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WILSON, in 1823, published Travels in Egypt and the Holy Land ; MR CLAUDIUS JAMES Ricu (the
[View of Society in Bagdad.] accomplished British resident at Bagdad, who died
(From Sir R. K. Porter's Travels. ] in 1821, at the early age of thirty-five) wrote an The wives of the higher classes in Bagdad are excellent memoir of the remains of Babylon; the usually selected from the most beautiful girls that can Hon. GEORGE KEPPEL performed the overland be obtained from Georgia and Circassia ; and, to their journey to India in 1824, and gave a narrative of natural charms, in like manner with their captive his observations in Bassorah, Bagdad, the ruins of sisters all over the East, they add the fancied embelBabylon, &c. MR J. S. BUCKINGHAM also travelled lishments of painted complexions, hands and feet dyed by the overland route (taking, however, the way with henna, and their hair and eyebrows stained with of the Mediterranean and the Turkish provinces the rang, or prepared indigo leaf. Chains of gold. in Asia Minor), and the result of his journey was and collars of pearls, with various ornaments of precious given to the world in three separate works (the stones, decorate the upper part of their persons, while latest published in 1827), entitled Travels in Pales- solid bracelets of gold, in shapes resembling serpents, tine ; Travels among the Arab Tribes ; and Tra- clasp their wrists and ankles. Silver and golden vels in Mesopotamia. Dr R. R. MADDEN, a medical tissued muslins not only forin their turbans, but fregentleman, who resided several years in India, in quently their under garments. In summer the ample 1829 published Travels in Egypt, Turkey, Nubia, and pelisse is made of the most costly shawl, and in cold Palestine. Letters from the Eust, and Recollections of weather, lined and bordered with the choicest furs. Travel in the East (1830), by Joun CARNE, Esq. of The dress is altogether very becoming; by its easy Queen's college, Cambridge, extend, the first over folds and glittering transparency, showing a fine shape Syria and Egypt, and the second over Palestine and to advantage, without the immodest exposure of the Cairo. Mr Carne is a judicious observer and pic- open vest of the Persian ladies. The humbler females turesque describer, yet he sometimes ventures on generally move abroad with faces totally unveiled, doubtful biblical criticism. The miracle of the pas having a handkerchief rolled round their heads, from sage of the Red Sea, for example, he thinks should beneath which their bair hangs down over their shoulbe limited to a specific change in the direction of the ders, while another piece of linen passes under their winds. The idea of representing the waves stand-chin, in the fashion of the Georgians. Their garment ing like a wall on each side must consequently be is a gown of a shift form, reaching to their ankles, abandoned. *This,' he says, 'is giving a literal in- open before, and of a gray colour. Their feet are comterpretation to the evidently figurative language of pletely naked. Many of the very inferior classes stain Scripture, where it is said that “God caused the their bosoms with the figures of circles, half-moons, sea to go back all night by a strong east wind;" stars, &c. in a bluish stamp. In this barbaric embeland when the morning dawned, there was probably lishment the poor damsel of Irak Arabi has one point a wide and waste expanse, from which the waters
of vanity resembling that of the ladies of Irak Ajem. had retired to some distance; and that the “ sea
The former frequently adds this frightful cadaverous returning in his strength in the morning." was the hue to her lips; and, to complete her savage appearrushing back of an impetuous and resistless tide, ance, thruste a ring through the right nostris, pendent inevitable, but not instantaneous, for it is evident with a fat button-like ornament set round with blue
or red stones. the Egyptians turned and fled at its approach. In either case a miracle must have been perforined, whom we left in some gay saloon of Bagdad. When
But to return to the ladies of the higher circles, and it seems unnecessary and hypercritical to at- all are assembled, the evening meal or dinner is soon tempt reducing it to the lowest point. Mr Milman, served. The party, seated in rows, then prepare themin his history of the Jews, has fallen into this
error, selves for the entrance of the show, which, consisting and explained away the miracles of the Old Testa- of music and dancing, continues in noisy exhibition ment till all that is supernatural, grand, and impres- through the whole night. At twelve o'clock supper is sive disappears. Travels along the Mediterranean and Parts Ad- produced, when pilaus, kabobs, preserves, fruits, dried
sweetmeats, and sherbets of every fabric and flavour, jacent (1822), by Dr ROBERT Richardson, is an interesting work, particularly as relates to anti- engage the fair convives for some time. Between this quities. The doctor travelled by way of Alexan- quilly is never absent from their rosy lips, excepting,
second banquet and the preceding, the perfumed nardria, Cairo, &c. to the second cataract of the Nile, when they sip coffee, or indulge in a general shout of returning by Jerusalem, Damascus, Balbec, and approbation, or a hearty peal of laughter at the freaks Tripoli. He surveyed the temple of Solomon, and of the dancers or the subject of the singers' madrigals. was the first acknowledged Christian received within But no respite is given to the entertainers; and, durits holy walls since it has been appropriated to the ing so long a stretch of merriment, should any of the religion of Mohammed. The Journal to Some Parts of happy guests feel a sudden desire for temporary reEthiopia (1822), by Messrs WADDINGTON and Han- pose, without the least apology she lies down to sleep BURY, gives an account of the antiquities of Ethio- on the luxurious carpet that is her seat; and thus she pia and the extirpation of the Mamelukes.
remains, sunk in as deep an oblivion as if the numSIR JOHN MALCOLM was author of a History of mud were spread in her own chamber. Others speedily Persia, and Sketches of Persia. Mr MORIER's Jour- follow her example, sleeping as sound; notwithstandneys through Persia, Armenia, and Asia Minor, abound ing that the bawling of the singers, the horrid jangling in interesting descriptions of the country, people, of the guitars, the thumping on the jar-like doubleand government. Sir WILLIAM OUSELY (who had drum, the ringing and loud clangour of the metal bells been private secretary to the British embassy in and castanets of the dancers, with an eternal talking Persia) has published three large volumes of travels in all keys, abrupt laughter, and vociferous expressions in various countries of the East, particularly Persia, of gratification, making in all a full concert of disin 1810, 1811, and 1812. This work illustrates sub- tracting sounds, sufficient, one might suppose, to jects of antiquarian research, history, geography, awaken the dead. But the merry tumult and joyful philology, &c. and is valuable to the scholar for its strains of this conviviality gradually become fainter citations from rare Oriental manuscripts. Another and fainter; first one and then another of the visitors valuable work on this country is SiR ROBERT KER (while even the performers are not spared by the sopoPORTER's Travels in Georgia, Persia, Babylonia, &c. rific god) sink down under the drowsy influence, till published in 1822.
at length' the whole carpet is corered with the sleeping
beauties, mixed indiscriminately with handmaids, behind a lattice; and something of the same kind I dancers, and musicians, as fast asleep as themselves. have observed among the Christians of Mesopotamia. The business, however, is not thus quietly ended.
Letters from the South, two volumes, 1837, by Me As soon as the sun begins to call forth the blushes of THOMAS CAMPBELL, the poet, give an account of a the morn, by lifting the veil that shades her slumber: voyage made by that gentleman to Algiers. The ing eyelids," the faithful slaves rub their own clear of letters are descriptive, without any political or coloany lurking drowsiness, and then tug their
respective nial views, but full of entertaining gossip and poetimistresses by the toe or the shoulder, to rouse them cal sketches of striking and picturesque objects. up to perform the devotional ablutions usual at the The grandeur of the surrounding mountain scenery duwn of day. All start mechanically, as if touched by a spell; and then commences the splashing of African highlands,' he says, 'spring up to the sight
seems to have astonished Mr Campbell. The water and the muttering of prayers, presenting a singular contrast to the vivacious scene of a few hours not only with a sterner boldness than our own, but before. This duty over, the fair devotees shake their they borrow colours from the sun unknown to our feathers like birds from a refreshing shower, and trip-climate, and they are marked in clouds of richer ping lightly forward with garments, and perhaps looks, dye. The farthest-off summits appeared in their a little the worse for the wear of the preceding even
snow like the turbans of gigantic Moors, whilst the ing, plunge at once again into all the depths of its nearer masses glared in crimson and gold under the amusements. Coffee, sweetmeats, kaliouns, as before, light of morning.'
i accompany every obstreperous repetition of the mid- Six Years' Residence in Algiers, by MRS BROCGHnight song and dance ; and all being followed up by Ton, published in 1839, is an interesting domestic a plentiful breakfast of rice, meats, fruits, &c. towards chronicle. The authoress was daughter to Me noon the party separate, after having spent between Blanckley, the British consul-general at Algiers; fifteen and sixteen hours in this riotous festivity.
and the work is composed of a journal kept by Mrs
Blanckley, with reminiscences by her daughter, Mrs Travels in the East, by the Rev. HORATIO SOUTH. Broughton. The vivacity, minute description, and
| GATE (1840), describe the traveller's route through kindly feeling everywhere apparent in this book, Greece, Turkey, Armenia, Koordistan, Persia, and render it highly attractive. Mesopotamia, and give a good account of the Mohammedan religion, and its rites and ceremonies. ALEXANDER, two volumes, 1838, describe a journey
Discoveries in the Interior of Africa, by SIR JAMES The following is a correction of a vulgar error :
from Cape-Town, of about four thousand miles, and
occupying above a year, towards the tracts of [Religious Status of Women in the Mohammedan System.] country inhabited by the Damaras, a nation of
which very little was known, and generally the The place which the Mohammedan system assigns country to the north of the Orange River, on the to woman in the other world has often been wrongfully west coast. The author's personal adventures are represented. It is not true, as has sometimes been interesting, and it appears that the aborigines are a reported, that Mohammedan teachers deny her admis- kind and friendly tribe of people, with whom Sir sion to the felicities of Paradise. The doctrine of the James Alexander thinks that an extended interKoran is, most plainly, that her destiny is to be des course may be maintained for the mutual benefit of termined in like manner with that of every account- the colonists and the natives. able being; and according to the judgment passed upon her is her reward, although nothing definite is said of Minor in 1838, by CHARLES FELLOws, is valuable
A Journal Written During an Excursion in Asiathe place which she is to occupy in Paradise.
Mohammed speaks repeatedly of believing wonien,'
from the author's discoveries in Pamphylia. Mr
Fellows has also written a second work, Ancient commends them, and promises them the recompense Lycia; an Account of Discoveries made during a se which their good deeds deserve.
The regulations of the Sunneh are in accordance cond E.xcursion to Asia-Minor in 1840. Two rewith the precepts of the Koran. So far is woman from cent travellers, LIEUT. J. R. WELLSTED, author of being regarded in these institutions as a creature Travels in Arabia, the Peninsula of Sinai, and clong without a soul, that special allusion is frequently the Shores of the Red Sea (1838), and Lord LINDSAY, made to her, and particular directions given for her in his Letters on Egypt, Edom, and the Holy Land religious conduct. Respecting her observance of Ra- |(1838), supply some additional details. The scene mazan, her ablutions, and many other matters, her of the encampment of the Israelites, after crossing duty is taught with a minuteness that borders the Red Sea, is thus described by Lord Lindsay :on indecorous precision. She repeats the creed in The bright sea suddenly burst on us, a sail in the dying, and, like other Mussulmans, says, 'In this distance, and the blue mountains of Africa beyond it faith I have lived, in this faith I die, and in this faith -a lovely vista. But when we had fairly issued into I hope to rise again. She is required to do every- the plain on the sea-shore, beautiful indeed, most thing of religious obligation equally with men. The beautiful was the view-the whole African coast, command to perform the pilgrimage to Mecca extends from Gebel Ataka to Gebel Krarreb lay before us, to her. In my journeys, I often met with women on washed by the Red Sea—a vast amphitheatre of their way to the Holy City. They may even under- mountains, except the space where the waters were take this journey without the consent of their hus- lost in distance between the Asiatic and Libyan bands, whose authority in religious matters extends promontories. It was the stillest hour of day; the only to those acts of devotion which are not obligatory. sun shone brightly, descending to his palace in
Women are not, indeed, allowed to be present in the occident; the tide was coming in with its the mosques at the time of public prayers; but the peaceful pensive murmurs, wave after wave. reason is not that they are regarded, like pagan was in this plain, broad and perfectly smooth from females, as unsusceptible of religious sentiments, but the mountains to the sea, that the children of Israel because the meeting of the two sexes in a sacred place encamped after leaving Elim. What a glorious scene is supposed to be unfavourable to devotion. This
, it must then hæve presented! and how nobly those li however, is an Oriental, not a Mohammedan prejudice. rocks, now go silent, must have re-echoed the song of The custom is nearly the same among the Christians Moses and its ever-returning chorus — Sing ye to the as among the Mussulmans. In the Greek churches Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously; the horse the females are separated from the males, and concealed ! and his rider hath he thrown into the sea !
The French authors Chateaubriand, Laborde, and dom Sketches taken during a Residence in one of the Lamartine, have minutely described the Holy Land; Northern Provinces of Western India. The authoress and in the Incidents of Travel in Egypt, Arabia, and resided some years in the province of Cutch, and the Holy Land, by J. L. STEPHENS, the latest infor- gives a minute account of the feudal government mation respecting these interesting countries will and customs, the religious sects and superstitions of be found.
the people. The aristocratic distinctions of caste Various works on India have appeared, including are rigidly preserved, and the chiefs are haughty, a general political history of the empire, by Sir debauched, and cruel. John MALCOLM (1826), and a Memoir of Central India (1823), by the same author. Travels in the
[Sacrifice of a Hindoo Widow.] Himmalayan Provinces of Hindostan and the Punjaub,
(From Mrs Postans's ‘Cutch, or Random Sketches,' &c.] in Ladakh and Cashmere, in Peshawar, Cabul, &c. from 1819 to 1825, by W. MOORCROFT and GEORGE
News of the widow's intentions having spread, a TREBECK, relate many new and important particu- great concourse of people of both sexes, the women lars. Mr Moorcroft crossed the great chain of the clad in their gala costumes, assembled round the Himmala mountains near its highest part, and first pyre. In a short time after their arrival the fated drew attention to those stupendous heights, rising victim appeared, accompanied by the Brahmins, her in some parts to above 27,000 feet. A Pour through relatives, and the body of the deceased. The spectathe Snowy Range of the Himmala Mountains was made
tors showered chaplets of mogree on her head, and by Mr JAMES BAILLIE FRASER (1820), who gives greeted her appearance with laudatory exclamations an interesting account of his perilous journey. He at her constancy and virtue. The women especially visited Gangootrie, an almost inaccessible haunt of pressed forward to touch her garments—an act which superstition, the Mecca of Hindoo pilgrims, and
is considered meritorious, and highly desirable for also the spot at which the Ganges issues from its absolution and protection from the evil eye.'
The widow was a remarkably handsome woman, apcovering of perpetual snow. In 1825 Mr Fraser published a Narrative of a Journey into Khorasan, in parently about thirty, and most superbly attired. Her the years 1821 and 1822, including an Account of the her, and by a complete indifference to the prepara
manner was marked by great apathy to all around Countries to the north-east of Persia. The following tions which for the first time met her eye. From this is a brief sketch of a Persian town :
circumstance an impression was given that she might Viewed from a commanding situation, the appear- be under the influence of opium; and in conformity ance of a Persian town is most uninteresting ; the with the declared intention of the European officers houses, all of mud, differ in no respect from the earth present to interfere should any coercive measures be in colour, and, from the irregularity of their construc- | adopted by the Brahmins or relatives, two medical tion, resemble inequalities on its surface rather than officers were requested to give their opinion on the human dwellings. The houses, even of the great, subject. They both agreed that she was quite free seldom exceed one storey; and the lofty walls which from any influence calculated to induce torpor or inshroud them from view, without a window to enliven toxication. them, bave a most monotonous effect. There are few Captain Burnes then addressed the woman, desiring domes or minarets, and still fewer of those that exist to know whether the act she was about to perform are either splendid or elegant. There are no public were voluntary or enforced, and assuring her that, buildings but the mosques and medressas; and these should she entertain the slightest reluctance to the are often as mean as the rest, or perfectly excluded fulfilment of her vow, he, on the part of the British from view by ruins. The general coup-d'oeil presents government, would guarantee the protection of her a succession of flat roofs, and long walls of mud, life and property. Her answer was calm, heroic, and thickly interspersed with ruins; and the only relief constant to her purpose : ‘I die of my own free will ; to its monotony is found in the gardens, adorned with give me back my husband, and I will consent to live; chinär, poplars, and cypress, with which the towns if I die not with him, the souls of seven husbands and villages are often surrounded and intermingled. will condemn me!' The same author has published Travels and Adven- Ere the renewal of the horrid ceremonies of death tures in the Persian Provinces, 1826; A Winter Jours were permitted, again the voice of mercy, of expostuney from Constantinople to Tehran, with Travels through lation, and even of intreaty was heard; but the trial Various Parts of Persia, 1838, &c. Mr Fraser has was vain, and the cool and collected manner with now settled down on his patrimonial estate of Reelig, which the woman still declared her determination Inverness-shire, a quiet Highland glen. Among unalterable, chilled and startled the most courageous. other Indian works may be mentioned The Annals Physical pangs evidently excited no fears in her; her and Antiquities of Rajasthan, by LIEUTENANT-Colo- singular creed, the customs of her country, and her XEL James TOD, 1830; and Travels into Bokhara, by sense of conjugal duty, excluded from her mind the LIEUTENANT, afterwards Sir ALEXANDER BURNES. natural emotions of personal dread; and never did The latter is a narrative of a journey from India to martyr to a true cause go to the stake with more conCabul, Tartary, and Persia, and is a valuable work. stancy and firmness, than did this delicate and gentle The accomplished author was cut off in his career woman prepare to become the victim of a deliberate of usefulness and honour in 1841, being treacher- sacrifice to the demoniacal tenets of her heathen creed. ously murdered at Cabul. LIEUTENANT ARTHUR Accompanied by the officiating Brahmin, the widow COXOLLY made a journey to the north of India, over
walked seven times round the pyre, repeating the land from England, through Russia, Persia, and usual mantras, or prayers, strewing rice and coories Affghanistan, of which he published an account in on the ground, and sprinkling water from her hand 1834. Miss Emma ROBERTS, in the following year,
over the bystanders, who believe this to be efficagave a lively and entertaining series of Scenes and cious in preventing disease and in expiating comCharacteristics of Hindostan, with Sketches of Anglo- mitted sins. She then removed her jewels, and preIndian Society. This lady went out again to India sented them to her relations, saying a few words to in 1839, and was engaged to conduct a Bombay cach with a calm soft smile of encouragement and newspaper; but she died in 1840. Her Notes of an hope. The Brahinins then presented her with a lighted Overland Journey through France and Egypt to Bom
rch, bear which, bry were published after her death. Another lady,
•Fresh as a flower just blown, MBS Postans, has published (1839) Cutch, or Ran- And warm with life her youthful pulses playing,'
she stepped through the fatal door, and sat within ever, proved a temptation too strong for the virtue of the pile. The body of her husband, wrapped in rich the viceroy, who, gradually forming for himself a party kinkaub, was then carried seven times round the pile, among the leading men of the country, at length comand finally laid across her knees. Thorns and grass municated to the common people the intelligence that were piled over the door; and again it was insisted Sultan Hassan was no more, and quietly seated him. that free space should be left, as it was hoped the self on the vacant throne. Sultan Hassan retartpoor victim might yet relent, and rush from her fiery ing shortly afterwards from his pilgrimage, and, fortuprison to the protection so freely offered. The com- nately for himself, still in disguise, learned, as he apmand was readily obeyed; the strength of a child proached his capital, the news of his own death and would have sufficed to burst the frais barrier which the usurpation of his minister; finding, on further confined her, and a breathless pause succeeded; but inquiry, the party of the usurper to be too strong to the woman's constancy was faithful to the last. Not render an immediate disclosure prudent, be preserved a sigh broke the death-like silence of the crowd, until his incognito, and soon became known in Cairo as the a slight smoke, curling from the summit of the pyre, wealthiest of her merchants ; nor did it excite any and then a tongue of flame darting with bright and surprise when he announced his pious intention of lightning-like rapidity into the clear blue sky, told us devoting a portion of his gains to the erection of a that the sacrifice was completed. Fearlessly had this spacious mosque. The work proceeded rapidly under courageous woman fired the pile, and not a groan had the spur of the great merchant's gold, and, on its com. betrayed to us the moment when her spirit fled. At pletion, he solicited the honour of the sultan's presight of the flame a fiendish shout of exultation rent sence at the ceremony of naming it. Anticipating i the air; the tom-toms sounded, the people clapped the gratification of hearing his own name bestowed their hands with delight as the evidence of their upon it, the usurper accepted the invitation, and at murderous work burst on their view, whilst the Eng. the appointed hour the building was filled by him and lish spectators of this sad scene withdrew, bearing his most attached adherents. The ceremonies had i' deep compassion in their hearts, to philosophise as duly proceeded to the time when it became necessary best they might on a custom so fraught with horror, to give the name. The chief Moolah, turning to the 80 incompatible with reason, and so revolting to supposed merchant, inquired what should be its name ! human sympathy. The pile continued to burn for Call it,' he replied, “the mosque of Sultan Hassan.' three hours; but, from its form, it is supposed that All started at the mention of this name; and the | almost immediate suffocation must have terminated questioner, as though not believing he could have the sufferings of the unhappy victim.
heard aright, or to afford an opportunity of correcting il First Impressions and Studies from Nature in Hin- it,
' again cried he, the mosque of me, Sultan Hassan;
what might be a mistake, repeated his demand. Call dostan, by LIEUTENANT THOMAS Bacon, two volumes, and throwing off his disguise, the legitimate sultan 1837, is a more lively but carelessly-written work, stood revealed before his traitorous servant. He had with good sketches of scenery, buildings, pageants, no time for reflection : simultaneously with the dis &c. The Hon. MOUNTSTUART ELPHINSTONE, in covery, numerous trap-doors, leading to extensive 1842, gave an account of the kingdom of Cabul, vaults, which had been prepared for the purpose, were and its dependencies in Persia, Tartary, and In- Aung open, and a multitude of armed men issuing dia; and À Narrative of Various Journeys in Beloo- from thein, terminated at once the reign and life of chistan, Affghanistan, and the Punjaub, by CHARLES the usurper. His followers were mingled in the Masson, Esq. describes with considerable anima- slaughter, and Sultan Hassan was once more in postion the author's residence in those countries, the session of the throne of his fathers. native chiefs, and personal adventures with the various tribes from 1826 to 1838. MR C. R. BAYNES, The recent war in Affghanistan, and the occupa a gentleman in the Madras civil service, published tion of the Sinde territory by the British, have given in 1843 Notes and Reflections during a Ramble in the occasion to various publications, among which are, East, an Overland Journey to India, &c.
a History of the War in Afghanistan, by MR C. Nash; marks are just and spirited, and his anecdotes and Five Years in India, by 1. G. FANE, Esq. late aiddescriptions lively and entertaining.
de-camp to the commander-in-chief; Narrative of the li Campaign of the Army of the Indus in Sinde and Cabul
11 [Remark by an Arab Chief.]
by MR Ř. H. KENNEDY; Scenes and Adventures in Aff. An Arab chieftain, one of the most powerful of the DENNIE; Personal Observations on Sinde, by CAPTAIN
ghanistan, by Mr W. TAYLOR; Letters, by COLONEL princes of the desert, had come to behold for the first T. Postans; Military Operations at Cabul, with a time a steam-ship. Much attention was paid to him, Journal of Imprisonment in Affghanistan, by LIECand every facility afforded for his inspection of every TENANT VINCENT EYRE; A Journal of the Disasters part of the vessel. What impression the sight made in Affghanistan, by LADY SALE, &c. These works on him it was impossible to judge. No indications of surprise escaped him; every muscle preserved its calamitous portion of British history,
were all published in 1842 or 1843, and illustrate a wonted calmness of expression; and on quitting, he merely observed,' It is well ; but you have not brought bassies—the first in 1792-94, under Lord Macartney,
Of China we have the history of the two ema man to life yet.'
of which a copious account was given by Sir GEORGE (Legend of the Mosque of the Bloody Baptism at Cairo.] formation was afforded by SIB JOHN Barrow's
STAUNTON, one of the commissioners. Further inSultan Hassan, wishing to see the world, and lay Travels in China, published in 1806, and long our aside for a time the anxieties and cares of royalty, most valuable work on that country. The second committed the charge of his kingdom to his favourite embassy, headed by Lord Amherst, in 1816, was reminister, and taking with him a large amount of corded by HENRY ELLIS, Esq. third commissioner, treasure in money and jewels, visited several foreign in a work in two volumes (1818), and by DR ABEL countries in the character of a wealthy merchant. a gentleman attached to the embassy. One circumPleased with his tour, and becoming interested in the stance connected with this embassy occasioned some occupation he had assumed as a disguise, he was ab- speculation and amusement. The ambassador was sent much longer than he originally intended, and in required to perform the ko-tou, or act of prostration, the course of a few years greatly increased his already nine times repeated, with the head knocked against large stock of wealth. His protracted
absence, how the ground. Lord
Amherst and Mr Ellis were in
clined to have yielded this point of ceremony; but adding that he was so overcome by fatigue and bodily Sir George Staunton and the other members of the illness as absolutely to require repose. Lord AmCanton mission took the most decided part on the herst further pointed out the gross insult he had other side. The result of their deliberations was a already received, in having been exposed to the indetermination against the performance of the ko-tou, trusion and indecent curiosity of crowds, who appeared and the emperor at last consented to admit them to view him rather as a wild beast than the represenupon their own terms, which consisted in kneeling tative of a powerful sovereign. At all events, he upon a single knee. The embassy went to Pekin, intreated the Koong-yay to submit his request to his and were ushered into an ante-chamber of the im- imperial majesty, who, he felt confident, would, in perial palace.
consideration of his illness and fatigue, dispense with
his immediate appearance. The Koong-yay then [Scene at Pekin, Described by Mr Ellis.] pressed Lord Amherst to come to his apartments, Mandarins of all buttons* were in waiting ; several alleging that they were cooler, more convenient, and princes of the blood, distinguished by clear ruby that he was totally unfit for any place but his own
more private. This Lord Amherst declined, saying buttons and round flowered badges, were among them: residence. The Koong-yay having failed in his atthe silence, and a certain air of regularity, marked the immediate presence of the sovereign. The small tempt to persuade him, left the room for the purpose
of taking the emperor's pleasure upon the subject. apartment, much out of repair, into which we were huddled, now witnessed a scene I believe unparalleled and ornaments bespoke him a prince,* was particu:
During his absence an elderly man, whose dress in the history of even Oriental diplomacy. Lord Am- larly inquisitive in his inspection of our persons and herst had scarcely taken his seat, when Chang de: inquiries. His chief object seemed to be to commulivered a message from Ho (Koong-yay), stating that nicate with Sir George Staunton, as the person who the emperor wished to see the ambassador, bis son, had been with the former embassy ; but Sir George and the commissioners immediately. Much surprise very prudently avoided any intercourse with him. was naturally expressed ; the previous arrangeinent It is not easy to describe the feelings of annoyance for the eighth of the Chinese month, a period certainly produced by the conduct of the Chinese, both public much too early for confort, was adverted to, and the and individual: of the former I shall speak' hereutter impossibility of his excellency appearing in his after; of the latter I can only say that nothing could present state of fatigue, inanition, and deficiency of be more disagreeable and indecorous. every necessary equipment, was strongly urged. Chang was very unwilling to be the bearer of this answer, ting the room, to say that the emperor dispensed with
A message arrived soon after the Koong-yay's quitbut was finally obliged to consent. During this time the ambassador's attendance; that he had further the room had filled with spectators of all ages and been pleased to direct his physician to afford to his ranks, who rudely pressed upon us to gratify their excellency every medical assistance that his illness brutal curiosity, for such it may be called, as they might require. "The Koong-yay himself soon followed, seemed to regard us rather as wild beasts than mere and his excellency proceeded to the carriage. The strangers of the same species with themselves. Some Koong-yay not disdaining to clear away the crowd, other messages were interchanged between the Koong the whip was used by hini to all persons indiscrimiyay and Lord Amherst, who, in addition to the reasons already given, stated the indecorum and irre- indecorous, according to our notions, the employment
nately; buttons were no protection; and however gularity of his appearing without his credentials. In might be for a man of his rank, it could not have his reply to this it was said, that in the proposed been in better hands. audience the emperor merely wished to see the ambassador, and had no intention of entering upon busi
Lord Anherst was generally condemned for reLord Amherst having persisted in expressing fusing the proffered audience. The emperor, in disthe inadmissibility of the proposition, and in trans-gust, ordered them instantly to set out for Canton, mitting through the Koong-yay a humble request which was accordingly done. This embassy made to his imperial majesty that he would be graciously scarcely any addition to our knowledge of China. Ma pleased to wait till to-morrow, Chang and another Joun FRANCIS Davis, late chief superintendent in mandarin finally proposed that his excellency should China, has published two interesting works, which go over to the Koong-yay's apartments, from whence give a full account of this singular people, so far as a reference might be made to the emperor. Lord known to European visitors. These are, Sketches of Amherst having alleged bodily illness as one of the China, partly during an Inland Journey of Four reasons for declining the audience, readily saw that Months between Pekin, Nankin, and Canton; and if he went to the Koong-yay, this plea, which to The Chinese : a General Description of the Empire the Chinese (though now scarcely admitted) was in of China and its Inhabitants. The latter work was general the most forcible, would cease to avail him, published in 1836, but has since been enlarged, and positively declined compliance. This produced a the history of British intercourse brought up to the visit from the Koong-yay, who, too much interested present time. Mr Davis resided twenty years at and agitated to heed ceremony, stood by Lord Am- Canton, is perfect in the peculiar language of China, herst, and used every argument to induce him to and has certainly seen more of its inhabitants than obey the emperor's commands. Among other topics any other English author. The Journal of Three Voyhe used that of being received with our own ceremony, ages along the Coast of China, in 1831, 1832, and 1833, using the Chinese words, 'ne mun tih lee'-your own by MR GUTZLAFF, a German, is also a valuable work. ceremony. All proving ineffectual, with some rough- The contraband trade in opium formed a memorable ness, but under pretext of friendly violence, he laid era in the history of Chinese commerce. It was hands upon Lord Amherst, to take him from the carried on to a great extent with the Hong merroom; another mandarin followed his example. His chants ; but in 1834, after the monopoly of the East lordship, with great firmness and dignity of manner, India Company had been abolished, our government shook them off, declaring that nothing but the ex- appointed Lord Napier to proceed to Canton, as tremest violence should induce him to quit that room special superintendent, to adjust all disputed quesfor any other place but the residence assigned to him; tions among the merchants, and to form regulations
with the provincial authorities. The Chinese, always * The buttons, in the order of their rank, are as follows :ruby red, worked coral, smooth coral, pale blue, dark blue, jealous of foreigners, and looking upon mercantile crystal, ivory, and gold.
* They are distinguished by round badges.