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of government for Russia, but this has not been accomplished, and none of the allied governments has recognized the Omsk régime officially, although all of them are dealing with Russian representatives who are in close touch with Admiral Kolchak and his government.

Prince Lvoff, who was Premier in the Kerensky Cabinet and who has devoted most of his life to the development of the Zemstvo system in Russia, and Boris Bakhmeteff, Russian Ambassador in Washington, appointed by_Kerensky, as well as Professor Paul Milukoff, Kerensky's Minister of Foreign Affairs, are on their way to Paris or already there with other prominent Russians to do whatever they can to aid the Allies in the solution of the Russian problem. But whether they represent the people of Russia at this time is a question it is privately admitted cannot be answered here.

Far from according any recognition to the Soviet régime at Petrograd, the United States some time ago called upon all civilized nations to condemn the Bolshevist reign of terror.

Even when a set of leaders is recognized as Russian spokesmen, the United States and the Allies must face the great question of how they can be aided in setting up a stable government and in preventing famine, for the benefit of Russia herself, as well as in the interest of the peace of the world.

To aid him in the conferences with the allied leaders, President Wilson has taken a corps of Russian experts with him to Paris.-N. Y. Times, 18/12

MISCELLANEOUS CHILE AND PERU IN DIFFICULTIES.—During November Chile and Peru again became involved in their old dispute regarding the final disposition of the border provinces of Tacna and Arica, taken from Peru by Chile after the war of 1879-81. The final disposition of these provinces was to be decided by a plebiscite ten years later, which Chile did not permit. On Nov. 25, 1918, it was announced that the two countries had severed diplomatic relations, and early in December both undertook steps toward mobilization. On Dec. 9 it was reported that Peru had accepted the proffered mediation of the United States and Argentina. The following statement was published in the U. S. Official Bulletin of Dec. 12:

The American Ambassador at Santiago, Chile, and the American Minister at Lima, Peru, have handed the Presidents of Chile and Perii, respectively the following statement by direction of Acting Secretary Polk of the State Department.

“The President of the United States desires to inform your Excellency that the various incidents leading up to the severance of consular relations between the Republics of Chile and Peru have been viewed by the Government of the United States with the gravest apprehension. Any agitation tending to lessen the prospect of permanent peace throughout the world, particularly on the eve of the convoking of the Peace Conference in Paris, in which it is confidently expected that steps will be taken to provide for an era of lasting peace among all peoples, would be disastrous and those persons who had caused this condition would be charged with grave responsibilities before the world for their actions.

“ The President of the United States feels it his duty to draw to the attention of the Governments of Chile and Peru the gravity of the present situation and to point out to these governments the duty which they owe to the rest of the world and to mankind in general to take immediate steps to restrain popular agitation and to reestablish their peaceful relations.

"That a satisfactory and peaceful solution of the matter in dispute between the two countries may be arrived at there can be no doubt and the Government of the United States stands ready to tender alone, or in conjunction with the other countries of this hemisphere, all possible assistance to bring about an equitable solution of the matter."

PRESIDENT OF PORTUGAL ASSASSINATED.—Dr. Sidonio Paes, President of Portugal, was shot and killed by an assassin in a railway station in Lisbon on December 14. The assassin, named Jeetne, was killed by the crowd.

Dr. Paes seized control in Portugal, Dec. 11, 1917, after a comparatively bloodless revolution, which involved no change in Portugal's foreign policy. He was regularly elected president last June, and has given the country a liberal administration.




“The Cradle of the War: The Near East and Pan-Germanism." By H. Charles Woods, F.R. G. S., Lecturer before the Lowell Institute (1917-1918). 357 pages. $2.50 net. (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1918.)

This book is neatly named. Truly it was in the Balkans that the cradle was prepared for the war child, and, as the author remarks, the Kaiser diligently rocked the cradle from the moment the child was born.

To drop this rather unmanageable figure of speech, the Balkan peninsula, with its age-old animosities, its heterogeneous and often inextricably intermingled races and religions, its medieval state of civilization, presented before the war, and still presents, one of the most difficult European problems. How reconcile, in these small states, the principle of nationality with the equally important principle of breaking down national barriers and promoting free intercourse, trade, and sea communications in large areas geographically united ?

There is no better guide in the study of the Balkan situation than this writer, with his intimate firsthand knowledge, his honesty of purpose, his grasp of the tangled skein of Balkan politics. The only objection is that his book seems rather hastily condensed from voluminous notes, and is not always effectively and attractively written. Not only the interest but also the clearness and force of impression of a book depend more than we realize upon the style.

Like many who know the Balkans well, Mr. Woods, though the staunchest of Britishers, betrays a leaning towards Bulgaria, with her good roads, her relative progressiveness, her hard luck in the Balkan wars. He criticises Allied diplomacy before Bulgaria made her fatal choice, insisting rightly that if the Allies in 1914-15 had adopted a policy “firm, uncompromising, even brutal toward all the Balkan states," Bulgaria could have been kept out of the German camp.

His discussion of the Dardanelles campaign is regretful and apologetic. He argues justly that a British fleet in the Sea of Marmora would have settled Turkey. But in lamenting that a combined operation was not planned from the first, he does not sufficiently recognize the possibilities of surprise naval attack, or even of the attack first made if it had been pushed home.

There is an interesting account of Balkan routes of communication and railroads, both present and prospective. Altogether, if thorough information and fairness of treatment are the main requisites of a good book, this " fills the bill."

A. W.

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Airplane Characteristics." by Frederick Bedell. Price $1.60 net. (Ithaca, N. Y.: Taylor and Co., 1918.)

The publication of this volume of only 74 pages of text may be explained by the following statement in the preface: " Any contribution to aviation, however small, needs to-day no justification.” In fairness to the author it should be stated that in addition to the five chapters published, eight are in preparation. Under the circumstances, however, the price at which the book is retailed seems somewhat high.

The book is concerned solely with the theory of Aight. Consideration of materials and power plant is rigidly excluded. The subject-matter is very well presented, each principle being discussed in a separate chapter. The five here published deal with Sustentation, Relations in Flight, Resistance, Lateral and Directional Stability. The following chapters are in preparation: Thrust, Power, Climbing, Gliding, Altitude, Single and Multiple Planes, Longitudinal Stability and Stability in General.

In is interesting to compare the first chapter of this book with the opening chapter of the “Aviator's Elementary Handbook” previously reviewed. In the latter the French system of measuring efficiency of a wing section by the percentage of drift to lift is used. Here, on the other hand, the more usual method of comparing wings by the quotient of lift ; drift is adopted. As explained in the text, this is more convenient than the French method, as the values of D/L approach infinity when L approaches zero. It is to be hoped that a common standard will be adopted after the war, as at present a good deal of unnecessary labor in conversion is required before the Eiffel, R. A. F., and U. S. A. wings can be intelligently compared.

In the second chapter the following important rule is given: “Velocity equals the square root of loading divided by square root of coefficient of

W lift.” This may be expressed as follows: V

where V= velocity, W weight, S=wing area and Ki=coefficient of lift. It is emphasized that the loading (weight per unit area of wing) affects V rather than the total weight or area, and that the only way of changing the speed of a machine or of getting different speeds in different machines is by changing the loading or the lift coefficient. Power has no direct effect on velocity, it merely determines whether the machine climbs, glides, or Aies horizontally. Many text-books justly dwell on this simple rule. In Duchêne's “ Flight Without Formulæ” it is the very first one given.

Chapter Three considers the question of Resistance, dividing it into two parts: Wing and Parasite. They are considered separately, as wing resistance (or drift) first decreases as velocity is increased, until a certain speed is reached after which it increases; whereas parasite resistance varies approximately directly as the square of the velocity. Charts are given showing the wing resistance with velocity for different conditions of weight and loading. In the section devoted to parasite resistance the importance of streamlining is discussed. It is stated that of the total parasite resistance of an aeroplane, one-third is contributed by the body, one-third by the wires and struts, and one-third by the tail and landing gear.

The last two chapters are given over to a discussion of Lateral and Directional Stability. The point is made that “wash-in” and “wash-out" (progressive increase and decrease of incidence from body to wing tips) used on some British and German aeroplanes to correct for propeller torque tends to make the machine spin when diving with power off and should be avoided.

The book closes with several appendices, including a glossary of aviation terms approved by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, and charts of thrust and power characteristics presumably to be used in conjunction with the chapters in preparation on these subjects. J. J. 1.

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