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American armistice representatives left Paris to-day for Treves, where Marshal Foch is presenting the new terms to the German commission. The party consisted of Admiral William Shepherd Benson, Chief of Operations of the United States Navy; Norman H. Davis, representing the United States Treasury; Edward N. Hurley, Chairman of the American Shipping Board, and Louis P Sheldon, who will represent Herbert C. Hoover, the American Food Administrator.
A report presented to the council having charge of the carrying out of the naval items of the armistice stated, according to the morning newspapers, that the Interallied Commission which visited Kiel and Wilhelmshaven discovered submarines under construction in slips, which the enemy thought would be overlooked. The report adds that the Germans contended that they were entitled to regain possession of the underwater craft.
According to the report, the discoveries at Kiel and Wilhelmshaven led to the finding of other vessels, and consequently the new terms of the armistice will require the surrender of all submarines already built and the destruction of those on the ways.
It is also understood that the terms for the extension of the armistice provide for the turning over of the German commerical fleet to transport troops, in exchange for food, for the restitution of material taken from France and Belgium and for full compliance with the terms of the original armistice.
The economic terms approved by yesterday's session of the Supreme War Council require that Germany shall hand over to the Allies all her cargo steamers in German and other ports to enable the Allies to revictual Germany and such adjacent countries as may be decided upon. The terms also require the restitution of all manufacturing machinery, etc., taken from the invaded regions, which it is possible to identify. This was decided upon in the view that it would bring about a quicker revival of economic life than the payment of an equivalent in money.-N. Y. Times, 15/1.
A REMARKABLE ZEPPELIN Flight.--From Germany now comes a startling story of the trip of a Zeppelin in November, 1917, which is of considerable interest despite the fact that it is over a year old. It appears that a Zeppelin started from Bulgaria for East Africa with 22 tons of munitions and medicines and a crew of 22. It had arrived over Khartoum, in the Sudan, when it was ordered by wireless to return because it was learned that the bulk of the forces of General von Lettow Vorbeck, the German commander in East Africa, had surrendered. It returned to its starting point four days after it had left. The Germans claim that this airship could have made a round trip between Berlin and New York, without stopping. It is also learned that the Zeppelin factory at Friedrichshafen is building an airship for transatlantic traffic, capable of carrying 100 passengers. It has nine engines and eight propellers. If the international situation clears up by next summer, the first Aight will probably be made in July. The fight is expected to be made in 40 hours.-Scientific American, 28/12.
To GET BATTLESHIP “BADEN."-Allies Will Receive New German Craft at British Port.-Germany's newest battleship, the Baden, will be surrendered at a British port within a few days, in accordance with the terms of the armistice, according to announcement here.
The Baden has a displacement of 28,000 tons. Owing to the fact that this ship was completed after the war began, little is known as to its armament. It has been reported that ships of this class had been armed with 16.5- or 17-inch guns, but information on this point has been meager and unreliable.-N. Y. Times, 4/1.
WHY THEY GAVE UP THE "-U-9."-German Crew Cared More for $125 Bonus Than for “Glorious Record.”-Although Admiral Beatty, Commander of the British Grand Fleet, refrained from requiring the delivery
of the German submarine U-9, with which Commander Weddigen torpedoed and sank three British cruisers, out of consideration for the “glorious record” of his boat, says the Cologne Volkszeitung, the submarine was delivered to the British because the German crew was unwilling to forego the opportunity of earning the 500 marks promised to each for taking the boat to England.-N. Y. Times, 23/12.
INSIST ON PAYMENT FOR U-Boat Ravages.--In the absence of a definite policy from the Allies concerning the manner in which Germany shall make compensation for the dependents of submarine victims among seamen, the Executive Committee of the International Federation of Seafarers has evolved a plan by which the officials hope to force the Peace Conference to act. The committee has called an internationl conference in London, on February 24, at which the British delegates will present a resolution providing that the seamen will not man any ships going or coming from an enemy country until the proper compensation is agreed upon.-N. Y. Times, 16/1.
CASUALTIES IN THE WAR.–An exchange telegraph dispatch from Copenhagen states that Austria-Hungary suffered a total of over 4,000,000 casualties in killed and wounded, the total number killed being 800,000 men and 17,000 officers. The Socialist Vorwarts of Berlin places the total German losses at 6,330,000, of which about 1,600,000 were killed and the fate of 260,000 is unknown. The total number of prisoners is put down as 490,000.Scientific American, 21/12.
GREAT BRITAIN BRITISH WARSHIPS COMMISSIONED SINCE 1914.-The following table shows all battleships commissioned subsequent to August 1, 1914:
Of the above ships, Benbow and Emperor of India belong to the Iron Duke class. The Agincourt had originaally been laid down at Elswick for Brazil, but before completion was sold to Turkey for £2,725,000. In July, 1914, she was completing her trials at Devonport, where she was taken over for the British Navy, and named the Agincourt. The peculiarity of this ship is her powerful armament, consisting of fourteen 12-inch guns, all of which are disposed in double turrets on the center line of the ship; and twenty 6-inch Q. F., in addition to many smaller guns. The Erin was
originally laid down for Turkey as the Rechadieh, but was appropriated by the British Admiralty early in August, 1914. In general design and armament she closely resembles the Iron Duke class. The Canada was laid down for the Chilean Government, purchased in 1914 for the British Navy, and commissioned in the following year. Her main battery of ten 14-inch guns introduced a new caliber into the British service, though since then certain vessels of the Monitor class have been armed with the guns of this size.
The main features of the Queen Elizabeth class are too well known to need repetition, but it may be said that the vessels have been uniformly successful in service, and, by common consent, are among the very finest battleships now afloat. The five Royal Sovereigns are slightly smaller and considerably slower editions of this class, but in all other respects, including armament and protection, they are identical with the Queen Elizabeth. Their main dimensions are: Length, 62474 ft.; beam, 8872 ft.; draught, 27 ft.; displacement, 25.750 tons. They have Parsons turbines and Babcock or Yarrow boilers, which, at first designed for coal, were afterwards altered for liquid fuel.
Information relative to battle cruisers added to the fleet since the beginning of the war is less definite. Only one vessel of this type, viz., the Tiger, was in hand in August, 1914, and she was commissioned two or three months later. When laid down at Clydebank in June, 1912, she was intended to be sister to the Lion, but before the launch important modifications were made in the plans, which delayed her completion. The principal details are: Length, 675 ft.; beam, 90 ft.; draught, 30 ft.; displacement, 28,500 tonsfull load about 32,000 tons. She has turbines of the Brown-Curtis system designed for 87,500 horsepower, equivalent to 28 knots. She carries the same main armament as the Lion, but mounts a more powerful auxiliary battery, viz., twelvę 6-inch guns.
In August, 1914, sixteen light cruisers of the Arethusa and Calliope classes were completing or building, and four others had been authorized. Generally speaking, these twenty ships were of uniform type, and had the following characteristics : Displacement, 3500 to 3750 tons ; speed, 30 knots Parsons or Brown-Curtis turbines, Yarrow boilers, oil-fired-armed with two or three 6-inch Q. F., several 4-inch Q. F., and four deck torpedo tubes. There was a thin armor belt in conjunction with protective decks. A slightly larger and faster class includes the Caledon, Calypso, Curaçao, Cardiff, Coventry, etc., launched 1916-17, displacing 4000 tons, with a speed of 32-33 knots, and armed with six 6-inch Q. F. The Brisbane and Adelaide were built in Australia, the former being completed two years ago, while the latter was launched this year. They belong to the Town class, displace 5600 tons, and have a speed of 25 knots, the armament consisting of eight or nine 6-inch Q. F. Chester and Birkenhead were originally laid down in England for the Greek Government as the Condouriotis and Lambros Katsonis, but were purchased by Great Britain at the opening of hostilities. They are of 5500 tons, with a speed of 25.5 knots, and are armed with eight 5.5-inch Q. F. Although the foregoing list is probably incomplete, it is enough to show that since 1914 the British Navy has been very powerfully reinforced by light cruisers.
A special type of vessel was designed early in the war for mine-sweeping, anti-submarine work, and general patrol duties, known officially as the Acacia class and popularly as the Herbaceous class. Considerably more than 100 representatives of this type have been built, the principal details being: Length, 262 ft.; displacement, 1800 tons; speed, 16 to 18 knots, armed with one or two 6-inch Q. F and smaller guns; depth charges, etc.
A considerable number of new gunboats has been added to the navy, among them being five vessels of the Soldier class, 1500 tons and 16 knots speed, built in Japan for service in the Far East. Another group, known as the Insect class, was built by Messrs. Yarrow especially for
service in Mesopotamia, the main details being: Length, 230 ft.; beam, 36 ft.; displacement circa 1000 tons; armament, two 6-inch and smaller Q. F. Twelve smaller gunboats, known as the Fly class, were also built in England, shipped in sections to Abadan, Mesopotamia, and there assembled and armed for service on the Tigris and Euphrates. Dimensions : Length, 120 ft.; beam, 19.7 ft.; draft, 2.6 ft.; armed with one 4-inch., also 6-pounder Q. F. and machine guns.
Of the 200 or more destroyers which have been completed since the outbreak of war full particulars are not yet available, but they are understood to be similar in many respects to the Land Mclasses completed between 1913-1915. Displacements range from 965 to 1000 tons, speed nominal, from 30 to 35 knots, and the armament comprises three or four 4-inch Q. F., one 3-inch anti-aircraft gun, and four 21-inch torpedo tubes. In all the later boats broadside fire has been increased by adopting the center-line position for all guns.
A larger class of destroyers, known as flotilla leaders, completed during the war, comprised at least 13 boats. They are understood to displace about 1200 tons, with a designed speed of 32 knots, and to be armed with four 4-inch Q. F., one 3-inch A.-A. gun, and four torpedo tubes,
We would emphasize the fact that the vessels enumerated in the foregoing do not by any means include all the new construction undertaken for the British Navy since the outbreak of war, and that the particulars may need correction, but the information given is sufficient to convey some idea of the huge scale of naval construction in this country, during the past four years.---The Engineer, 29/11.
Note: No information regarding battle cruisers, submarines or monitors, etc.
Destroyers, as is well known, have played a leading part in the defeat of Germany at sea. Not merely did they get home again and again on the German Fleet as it fed from the Jutland battle, but the destroyers have been the terror of the U-boat. For obvious reasons it has not been possible to publish until now any details of the more recent of our additions to these craft, but the declaration of the armistice has relaxed the restrictions in vogue, and we are thus enabled to give an illustration and some particulars of the destroyer Mounsey, the boat which, under the command of Lieutenant Craven, saved, under circumstances of very great difficulty, no less than 696 lives when the Otranto was torpedoed on October 6 last. The sea at the time was exceedingly rough, and it would have been fatal to have brought a lightly constructed vessel like the Mounsey alongside of the cruiser. The saving of life was therefore effected by maintaining the Mounsey under way, so that she passed the Otranto within a few feet, allowing the people to jump from one ship to the other. The maneuver had to be repeated many times, and was, under the circumstances, a very original and successful method of rescuing those endangered without great risk to the destroyer herself.
The Mounsey was built by Messrs. A. F. Yarrow and Co., Ltd., at their Scotstoun works, and on her measured mile trials attained a speed of over 39 knots. This trial was run with the boat fully armed and equipped, and with sufficient fuel on board for a run of 1000 miles at an economical speed. Further particulars are given below: Length between perpendiculars
..260 ft. 3 in. Length overall
271 ft. 6 in. Beam
25 ft. 77/2 in. Depth, midships
.16 ft. 3 in.
. 22,017 sq. ft.
=835.3 tons at yard.
Speed, 4 hours ..
-38.605 knots. Speed on measured mile
57:33 tons. Load on trial
158 tons. Oil fuel capacity
259 257 257 258 258 259
28 28 28 28 28 28
6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5
689.0 692.0 693.0 693.5 694.0 692.75
1-32.4 1-32.4 1-32.2 1-32.0 1-33.0 1-31.4
38.962 38.962 39.056 39. 130
2.34 Mean on measured
mile... Mean in 4 hours..
British SUBMARINES DESTROY MANY ENEMY CRAFT.-Details can now be given of the part which British submarines played during the war. This service destroyed the following enemy warships :
Two battleships, two armored cruisers, two light cruisers, seven destroyers, five gunboats, twenty submarines and five armed auxiliary vessels.
Three battleships and one light cruiser were torpedoed but reached port badly damaged.
Other enemy craft destroyed were:
One Zeppelin, fourteen transports, two ammunition and supply ships, two more ships, fifty-three steamships and 197 sailing ships.
In no case was a merchant ship sunk at sight. Care was taken to see the crews of all vessels got away safely.
In addition to carrying out their attacks on enemy war craft, the submarine commanders carried out 24 cruises, totaling 22,000 miles, which probably constitutes a record for any submarine.-Naval Monthly, 18/12.
North SEA BLOCKADE.- The First Lord of the Admiralty (Sir Eric Geddes), speaking at the “Sea Power Exhibition " on December 4, said it was the blockade which crushed the life out of the Central Empires. Largely that blockade was carried out by the Tenth Cruiser Squadron with its flagship the Alsatian, which from 1914 to 1917 held the 800 miles of grey seas from the Orkneys to Icelands, and which had intercepted 15,000 ships conveying succor to the enemy. That service had been performed in Arctic conditions of storm, blizzard, and ice, and yet, in spite of almost impossible conditions, only four per cent of the vessels were missed.--Army and l'avy Gazette, 14/12.