was confiworn by carriage wheels, and holes are cut through dently anticipated; but after sailing up the bay, ! the side stones for the purpose of fastening animals in Captain Ross conceived that he saw land—a high the market-place; and in certain situations are placed ridge of mountains, extending directly across the stepping-stones, which give us a rather unfavourable bottom of the inlet-and he abandoned the enter. idea of the state of the streets. We passed two beauti- prise. Lieutenant Parry and others entertained a ful little temples ; went into a surgeon's house, in the different opinion from that of their commander as to operation-rooin of' which chirurgical instruments were the existence of land, and the admiralty fitted out a found; entered an ironmonger's shop, where an anvil new expedition, which sailed in 1819, for the purpose and hammer were discovered ; a sculptor’s and aof again exploring Lancaster Sound. The expe. baker's shop, in the latter of which may be seen an dition, including two ships, the Hecla and Griper
, oven and grinding mills, like old Scotch querns. We was intrusted to Captain Parry, who had the satisexamined likewise an oilman's shop, and a wine shop faction of verifying the correctness of his former istely opened, where money was found in the till; a impressions, by sailing through what Captain Rose
supposed to be a mountain barrier in Lancaster mained, and it would have amused an unconcerned Sound. To have sailed upwards of thirty degrees looker-on to have observed the anxiety and suspense of longitude beyond the point reached by any former depicted on the countenances of our part of the group navigator— to have discovered many new lands, till this was accomplished, for never were the tracings islands, and bays—to have established the much of a pencil watched with more eager solicitude. Our contested existence of a Polar sea north of America surprise and satisfaction may therefore in some de—finally, after a wintering of eleven months, to gree be imagined when, without taking it from the have brought back his crew in a sound and vigorous paper, lligluik brought the continental coast short state-were enough to raise his name above that of round to the westward, and afterwards to the S.S.W., any former Arctic voyager.' The long winter so- 80 as to come within three or four days' journey of journ in this Polar region was relieved by various Repulse Bay. devices and amusements: a temporary theatre was I am, however, compelled to acknowledge, that in itted up, and the officers came forward as amateur proportion as the superior understanding of this experformers. A sort of newspaper was also esta-traordinary woman became more and more developed, blished, called the North Georgian Gazette, to which her head (for what female head is indifferent to all were invited to contribute ; and excursions abroad praise ?) began to be turned by the general attention were kept up as much as possible. The brilliant and numberless presents she received. The superior results of Captain Parry's voyage soon induced decency and even modesty of her behaviour had comanother expedition to the Northern seas of America. bined, with her intellectual qualities, to raise her in That commander hoisted his flag on board the our estimation far above her companions; and I often • Fury,' and Captain Lyon, distinguished by his heard others express what I could not but agree in, services in Africa, received the command of the that for Nigluik alone, of all the Esquimaux women, • Hecla.' The ships sailed in May 1821. It was that kind of respect could be entertained which momore than two years ere they returned ; and though desty in a female never fails to command in our sex. "he expedition, as to its main object of finding a pas. into the ships, the quarter-masters at the gangway
Thus regarded, she had always been freely admitted sage into the Polar sea, was a failure, various geographical discoveries were made. The tediousness never thinking of refusing entrance to the wise of winter, when the vessels were frozen up, was woman,' as they called her. Whenever any explanation again relieved by entertainments similar to those
was necessary between the Esquimaux and Iligluik formerly adopted; and further gratification was
was sent for as an interpreter; information was chiefly afforded by intercourse with the Esquimaux, who, in obtained through her, and she thus found herself their houses of snow and ice, burrowed along the rising into a degree of consequence to which, but shores. We shall extract part of Captain Parry's ing a more than ordinary share of good sense on her
for us, she could never have attained. Notwithstandaccount of this shrewd though savage race.
part, it will not therefore be wondered at if she be[Description of the Esquimaux.)
came giddy with her exaltation-considered her ad.
mission into the ships and most of the cabins no The Esquimaux exhibit a strange mixture of intel- longer an indulgence, but a right-ceased to return lect and dulness, of cunning and simplicity, of in- the slightest acknowledgment for any kindness or genuity and stupidity; few of them could count presents—became listless and inattentive in unravelbeyond five, and not one of them beyond ten, nor could ling the meaning of our questions, and careless whether any of them speak a dozen words of English after a ber answers conveyed the information we desired. In constant intercourse of seventeen or eighteen months; short, Iligluik in February and Iligluik in April were yet many of them could imitate the manners and confessedly very different persons; and it was at last actions of the strangers, and were on the whole excel- amusing to recollect, though not very easy to perlent mimics. One woman in particular, of the name suade one's self, that the woman who now sat deof Iligluik, very soon attracted the attention of our murely in a chair, so confidently expecting the notice voyagers by the various traits of that superiority of of those around her, and she who had at first, with understanding for which, it was found, she was re- eager and wild delight, assisted in cutting snow for markably distinguished, and held in esteem even by the building of a hut, and with the hope of obtaining her own countrymen. She had a great fondness for a single needle, were actually one and the same insinging, possessed a soft voice and an excellent ear; dividual. but, like another great singer who figured in a diffe- No kind of distress can deprive the Esquimaux of rent society, there was scarcely any stopping her their cheerful temper and good humour, which they when she had once begun; she would listen, however, preserve even when severely pinched vith hunger and for hours together to the tunes played on the organ. cold, and wholly deprived for days together both of Her superior intelligence was perhaps most conspicuous food and fuel—a situation to which they are very frein the readiness with which she was made to compre- quently reduced. Yet no calamity of this kind can hend the manner of laying down on paper the geo- teach them to be provident, or to take the least graphical outline of that part of the coast of America thought for the morrow; with them, indeed, it is she was acquainted with, and the neighbouring islands, always either a feast or a famine. The enormous 80 as to construct a chart. At first it was found diffi- quantity of animal food (they have no other) which cult to make her comprehend what was meant; but they devour at a time is almost incredibl.a. The when Captain Parry had discovered that the Esqui- quantity of meat which they procured between the maux were already acquainted with the four cardinal first of October and the first of April was sufficient to points of the compass, for which they have appropriate have urnished about double the number of working names, he drew them on a sheet of paper, together people, who were moderate eaters, and had any idea of with that portion of the coast just discovered, which providing for a future day; but to individuals who was opposite to Winter Island, where then they were, can demolish four or five pounds at a sitting, and at and of course well kuown to her.
least ten in the course of a day, and who never bestow We desired her (says Captain Parry) to complete a thought on to-morrow, at least with the view to prothe rest, and to do it mikkee (small), when, with a vide for it by economny, there is scarcely any supply countenance of the most grave attention and peculiar which could secure them from occasional scarcity. It intelligence, she drew the coast of the continent be- is highly probable that the alternate feasting and yond her own country, as lying nearly north from fasting to which the gluttony and improvidence of Winter Island. The most important part still re-l these people so constantly subject them, may have oc
casioned many of the complaints that prored fatal 160 miles still remained unexplored. In 1829 Capduring the winter; and on this account we hardly tain, now Sir John Ross, disappointed at being knew whether to rejoice or not at the general success outstripped by Captain Parry in the discovery of of their fishery.
the strait leading into the Polar sea, equipped a A third expedition was undertaken by Captain steam-vessel, solely from private resources, and proParry, assisted by Captain Hoppner, in 1824, but it ceeded to Baffin's Bay. "It was a bold but inconproved still more unfortunate. The broken ice in siderate undertaking, and every soul who embarked Baffin's Bay retarded his progress until the season on it must have perished, but for the ample supplies was too far advanced for navigation in that climate. they received from the Fury, or rather from the After the winter broke up, huge masses of ice drove provisions and stores which, by the providence of the ships on shore, and the Fury' was so much in- Captain Parry, had been carefully stored up on the jured, that it was deemed necessary to abandon her beach ; for the ship herself had entirely disappeared with all her stores. In April 1827 Captain Parry once He proceeded down Regent's Inlet as far as he could more sailed in the . Hecla,' to realise, if possible, his in his little ship, the Victory; placed her amongst sanguine expectations ; but on this occasion he pro- ice clinging to the shore, and after two winters
, left jected reaching the North Pole by employing light her there ; and in returning to the northward, by boats and sledges, which might be alternately used, great good luck fell in with a whaling ship, which as compact fields of ice, or open sea, interposed in took them all on board and brought them bome.' his route. On reaching Hecla Cove they left the Captain James Ross, nephew of the commander, ship to commence their journey on the ice. Vigo- collected some geographical information in the course rous efforts were made to reach the Pole, still 500 of this unfortunate enterprise. miles distant; but the various impediments they had The interval of 160 miles between Point Barrow, to encounter, and particularly the drifting of the reached by Beechey's master, and the farthest point snow-fields, frustrated all their endeavours ; and to which Captain Franklin penetrated, was in 1837 after two months spent on the ice, and penetrating surveyed by MR THOMAS SIMPSon and the servants ! about a degree farther than any previous expe of the Hudson's Bay Company. The latter had dition, the design was abandoned. These four ex- with great generosity lent their valuable assistance peditions were described by Captain Parry in sepa- to complete the geography of that region, and Mr rate volumes, which were read with great avidity. Simpson was enthusiastically devoted to the same The whole have since been published in six small object. In the summer of 1837 he, with his senior volumes, constituting one of the most interesting officer, Mr Dease, started from the Great Slave Lake, series of adventures and discoveries recorded in our following the steps of Franklin as far as the point called language.
Franklin's Farthest, whence they traced the remainFollowing out the plan of northern discovery, an der of the coast to the westward to Point Barrow, by expedition was, in 1819, despatched overland to pro- which they completed our knowledge of this coast ceed from the Hudson's Bay factory, tracing the the whole way west of the Coppermine River, as far coast of the Northern ocean. This expedition was as Behring's Straits. Wintering at the north-east 1 commanded by CAPTAIN John FRANKLIN, accom- angle of the Great Bear Lake, the party descended panied by Dr Richardson, a scientific gentleman; the Coppermine River, and followed the coast easttwo midshipmen-Mr Hood and Mr Back-and two wards as far as the mouth of the Great Fish River, English seamen. The journey to the Coppermine discovered by Back in 1834. The expedition com. River displayed the characteristic ardour and hardi- prised the navigation of a tempestuous ocean deset hood of British seamen. Great suffering was expe- with ice, for a distance exceeding 1400 geographical rienced. Mr Hood lost his life, and Captain Franklin or 1600 statute miles, in open boats, together with and Dr Richardson were on the point of death, when all the fatigues of long land journeys and the perils | timely succour was afforded by some Indians. The of the climate.' In 1839 the Geographical Society results of this journey, which, including the navi- of London rewarded Mr Simpson with a medal for gation along the coast, extended to 5500 miles, are 'advancing almost to completion the solution of the obviously of the greatest importance to geography. great problem of the configuration of the northern As the coast running northward was followed to Cape shore of the North American continent.' While Turnagain, in latitude 684 degrees, it is evident returning to Europe in June 1840, Mr Simpson died, that if a north-west passage exist, it must be it is supposed, by his own hand in a paroxysm of found beyond that limit.' The narratives of Cap. insanity, after shooting two of the four men who tain Franklin, Dr Richardson, and Mr Back, form a accompanied him from the Red River colony. Mi fitting and not less interesting sequel to those of Simpson was a native of Dingwall
, in Ross-shire, and Captain Parry. The same intrepid parties under at the time of his melancholy death, was only in his took, in 1823, a second expedition to explore the thirty-second year. His Narrative of the Discoreries shores of the Polar seas. The coast between the on the North Coast of America, Effected by the Officers Mackenzie and Coppermine rivers, 902 miles, was of the Hudson's Bay Company during the years 1836–39, examined. Subsequent expeditions were undertaken was published in 1843. by CAPTAIN Lyon and CAPTAIN BEECHEY. The Valuable information connected with the Arctic former failed through continued bad weather ; but regions was afforded by MR WILLIAM SCORESBY, a Captain Beechey having sent his master, Mr Elson, gentleman who, while practising the whale fishing, in a barge to prosecute the voyage to the east, that had become the most learned observer and describer individual penetrated to a sandy point, on which the of the regions of ice. His account of the Northern ice had grounded, the most northern part of the Whale Fishery, 1822, is a standard work of great continent then known. Captain Franklin had, only value, and he is author also of an Account of the four days previous, been within 160 miles of this Arctic Regions. point, when he commenced his return to the Mackenzie River, and it is conjectured, with much pro
EASTERN TRAVELLERS. bability, that had he been aware that by persevering in his exertions for a few days he mignt have reached The scenes and countries mentioned in Scripture his friends, it is possible that a knowledge of the have been frequently described since the publicacircumstance might have induced him, through all tions of Dr Clarke. BURCKHARDT traversed Petrea nazards, to continue his journey. The intermediate (the Edom of the prophecies); Ma WILLIAM RAE