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frantic fire, the white ensign was hoisted aboard of the Thetis; it flies there yet.
Eastward of Zeebrugge lies Heyst, and then comes the Dutch frontier, with its triple wire fence and the neat huts of the guards. It is all ours, the spoil of the unresting navy which, for four years, has maintained its tireless war upon this vital and dangerous front. The coast is clear. Already there are lights along it, where none have shown since August of 1914-London Times, 30/10.
WARSHIP MINED.—The British warship, Cassandra has been mined in the Baltic, it was announced to-day.
The name Cassandra does not appear in any available British naval lists. -Baltimore Evening Sun, 7/12.
British SQUADRON GOES TO KIEL.-The British squadron which will go to Kiel and Wilmhelmshaven it is understood in naval circles, will be commanded by Vice Admiral Montagu Browning, who will be accompanied by American, French and Italian admirals. The purpose of the journey is to see that German vessels in those ports are properly disarmed and interned. A flotilla of British mine-sweepers left the Firth of Forth, Scotland, Nov. 25 to clear the passage to Kiel for the squadron.--Army and Navy Journal, 30/11.
Blew Up U-BOAT IN THE TAY.—Details of how an attempt by a German submarine to blow up the bridge over the Tay at Dundee some time ago was frustrated are published by The Dundee Advertiser. A British airman observed a large submarine lying on the sandy bottom of the river near Dundee.
An alarm was immediately given, and numerous mine sweepers and destroyers were soon in the vicinity. The wire ropes of the sweepers struck their mark and a depth charge was lowered. A patrol boat then dropped a very heavy charge, which exploded with tremendous force. Oil and wreckage came to the surface, and divers afterward found 13 dead German sailors.
Two guns and a large part of the wreckage salved are now on exhibition in Dundee.—N. Y. Times, 30/11.
BRITISH WARSHIPS ARRIVE AT LIBAU.-Fleet That Entered the Baltic with Transports Now on Courland Coast.-A British fleet arrived yesterday at the port of Libau, in Courland, on the Baltic, says a Wolff Bureau dispatch from Berlin to-day.
[Advices received in London on Nov. 28 from Copenhagen reported two British squadrons off the east coast of Denmark headed south. They numbered 22 ships, including destroyers, cruisers, mine-sweepers, and transport steamers.]
If a few British torpedo-boats or light cruisers, with even a small landing force, could reach Reval this week they could dam the Bolshevist flood which has been murdering, burning and plundering Esthonia and Livonia, according to a declaration made to the correspondent by Baron Aexkuell of Esthonia, who escaped from that country on Thursday in disguise.
Baron Aexkuell reports that German forces had begun to evacuate Narva, when they were attacked and defeated by Russian troops.
Last Tuesday White Guards, commanded by former Russian officers, under the leadership of Count Keller of the old Russian régime, were attacked by a superior Bolshevist force. The Guards gave protection a month ago to 500 Russians, who alleged they had deserted from the Bolshevist army because of bad treatment. They brought 23 machine guns with them. While the attack was proceeding last Tuesday these
Russians fired upon the White Guards from the rear, contributing materially to their defeat. The White Guards, half annihilated, retired.
Esthonian workmen are nearly all Bolsheviki, according to Baron Aexkuell, and the middle classes of Esthonia and Livonia are facing the same reign of terror that the bourgeoisie of Russia have suffered.-N. Y. Times, 4/12.
BRITISH NAVAL CASUALTIES.-The British Admiralty announced on Nov. 26 that the British naval casualties from the outbreak of the war until Nov. 11 numbered 39,766. These were divided as follows: Killed or died of wounds-officers, 2466; men, 30,895. Wounded, missing or prisonersofficers, 1042; men, 5363. In addition, 14,661 officers and men of British merchant vessels and fishing boats lost their lives while pursuing their ordinary vocation by enemy action and 3295 were taken prisoner. --Army and Navy Journal, 30/11.
CHANGES IN NAVAL TITLES.—The Admiralty announces that the recent changes in the titles of officers of the medical, accountant and naval instructor branches of the Royal Navy are applicable to officers on the retired and emergency lists, who have actually served during the war.
The changes in titles referred to above are as follows: Medical Branch.-Surgeon General to be Surgeon Rear Admiral; Deputy Surgeon General to be Surgeon Captain; Fleet Surgeon to be Surgeon Commander; Staff Surgeon to be Surgeon Lieutenant Commander; Surgeon to be Surgeon Lieutenant; Surgeon Probationer to be Surgeon SubLieutenant, R. N. V. R.
Accountant Branch.-Paymaster General to be Paymaster Rear Admiral; Paymaster-in-Chief to be Paymaster Captain ; Fleet Paymaster to be Paymaster Commander; Staff Paymaster to be Paymaster Lieutenant Commander; Paymaster to be Paymaster Lieutenant; Assistant Paymaster to be Paymaster Sub-Lieutenant; Clerk to be Paymaster Midshipman.
Naval Instructor Branch.-Chief Naval Instructor to be Instructor Captain ; Naval Instructor (with 16 years' seniority) to be Instructor Commander; Naval Instructor (with eight years' and less than 16 years' seniority) to be Instructor Lieutenant Commander; Naval Instructor (with less than eight years' seniority) to be Instructor Lieutenant.-Army and Navy Gazette, 23/11.
FIFTY-SEVEN HOURS UNDER WATER.--Of the many thrilling stories which might be told of naval heroism during the war, few, if any, can rival that, of a British submarine which went down in Gareloch, near the Clyde. The story has in part already been told, as it related to the act for which the late Captain Goodhart, D. S.O., was posthumously awarded the Albert Medal in gold, as announced in The Times on the 24th of last April.
The submarine was on her trials. She had on board 73 persons, including naval contractors and men from the yard where she had been built. The order was given for her to submerge, and when she had just gone beneath the surface water began to pour into her aft, and she descended stern downwards into 15 fathoms. The ventilating shafts had been accidentally left open. Those in the rear of the submarine, 31 in number, were immediately drowned. The forepart of the vessel was shut off, and the 42 who were at that end were saved. How their rescue was accomplished is a tribute to the skill of the Admiralty Salvage Department.
A few hours had passed before divers went down to the submarine on what they considered a forlorn hope. Getting to the bottoin, they discovered that the stern of the vessel was embedded in many feet of mud. They knocked at the hull, and to their amazement there was a responsive tapping, showing that some at least of those inside were alive. Then
Captain Goodhart essayed the task which' cost him his life. The highpressure air bottles were brought into use, and the captain undertook, with their aid, to be projected through the conning-tower and shot into the water in the hope of reaching the surface and conveying to th rescue party information as to the condition of those below. He was hurled upward at terrific speed, but his head struck a support in the tower, and he was immediately killed. His example was followed by another ship's commander on board, who was fortunate enough to reach the surface and was caught and saved by the salvage men.
Cards " to Beguile the Tedium.”—Acting on his information, divers again descended and got into communication with the imprisoned men by means of Morse signals. With great ingenuity the rescuers were able to insert through a water flap, which was temporarily opened from the inside, a flexible hose, through which air and also Bovril, chocolate, and other sustaining food was passed. The entombed men never lost heart, although the chances were that they would never be got out alive. At their request playing cards were sent down “ to beguile the tedium of waiting," as one of them said. Strong wires were put round the vessel, and as the submerged men were provided with air from above there was no need for them further to conserve their air bottles. These they utilized to blow out the oil fuel stowed forward. With this gone, the vessel after a time drove upwards at high speed until her bow was weil above water in a perpendicular position. Immediately a big hole was made in her by acetylene burners, and the 42 men were brought out and conveyed to an infirmary nearby.
It was about midnight when the submarine rose, and in the glare of the arc lights of the salvage ships they walked, or were carried, to the infirmary amid the cheers of scores of men who had been aiding them to escape death. The submarine spat out fire and smoke, and the last man had not been long rescued before the vessel settled down and slid again to the depths of the loch. The submarine had been below about 24 hours when Captain Goodhart made his ill-fated attempt, and altogether the party were down 57 hours before they were so miraculously saved.--London Times, 21/11.
ITALY ITALIAN SEA TANK.—The operations of the Italian Navy will hold a conspicuous place in the annals of the Great War. The major units of their fleet (battleships, cruisers), have had little if any opportunity for battle; but this was not the fault of the Italian command; it was due to the unwillingness of the Austrians to come out of their fortified harbors and risk a fight in the open-a reluctance that was shared by their German ally.
So what engagements took place were confined to the smaller craft, light cruisers, destroyers, motor-boats and submarines, and in these branches of the service the Italians have shown admirable initiative, great skill, and unquestioned daring. Not only have they made constant use of the established types of craft
, but they have developed new types that have scored some of the most brilliant successes of the war.
The attack of two torpedo motor-boats upon three Austrian dreadnoughts of the Viribus Unitis type, while they were defended by a screen of destroyers, in which two of the dreadnoughts were sunk, was the most daring and successful feat of its kind in modern'naval history.
Commander Luigi Rizzo was in command at the time. This feat is in the same class as the successful night attack on Pola, when another battleship was torpedoed. The Pola success was attained by the use of a boat which had been designed for this very kind of work. Its characteristics are shown in the accompanying drawing, from which it will be seen that the hull is of the “sea-sled” type, with a tractor device to enable it to climb over the torpedo-defence boom, with which the harbor was closed.
On each side of the boat is an endless chain belt, provided with projecting prongs or teeth, which engages suitable sprocket wheels and the ends of the boat. These wheels are carried on brackets at bow and stern, the latter projecting far enough beyond the covering board to protect the rudder and propeller from contact with obstructions crossed by the boat. The tractor belt travels under the bilges of the boat and returns within the hull, as shown.
On meeting an obstruction the belt is started; and first the bow and then the body of the back is liited across the boom. On each side, a 14-inch torpedo is mounted on two shelves or brackets and held in place by a hinged strap. When the strap is released the engine is started and the torpedo falls into the water; being steered to its mark by the gyroscopic steering gear.-Scientific American, 23/11.
RUSSIA RED GUNBOATS RETIRE AS ICE BLOCKS Dvina.-Winter has begun in earnest over the whole Northern Russian front. All the rivers are ice-bound and the Bolshevist gunboats, which have long menaced the American and allied forces on the Dvina, have been forced to withdraw to escape being frozen in. The Bolsheviki, however, have mounted big guns along the front south of the allied armies.
Operations are limited to spasmodic artillery exchanges, but the Bolshevist forces are reported to be receiving heavy reinforcements. The free-up, while bringing relief on the Dvina front, increases the danger on others, as the once-impassable swamps are now frozen, making possible bushwhacking flank attacks by the enemy.
The correspondent has just returned from a trip along the front, where he found a general reversal of the opinion that the Bolsheviki would not fight. Near Kadish, a fortnight ago, a body of Bolshevist infantry maintained an advance against strong machine-gun fire. A Russian resident, in talking with American soldiers regarding this attack, said the Bolshevist officers threatened their men that they would be killed the next day if they failed to advance.
The cold is so intense in some sectors of the front that the Americans sleep with their machine guns rolled in the blankets with them to prevent the water-cooling chambers of the guns from freezing.--N. Y. Times, 27/11.
TURKEY ALLIED VESSELS IN BLACK SEA.—The Bosporus having been cleared of mines allied warships have entered the Black Sea and visited various ports from Varna around the southern coast to Novorossysk. Dredging operations in the Bosporus were completed on November 20. French and other allied warships were detached from the naval forces station at Constantinople and visited the Black Sea ports of Varna, Galata, Eregi, Samsun, Sinope, Trebizond, Batum, Poti and Novorossysk. The British, French and Italian warships made quite a formidable force. It numbered 50 ships comprising battleships, cruisers and destroyers.-American Journal, 30/11.
BUILDING One SUPER-DREADNOUGHT Soon WILL BE LAUNCHED.—With the lifting of the voluntary censorship it now is permissible to reveal that one of the great super-dreadnoughts authorized in the 1916 three-year building program is well advanced in construction at the plant of the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company.
The keel of the 33,000-ton battleship was laid after the country went to war, and, in spite of the call made on this yard for 32 destroyers to fight the submarine, work on the big vessel has progressed satisfactorily. The hull has taken shape and probably will be ready for launching within a few months.
This monster man-o'-war will mount eight 16-inch rifles in four turrets on the center line, two forward and two aft, and naval officials believe that she will be the equal if not the superior of any warship afloat. Four of these ships were authorized and another is to be built here and two by the Fore River Shipbuilding Company at Quincy, Mass.-Washington Evening Star, 29/11.
Navy's NEWEST WORLD'S BIGGEST SEAPLANE CARRIES 50 PASSENGERS IN Test FLIGHT.-Secretary Daniels authorizes the following:
All records for the number of passengers carried in any type of airplane were broken on Wednesday, November 27, at the Naval Air Station, Rockaway, when the navy's newest type seaplane, the giant NC-1, the largest seaplane in the world, made a flight with 50 men on board.
The pilot was Lieut. David H. McCullough, of the Naval Reserve Flying Corps, and the flight was made to demonstrate the enormous lifting power of the latest model of bomb-carrying seaplanes. No special modifications were made for this test flight, most of the 50 men being accommodated in the large boat body.
Seaplane of Special Type.-The design and the construction of the NC-1, with its triple motors, huge size, and other distinctive features, was carried out by the navy in cooperation with the Curtiss Engineering Corporation. It is not specifically a flying boat nor is it of the pontoon variety of seaplane, but combines the most valuable advantages of both, its size and purpose being considered. While it is entirely new and original in type, the NC-1 incorporates proven essentials in aircraft construction and even before it was tested was regarded in naval circles as a preinsured success rather than as an experiment.
This is the first American trimotored seaplane, being propelled by three Liberty motors that develop a maximum of 1200 horsepower, giving it a cruising speed of 80 miles an hour. The flying weight of the machine is 22,000 pounds, while the weight of the seaplane itself, unloaded and without a crew, is 13,000 pounds.
Wing Spread, 126 Feet.-An idea of the size of the big seaplane is shown by the fact that the wing spread is 126 feet, the breadth of wing 12 feet, and the gap between wings 12 feet.