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U. S. MARINE CORPS MEDALS AND BADGES FOR RIFLE PRACTICE

TITLES E AND R. ADDITION TO PLANT-INDUSTRIAL AND MILITARY Specific Public works

$42,694,375 (Here should be listed all the items of public works

as shown in the appropriation bill: The item “R.
and P. at navy yards” is not included here, but is

found under titles G. and S.)
Emergency expenses (extensions)

4,750,000 Specific Naval hospital, Fort Lyon, Cal., purchase of land

19,600 Specific Naval hospital, Key West and Great Lakes

2,700,000 Specific New and improved machinery, torpedo factory, Newport

200,000 Specific Navy mine depot

3,000,000 Specific Navy nitrate plant

9,150,000 General improvements and additions estimated for by

Bureau of:
Ordnance

3,000,000 Construction and Repair

1,700,000 Steam Engineering

1,300,000 Supplies and Accounts

750,000 Improving and equipping navy yards for construction

of ships and to meet urgent needs of navy yards,
stations and bases

10,000,000

$79,263,975 TITLES G AND S. MAINTENANCE OF PlantS (INDUSTRIAL AND Military) Specific Naval Training Station, California

$225,000 Specific Naval Training Station, Rhode Island

350,000 Specific Naval Training Station, Great Lakes

725,000 Specific Naval Training Station, St. Helena

310,000 Specific Naval War College, Rhode Island

38,850 Specific Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I..

200,000 Specific Naval Home, Philadelphia, Pa..

115,645 Maintenance of hospitals

2,700,000 Rent of land for hospitals, Key West, and Great Lakes 300,000 Maintenance expenses estimated for by Bureau of: *Ordnance

3,000,000 *Yards and Docks

14,500,000 *Construction and Repair

15,000,000 *Steam Engineering ..

13,500,000 Supplies and Accounts: *Storekeeping expenses

13,000,000 *Fuel and transportation thereof

15,000,000 *Pay and allowances--naval personnel

25,000,000 Provisions

10,000,000 $113,964,495

* The expenditures under these items will be partially distributed to other titles, in the form of “overhead.”

The distinctive ribbon of the badge has a narrow white stripe through the center with three bands of equal width on either side of it, the colors being red, white and blue, from the center outward.

GENERAL SERVICE MEDALS Up to 1905 no medals for general service in wars or campaigns were issued by the United States Government to its soldiers and sailors, but in that year it was decided to issue such medals to be officially known as “campaign badges," and a general order of the War Department stated that, “ by authority of the President, campaign badges with ribbons will be issued as articles of uniform to officers and enlisted men in the service to commemorate services which have been or shall hereafter be rendered in campaign." '

General service medals for navy and marine corps were authorized by the act of Congress of March 3, 1909, and subsequent acts, providing for “badges and ribbons, to be distributed by the Secretary of the Navy to officers and men, now or formerly, of the volunteer or regular navy and marine corps, who have participated in engagements and campaigns deemed worthy of such commemoration."

The campaign badges issued to officers and men of the army are different in design from those issued to the officers and men of the navy and marine corps for participation in the same campaigns. The distinctive ribbons for the badges were also different for the two services prior to March 1, 1913, upon which date the President approved of a recommendation of the joint board of the army and navy to make the ribbons identical for all services.

Campaign badges have accordingly been issued to the officers and men of the army, navy and marine corps who have seen honorable service in the Civil War and in all subsequent battles and campaigns up to the beginning of the present war, as follows:

CIVIL WAR CAMPAIGN BADGE The badge was issued to all who saw service in the regular or volunteer army, navy or marine corps during the Civil War between April 15, 1861, and April 9, 1865. The distinctive ribbon is very appropriately composed of two bands, blue and gray, of 1 width. The obverse of the army badge shows the head Lincoln surrounded by the words, “With malice towards į, with charity for all," and on the reverse are the words, e Civil War” and the dates, “ 1861-1865," surrounded by eath of oak and laurel. le obverse of the navy and marine corps badge shows the us battle between the Monitor and the Merrimac, fought in raters of Hampton Roads on March 9, 1862, with the words, : Civil War” above and the dates, “ 1861-1865," below. reverse of the navy badge bears an eagle perched upon a anchor and directly below the words, “For Service," surled in a circle by the legend, “ United States Navy" in the

half and branches of laurel and oak in the lower half. The je of the marine corps badge is the same as for the navy, : that the legend reads, " United States Marine Corps.”

reverse side of all of the other campaign badges for the and marine corps is the same as that for the Civil War ign badge.

INDIAN CAMPAIGN BADGE ry officer and enlisted man of the U. S. Army who took an ble part in any of the campaigns or battles waged against stile Indian tribes between 1865 and 1891 received one of adges. campaigns so honored included the battles in Oregon, California and Nevada from 1865 to 1868; campaigns

the Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Kiowas and Comanches, in , Colorado and Indian Territory, 1867 to 1869; the Modoc 72-1873; against the Apaches in Arizona, 1873; against owas, Comanches and Cheyennes, 1874-1875; against nes and Sioux, 1876-1877; Nez Perces War, 1877; Banar, 1878; against Northern Cheyennes, 1878-1879; against S, 1879-1880; against the Apaches in 1885-1886; and the Sioux under the famous chief, Sitting Bull, 1890-1891. adge is of bronze and the obverse bears a mounted Indian his war bonnet and carrying a spear, with the words, Wars ” above and a buffalo skull with arrow heads on le below. The reverse side bears a trophy composed of perched on a cannon, an Indian shield, standards, rifles, rrows, a Cuban machete and a Sulu kriss, with the words

in a bookkeeping way, although these estimates might serve as a guide from time to time in passing upon the legality of certain payments made. Thus, the treasury might be in some doubt about passing vouchers for the Virgin Islands, were it not for the estimate “ Temporary Government for West Indian Islands."

In the Navy Department the bureaus would maintain cognizance of the estimates for which they were responsible, somewhat in the same way as they now manage their appropriations. There would be this great difference, however: allotments of funds for working purposes would always be directly toward the objects of expenditure, with no considerations of various sources of supply, as at present. In deciding whether or not to authorize funds for a contemplated purpose the first and primary point to consider should always be the desirability or necessity of the expenditure. The second point is in regard to how much has already been expended for similar purposes. If expenditures made and contemplated bid fair to exceed the yearly estimate for that particular purpose, the unforeseen reasons should be recorded, so that at the end of the year perfectly definite explanation may be submitted to Congress relative to the over-expenditures. Similarly, estimates which have not been fully utilized should carry a note of explanation in the report. Of course, the total of the whole appropriation could not be exceeded without having obtained a deficiency appropriation.

It is believed that one of the greatest obstacles in the past to amending our appropriation system has been the fact that each year the estimates for the various appropriations could be compared with the estimates of the preceding years submitted in the same form, and a fair check could thus be maintained by Congress, as long as conditions did not greatly vary from year to year. The war has upset all that. It is impossible to gage now the amount needed under a given appropriation by the amounts appropriated last year or the year before. Consequently, now is the time, if ever, to introduce the reform.

The simplest method to pursue would be to add to the naval appropriation bill now in course of legislation, wording about as follows:

Provided, That the amounts here appropriated (except for the Naval Academy and for the marine corps) shall constitute one fund to be called “Naval Establishment" and shall be disbursed and accounted for as such.

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